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The association of meat intake and meat-derived mutagens with colorectal tumor risk remains unclear. We evaluated this hypothesis in a large colonoscopy-based case-control study. Included in the study were 2,543 patients with polyp [(1,881 with adenomas and 622 with hyperplastic polyp (HPP)] and 3,764 polyp-free controls. Surveys obtained information about meat intake by cooking methods and doneness levels plus other suspected or known risk factors for colorectal tumors. Unconditional logistic regression was used to derive ORs after adjusting for potential confounders. High intake of red meat and processed meat (P(trend) < 0.05), particularly red meat cooked using high-temperature cooking methods (P(trend) ≤ 0.01), was associated with an elevated risk for colorectal polyps. A significant positive association between exposures to meat-derived heterocyclic amines (HCA) and risk of polyps was found for both adenomas and HPPs. Furthermore, the positive association with red meat intake and HCA exposure was stronger for multiple adenomas than for single adenoma as well as for serrated than for nonserrated adenomas. This study supports a role for red meat and meat-derived mutagen exposure in the development of colorectal tumor.
Previous studies of the association of meat intake and meat-derived mutagen exposure with breast cancer risk have produced inconsistent results. We evaluated this association in a population-based case-control study of incident breast cancer conducted in Nashville, Tennessee, United States, including 2,386 breast cancer cases and 1,703 healthy women controls. Telephone interviews were conducted to obtain information related to meat intake including amount, cooking methods, and doneness levels, as well as other known or hypothesized risk factors for breast cancer. Unconditional logistic regression was used to derive odds ratios (ORs) after adjusting for potential confounders. High intake of red meat was associated with a significantly elevated risk of breast cancer (P-trend < 0.001). The association was particularly strong for high intake of well-done red meat (P-trend < 0.001), with an adjusted OR of 1.5 (95% CI = 1.3-1.9) for the highest versus the lowest quartile. Associations between red meat and breast cancer risk were slightly stronger for postmenopausal women than for premenopausal women. Meat-derived mutagens such as 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline and 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline, were significantly associated with increased breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women only (P-trend = 0.002 and 0.003, respectively). The results from this study provide strong support for the hypotheses that high red meat intake and meat-derived mutagen exposure may be associated with an increase in breast cancer risk.
3-(2'-Deoxy-β-d-erythro-pentofuranosyl)pyrimido-[1,2-a]purin-10(3H)-one (M(1)dG) is the major adduct derived from the reaction of DNA with the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde and the DNA peroxidation product base propenal. M(1)dG is mutagenic in Escherichia coli and mammalian cells, inducing base-pair substitutions (M(1)dG → A and M(1)dG → T) and frameshift mutations. Y-family polymerases may contribute to the mutations induced by M(1)dG in vivo. Previous reports described the bypass of M(1)dG by DNA polymerases η and Dpo4. The present experiments were conducted to evaluate bypass of M(1)dG by the human Y-family DNA polymerases κ, ι, and Rev1. M(1)dG was incorporated into template-primers containing either dC or dT residues 5' to the adduct, and the template-primers were subjected to in vitro replication by the individual DNA polymerases. Steady-state kinetic analysis of single nucleotide incorporation indicates that dCMP is most frequently inserted by hPol κ opposite the adduct in both sequence contexts, followed by dTMP and dGMP. dCMP and dTMP were most frequently inserted by hPol ι, and only dCMP was inserted by Rev1. hPol κ extended template-primers in the order M(1)dG:dC > M(1)dG:dG > M(1)dG:dT ∼ M(1)dG:dA, but neither hPol ι nor Rev1 extended M(1)dG-containing template-primers. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the products of hPol κ-catalyzed extension verified this preference in the 3'-GXC-5' template sequence but revealed the generation of a series of complex products in which dAMP is incorporated opposite M(1)dG in the 3'-GXT-5' template sequence. The results indicate that DNA hPol κ or the combined action of hPol ι or Rev1 and hPol κ bypass M(1)dG residues in DNA and generate products that are consistent with some of the mutations induced by M(1)dG in mammalian cells.
