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RATIONALE - Resveratrol participates in regulating abnormal behaviors in psychostimulant-exposed animals.
OBJECTIVES - To examine effects of resveratrol on relapse and anxiety-like behaviors in cocaine withdrawn rats and to investigate possible molecular mechanisms underlying resveratrol effects in hippocampus (HP) and prefrontal cortex (PFC).
METHODS - Conditioned place preference (CPP) assay and elevated plus maze (EPM) test were used to examine cocaine CPP behavior and anxiety-like behaviors in rats, respectively. Resveratrol was administrated to cocaine withdrawn rats. Levels of MDA, GSH and SOD were examined to evaluate oxidative status, and levels of IL-6, IL-1β and TNF α were measured to examine inflammatory status and levels of caspase-3 and BAX was examined to evaluate apoptotic status in HP and PFC. SIRT expression was also examined here.
RESULTS - Resveratrol did not affect cocaine CPP behaviors, but attenuated anxiety-like behaviors in cocaine withdrawn rats. Levels of MDA and TNFα in PFC, and levels of MDA, SOD, GSH, IL-6, IL-1β, TNFα, caspase-3 and BAX in HP, but not SIRT1 expression in both regions were significantly changed during cocaine withdrawal period. Except SOD, resveratrol reversed above neurochemical changes induced by cocaine withdrawal. Furthermore, RSV induced a greater upregulation of SIRT1 expression in PFC in cocaine withdrawn rats than that in saline controls.
CONCLUSIONS - Current findings suggest that resveratrol may influence behaviors in cocaine withdrawn rats. Oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, and SIRT1 signaling pathway in HP or PFC might be involved in mediating effects of RSV on behaviors in cocaine withdrawn rats.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW - In 1954 Harman proposed the free radical theory of aging, and in 1972 he suggested that mitochondria are both the source and the victim of toxic free radicals. Interestingly, hypertension is an age-associated disease and clinical data show that by age 70, 70% of the population has hypertension and this is accompanied by oxidative stress. Antioxidant therapy, however, is not currently available and common antioxidants such as ascorbate and vitamin E are ineffective in preventing hypertension. The present review focuses on the molecular mechanisms of mitochondrial oxidative stress and the therapeutic potential of targeting mitochondria in hypertension.
RECENT FINDINGS - Over the past several years, we have shown that the mitochondria become dysfunctional in hypertension and have defined a novel role of mitochondrial superoxide radicals in this disease. We have shown that genetic manipulation of mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase affects blood pressure, and have developed mitochondria-targeted therapies such as mitochondrial superoxide dismutase mimetics that effectively lower blood pressure. However, the specific mechanism of mitochondrial oxidative stress in hypertension remains unclear. Recent animal and clinical studies have demonstrated several hormonal, metabolic, inflammatory, and environmental pathways contributing to mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress.
SUMMARY - Nutritional supplements, calorie restriction, and life style change are the most effective preventive strategies to improve mitochondrial function and reduce mitochondrial oxidative stress. Aging associated mitochondrial dysfunction, however, reduces the efficacy of these strategies. Therefore, we propose that new classes of mitochondria-targeted antioxidants can provide a high therapeutic potential to improve endothelial function and reduce hypertension.
Physical activity is associated with circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). However, the influence of activity and/or sedentary behavior on the biologically active, seco-steroid hormone 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) is unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis among ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) randomized trial participants (n=876) to evaluate associations between physical activity, sedentary behavior, and circulating vitamin D metabolite concentrations. Continuous vitamin D metabolite measurements and clinical thresholds were evaluated using multiple linear and logistic regression models, mutually adjusted for either 1,25(OH)2D or 25(OH)D and additional confounding factors. A statistically significant linear association between 1,25(OH)2D and moderate-vigorous physical activity per week was strongest among women (β (95% CI): 3.10 (1.51-6.35)) versus men (β (95% CI): 1.35 (0.79-2.29)) in the highest tertile of activity compared to the lowest (p-interaction=0.003). Furthermore, 25(OH)D was 1.54ng/ml (95% CI 1.09-1.98) higher per hour increase in moderate-vigorous activity (p=0.001) and odds of sufficient 25(OH)D status was higher among physically active participants (p=0.001). Sedentary behavior was not significantly associated with either metabolite in linear regression models, nor was a statistically significant interaction by sex identified. The current study identified novel associations between physical activity and serum 1,25(OH)2D levels, adjusted for 25(OH)D concentrations. These results identify the biologically active form of vitamin D as a potential physiologic mechanism related to observed population-level associations between moderate-vigorous physical activity with bone health and chronic disease risk. However, future longitudinal studies are needed to further evaluate the role of physical activity and vitamin D metabolites in chronic disease prevention.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
UNLABELLED - Selenium (Se) is essential for both brain development and male fertility. Male mice lacking two key genes involved in Se metabolism (Scly(-/-)Sepp1(-/-) mice), selenoprotein P (Sepp1) and Sec lyase (Scly), develop severe neurological dysfunction, neurodegeneration, and audiogenic seizures that manifest beginning in early adulthood. We demonstrate that prepubescent castration of Scly(-/-)Sepp1(-/-) mice prevents behavioral deficits, attenuates neurodegeneration, rescues maturation of GABAergic inhibition, and increases brain selenoprotein levels. Moreover, castration also yields similar neuroprotective benefits to Sepp1(-/-) and wild-type mice challenged with Se-deficient diets. Our data show that, under Se-compromised conditions, the brain and testes compete for Se utilization, with concomitant effects on neurodevelopment and neurodegeneration.
SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT - Selenium is an essential trace element that promotes male fertility and brain function. Herein, we report that prepubescent castration provides neuroprotection by increasing selenium-dependent antioxidant activity in the brain, revealing a competition between the brain and testes for selenium utilization. These findings provide novel insight into the interaction of sex and oxidative stress upon the developing brain and have potentially significant implications for the prevention of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by aberrant excitatory/inhibitory balance, such as schizophrenia and epilepsy.
Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/3515326-13$15.00/0.
The accelerated metabolic demands of the working muscle cannot be met without a robust response from the liver. If not for the hepatic response, sustained exercise would be impossible. The liver stores, releases, and recycles potential energy. Exercise would result in hypoglycemia if it were not for the accelerated release of energy as glucose. The energetic demands on the liver are largely met by increased oxidation of fatty acids mobilized from adipose tissue. Adaptations immediately following exercise facilitate the replenishment of glycogen stores. Pancreatic glucagon and insulin responses orchestrate the hepatic response during and immediately following exercise. Like skeletal muscle and other physiological systems, liver adapts to repeated demands of exercise by increasing its capacity to produce energy by oxidizing fat. The ability of regular physical activity to increase fat oxidation is protective and can reverse fatty liver disease. Engaging in regular physical exercise has broad ranging positive health implications including those that improve the metabolic health of the liver.
© 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
We report the optimization of a series of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5) positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) from an acyl dihydropyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidinone class. Investigation of exocyclic amide transpositions with this unique 5,6-bicyclic core were conducted in attempt to modulate physicochemical properties and identify a suitable backup candidate with a reduced half-life. A potent and selective PAM, 1-(2-(phenoxymethyl)-6,7-dihydropyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-4(5H)-yl)ethanone (9a, VU0462807), was identified with superior solubility and efficacy in the acute amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion (AHL) rat model with a minimum effective dose of 3mg/kg. Attempts to mitigate oxidative metabolism of the western phenoxy of 9a through extensive modification and profiling are described.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Absence seizures occur in several types of human epilepsy and result from widespread, synchronous feedback between the cortex and thalamus that produces brief episodes of loss of consciousness. Genetic rodent models have been invaluable for investigating the pathophysiological basis of these seizures. Here, we identify tetratricopeptide-containing Rab8b-interacting protein (TRIP8b) knockout mice as a new model of absence epilepsy, featuring spontaneous spike-wave discharges on electroencephalography (EEG) that are the electrographic hallmark of absence seizures. TRIP8b is an auxiliary subunit of the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic-nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels, which have previously been implicated in the pathogenesis of absence seizures. In contrast to mice lacking the pore-forming HCN channel subunit HCN2, TRIP8b knockout mice exhibited normal cardiac and motor function and a less severe seizure phenotype. Evaluating the circuit that underlies absence seizures, we found that TRIP8b knockout mice had significantly reduced HCN channel expression and function in thalamic-projecting cortical layer 5b neurons and thalamic relay neurons, but preserved function in inhibitory neurons of the reticular thalamic nucleus. Our results expand the known roles of TRIP8b and provide new insight into the region-specific functions of TRIP8b and HCN channels in constraining cortico-thalamo-cortical excitability.