2-Amino-3-methylimidazo[1,2-d]naphthalene (cIQ) is a carbocyclic analogue of the dietary carcinogen 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) in which a naphthalene ring system replaces the quinoline unit of IQ. The activity of cIQ in Ames Salmonella typhimurium tester strain TA98 is known to be 4-5 orders of magnitude lower than IQ. cIQ undergoes efficient bioactivation with rat liver microsomes. The C8-dGuo adduct was formed when calf thymus DNA was treated with the N-hydroxy-cIQ metabolite and either acetic anhydride or extracts from cells that overexpress N-acetyl transferase (NAT). These studies indicate that bioactivation, the stability of the N-hydroxylamine ester, and the reactivity of the nitrenium ion with DNA of cIQ are similar to IQ and that none of these factors account for the differences in mutagenic potency of these analogues in Ames assays. Oligonucleotides were synthesized that contain the C8-dGuo adduct of cIQ in the frameshift-prone CG-dinucleotide repeat unit of the NarI recognition sequence. We have examined the in vitro translesion synthesis of this adduct and have found it to be a strong replication block to Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I, Klenow fragment exo(-) (Kf(-)), E. coli DNA polymerase II exo(-) (pol II(-)), and Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 DNA polymerase IV (Dpo4). Previous studies by Fuchs and co-workers identified E. coli pol II as the polymerase responsible for two-base deletions of the C8-dGuo adduct of N-acetyl-2-aminofluorene in the NarI sequence. Our observation that pol II is strongly inhibited by the C8-dGuo adduct of cIQ suggests that one of the other SOS inducible polymerases (E. coli pol IV or pol V) is required for its bypass, and this accounts for the greatly attenuated mutagenicity in the Ames assays as compared with IQ.
1,2-Dibromoethane and 1,3-butadiene are cancer suspects present in the environment and have been used widely in industry. The mutagenic properties of 1,2-dibromoethane and the 1,3-butadiene oxidation product diepoxybutane are thought to be related to the bis-electrophilic character of these chemicals. The discovery that overexpression of O(6)-alkylguanine alkyltransferase (AGT) enhances bis-electrophile-induced mutagenesis prompted a search for other proteins that may act by a similar mechanism. A human liver screen for nuclear proteins that cross-link with DNA in the presence of 1,2-dibromoethane identified histones H2b and H3 as candidate proteins. Treatment of isolated histones H2b and H3 with diepoxybutane resulted in DNA-protein cross-links and produced protein adducts, and DNA-histone H2b cross-links were identified (immunochemically) in Escherichia coli cells expressing histone H2b. However, heterologous expression of histone H2b in E. coli failed to enhance bis-electrophile-induced mutagenesis. These results are similar to those found with the cross-link candidate glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) [ Loecken , E. M. and Guengerich , F. P. ( 2008 ) Chem. Res. Toxicol. 21 , 453 - 458 ], but in contrast to GAPDH, histone H2b bound DNA with even higher affinity than AGT. The extent of DNA cross-linking of isolated histone H2b was similar to that of AGT, suggesting that differences in postcross-linking events explain the difference in mutagenesis.
The conformation of the 1 R,2 S,3 R,4 S-benzo[ c]phenanthrene- N (2)-dG adduct, arising from trans opening of the (+)-1 S,2 R,3 R,4 S- anti-benzo[ c]phenanthrene diol epoxide, was examined in 5'- d(ATCGC XCGGCATG)-3'.5'-d(CATGCCG CGCGAT)-3', where X = 1 R,2 S,3 R,4 S-B[ c]P- N (2)-dG. This duplex, derived from the hisD3052 frameshift tester strain of Salmonella typhimurium, contains a (CG) 3 iterated repeat, a hotspot for frameshift mutagenesis. NMR experiments showed a disconnection in sequential NOE connectivity between X (4) and C (5), and in the complementary strand, they showed another disconnection between G (18) and C (19). In the imino region of the (1)H NMR spectrum, a resonance was observed at the adducted base pair X (4) x C (19). The X (4) N1H and G (18) N1H resonances shifted upfield as compared to the other guanine imino proton resonances. NOEs were observed between X (4) N1H and C (19) N (4)H and between C (5) N (4)H and G (18) N1H, indicating that base pairs X (4) x C (19) and C (5) x G (18) maintained Watson-Crick hydrogen bonding. No NOE connectivity was observed between X (4) and G (18) in the imino region of the spectrum. Chemical shift perturbations of greater than 0.1 ppm were localized at nucleotides X (4) and C (5) in the modified strand and G (18) and C (19) in the complementary strand. A total of 13 NOEs between the protons of the 1 R-B[ c]Ph moiety and the DNA were observed between B[ c]Ph and major groove aromatic or amine protons at base pairs X (4) x C (19) and 3'-neighbor C (5) x G (18). Structural refinement was achieved using molecular dynamics calculations restrained by interproton distances and torsion angle restraints obtained from NMR data. The B[ c]Ph moiety intercalated on the 3'-face of the X (4) x C (19) base pair such that the terminal ring of 1 R-B[ c]Ph threaded the duplex and faced into the major groove. The torsion angle alpha' [X (4)]-N3-C2-N2-B[ c]Ph]-C1 was calculated to be -177 degrees, maintaining an orientation in which the X (4) exocyclic amine remained in plane with the purine. The torsion angle beta' [X (4)]-C2-N2-[B[ c]Ph]-C1-C2 was calculated to be 75 degrees. This value governed the 3'-orientation of the B[ c]Ph moiety with respect to X (4). The helical rise between base pairs X (4) x C (19) and C (5) x G (18) increased and resulted in unwinding of the right-handed helix. The aromatic rings of the B[ c]Ph moiety were below the Watson-Crick hydrogen-bonding face of the modified base pair X (4) x C (19). The B[c]Ph moiety was stacked above nucleotide G (18), in the complementary strand.
Although there exists compelling genetic evidence for a homologous recombination-independent pathway for repair of interstrand cross-links (ICLs) involving translesion synthesis (TLS), biochemical support for this model is lacking. To identify DNA polymerases that may function in TLS past ICLs, oligodeoxynucleotides were synthesized containing site-specific ICLs in which the linkage was between N(2)-guanines, similar to cross-links formed by mitomycin C and enals. Here, data are presented that mammalian cell replication of DNAs containing these lesions was approximately 97% accurate. Using a series of oligodeoxynucleotides that mimic potential intermediates in ICL repair, we demonstrate that human polymerase (pol) kappa not only catalyzed accurate incorporation opposite the cross-linked guanine but also replicated beyond the lesion, thus providing the first biochemical evidence for TLS past an ICL. The efficiency of TLS was greatly enhanced by truncation of both the 5 ' and 3 ' ends of the nontemplating strand. Further analyses showed that although yeast Rev1 could incorporate a dCTP opposite the cross-linked guanine, no evidence was found for TLS by pol zeta or a pol zeta/Rev1 combination. Because pol kappa was able to bypass these ICLs, biological evidence for a role for pol kappa in tolerating the N(2)-N(2)-guanine ICLs was sought; both cell survival and chromosomal stability were adversely affected in pol kappa-depleted cells following mitomycin C exposure. Thus, biochemical data and cellular studies both suggest a role for pol kappa in the processing of N(2)-N(2)-guanine ICLs.
The environmental contaminant 1,2-dibromoethane and diepoxybutane, an oxidation product of the important industrial chemical butadiene, are bis-functional electrophiles and are known to be mutagenic and carcinogenic. One mechanism by which bis-electrophiles can exert their toxic effects is through the induction of genotoxic and mutagenic DNA-peptide cross-links. This mechanism has been shown in systems overexpressing the DNA repair protein O6 -alkylguanine DNA-alkyltransferase (AGT) or glutathione S-transferase and involves reactions with nucleophilic cysteine residues. The hypothesis that DNA-protein cross-link formation is a more general mechanism for genotoxicity by bis-electrophiles was investigated by screening nuclear proteins for reactivity with model monofunctional electrophiles. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was identified as a candidate because of the nucleophilicity of two cysteine residues (Cys152 and Cys246) in reaction screens with model electrophiles (Dennehy, M. K. et al. (2006) Chem. Res. Toxicol. 19, 20-29). Incubation of GAPDH with bis-electrophiles resulted in inhibition of its catalytic activity, but only at high concentrations of diepoxybutane. In vitro assays indicated DNA-GAPDH cross-link formation in the presence of diepoxybutane, and bis-electrophile reactivity at Cys246 was confirmed using mass spectral analysis. In contrast to AGT, overexpression of human GAPDH in Escherichia coli did not enhance mutagenesis by diepoxybutane. We propose that the lack of mutational enhancement is in part due to the inherently lower reactivity of GAPDH toward bis-electrophiles as well as the reduced DNA binding ability relative to AGT, preventing the in vivo formation of DNA-protein cross-links and enhanced mutagenesis.