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cocaine abuse remains a public health concern for which pharmacotherapies are largely ineffective. Comorbidities between cocaine abuse, depression, and anxiety support the development of novel treatments targeting multiple symptom clusters. Selective negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) targeting the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5) subtype are currently in clinical trials for the treatment of multiple neuropsychiatric disorders and have shown promise in preclinical models of substance abuse. However, complete blockade or inverse agonist activity by some full mGlu5 NAM chemotypes demonstrated adverse effects, including psychosis in humans and psychotomimetic-like effects in animals, suggesting a narrow therapeutic window. Development of partial mGlu5 NAMs, characterized by their submaximal but saturable levels of blockade, may represent a novel approach to broaden the therapeutic window. To understand potential therapeutic vs adverse effects in preclinical behavioral assays, we examined the partial mGlu5 NAMs, M-5MPEP and Br-5MPEPy, in comparison with the full mGlu5 NAM MTEP across models of addiction and psychotomimetic-like activity. M-5MPEP, Br-5MPEPy, and MTEP dose-dependently decreased cocaine self-administration and attenuated the discriminative stimulus effects of cocaine. M-5MPEP and Br-5MPEPy also demonstrated antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like activity. Dose-dependent effects of partial and full mGlu5 NAMs in these assays corresponded with increasing in vivo mGlu5 occupancy, demonstrating an orderly occupancy-to-efficacy relationship. PCP-induced hyperlocomotion was potentiated by MTEP, but not by M-5MPEP and Br-5MPEPy. Further, MTEP, but not M-5MPEP, potentiated the discriminative-stimulus effects of PCP. The present data suggest that partial mGlu5 NAM activity is sufficient to produce therapeutic effects similar to full mGlu5 NAMs, but with a broader therapeutic index.
Commissural neurons project across the midline at all levels of the central nervous system (CNS), providing bilateral communication critical for the coordination of motor activity and sensory perception. Midline crossing at the spinal ventral midline has been extensively studied and has revealed that multiple developmental lineages contribute to this commissural neuron population. Ventral midline crossing occurs in a manner dependent on Robo3 regulation of Robo/Slit signaling and the ventral commissure is absent in the spinal cord and hindbrain of Robo3 mutants. Midline crossing in the spinal cord is not limited to the ventral midline, however. While prior anatomical studies provide evidence that commissural axons also cross the midline dorsally, little is known of the genetic and molecular properties of dorsally-crossing neurons or of the mechanisms that regulate dorsal midline crossing. In this study, we describe a commissural neuron population that crosses the spinal dorsal midline during the last quarter of embryogenesis in discrete fiber bundles present throughout the rostrocaudal extent of the spinal cord. Using immunohistochemistry, neurotracing, and mouse genetics, we show that this commissural neuron population includes spinal inhibitory neurons and sensory nociceptors. While the floor plate and roof plate are dispensable for dorsal midline crossing, we show that this population depends on Robo/Slit signaling yet crosses the dorsal midline in a Robo3-independent manner. The dorsally-crossing commissural neuron population we describe suggests a substrate circuitry for pain processing in the dorsal spinal cord.
Regular physical activity is effective in reducing visceral white adipose tissue (AT) inflammation and oxidative stress, and these changes are commonly associated with reduced adiposity. However, the impact of multiple periods of physical activity, intercalated by periods of inactivity, i.e., intermittent physical activity, on markers of AT inflammation and oxidative stress is unknown. In the present study, 5-wk-old male C57BL/6 mice were randomized into three groups (n = 10/group): sedentary, regular physical activity, and intermittent physical activity, for 24 wk. All animals were singly housed and fed a diet containing 45% kcal from fat. Regularly active mice had access to voluntary running wheels throughout the study period, whereas intermittently active mice had access to running wheels for 3-wk intervals (i.e., 3 wk on/3 wk off) throughout the study. At death, regular and intermittent physical activity was associated with similar reductions in visceral AT mass (approximately -24%, P < 0.05) relative to sedentary. However, regularly, but not intermittently, active mice exhibited decreased expression of visceral AT genes related to inflammation (e.g., monocyte chemoattractant protein 1), immune cell infiltration (e.g., CD68, CD11c, F4/80, CD11b/CD18), oxidative stress (e.g., p47 phagocyte oxidase), and endoplasmic reticulum stress (e.g., CCAAT enhancer-binding protein homologous protein; all P < 0.05). Furthermore, regular, but not intermittent, physical activity was associated with a trend toward improvement in glucose tolerance (P = 0.059). Collectively, these findings suggest that intermittent physical activity over a prolonged period of time may lead to a reduction in adiposity but with retention of a sedentary obese white AT and metabolic phenotype.
Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.