The conformations of C8-dG adducts of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) positioned in the C-X1-G, G-X2-C, and C-X3-C contexts in the C-G1-G2-C-G3-C-C recognition sequence of the NarI restriction enzyme were compared, using the oligodeoxynucleotides 5'-d(CTCXGCGCCATC)-3'.5'-d(GATGGCGCCGAG)-3', 5'-d(CTCGXCGCCATC)-3'.5'-d(GATGGCGCCGAG)-3', and 5'-d(CTCGGCXCCATC)-3'.5'-d(GATGGCGCCGAG)-3' (X is the C8-dG adduct of IQ). These were the NarIIQ1, NarIIQ2, and NarIIQ3 duplexes, respectively. In each instance, the glycosyl torsion angle chi for the IQ-modified dG was in the syn conformation. The orientations of the IQ moieties were dependent upon the conformations of torsion angles alpha' [N9-C8-N(IQ)-C2(IQ)] and beta' [C8-N(IQ)-C2(IQ)-N3(IQ)], which were monitored by the patterns of 1H NOEs between the IQ moieties and the DNA in the three sequence contexts. The conformational states of IQ torsion angles alpha' and beta' were predicted from the refined structures of the three adducts obtained from restrained molecular dynamics calculations, utilizing simulated annealing protocols. For the NarIIQ1 and NarIIQ2 duplexes, the alpha' torsion angles were predicted to be -176 +/- 8 degrees and -160 +/- 8 degrees , respectively, whereas for the NarIIQ3 duplex, torsion angle alpha' was predicted to be 159 +/- 7 degrees . Likewise, for the NarIIQ1 and NarIIQ2 duplexes, the beta' torsion angles were predicted to be -152 +/- 8 degrees and -164 +/- 7 degrees , respectively, whereas for the NarIIQ3 duplex, torsion angle beta' was predicted to be -23 +/- 8 degrees . Consequently, the conformations of the IQ adduct in the NarIIQ1 and NarIIQ2 duplexes were similar, with the IQ methyl protons and IQ H4 and H5 protons facing outward in the minor groove, whereas in the NarIIQ3 duplex, the IQ methyl protons and the IQ H4 and H5 protons faced into the DNA duplex, facilitating the base-displaced intercalated orientation of the IQ moiety [Wang, F., Elmquist, C. E., Stover, J. S., Rizzo, C. J., and Stone, M. P. (2006) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 10085-10095]. In contrast, for the NarIIQ1 and NarIIQ2 duplexes, the IQ moiety remained in the minor groove. These sequence-dependent differences suggest that base-displaced intercalation of the IQ adduct is favored when both the 5'- and 3'-flanking nucleotides in the complementary strand are guanines. These conformational differences may correlate with sequence-dependent differences in translesion replication.
Although meat intake has been fairly consistently linked to the risk of colorectal cancer, only a few studies have evaluated meat intake by doneness level and the heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) produced by high temperature cooking of meat in relation to colorectal adenomatous and hyperplastic polyps. We evaluated these associations in a large colonoscopy-based case-control study. Included in this study were participants with adenomatous polyp only (n = 573), hyperplastic polyp only (n = 256), or both adenomatous and hyperplastic polyps (n = 199), and 1,544 polyp-free controls. In addition to information related to demographic and other lifestyle factors, meat intake by cooking method and doneness preference were obtained through telephone interviews. Polytomous logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals for the association between exposures and colorectal polyp risks. Presence of hyperplastic polyp was found to be positively associated with high consumption of total meat (p(trend) = 0.076) or red meat (p(trend) = 0.060), with an approximate 50-60% elevated risk observed in the highest vs. the lowest intake group. High intake of 2-amino-I-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo [4,5]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx) were associated with increased risk for hyperplastic polyp (p(trend) = 0.036 and 0.038, respectively). With a possible exception of the intake of total well-done meats (p(trend) = 0.055) or well-done red meats (p(trend) = 0.074) with the risk of large adenomas, no other positive association was found specifically for the risk of adenomas with any of the exposure variables aforementioned. This study provides additional support for a positive association of high intake of red meat with colorectal adenomas, and suggests that high intake of meats and meat carcinogens may also be associated with hyperplastic polyps.