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Although histamine plays an essential role in inflammation, its influence on cyclooxygenases (COX) and prostanoid homeostasis is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of histamine on the expression of COX-1 and COX-2 and determined their contribution to the production of PGE(2), prostacyclin (PGI(2)), and thromboxane A(2) in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC). Incubation of HCAEC monolayers with histamine resulted in marked increases in the expression of COX-2 and production of PGI(2) and PGE(2) with no significant change in the expression of COX-1. Histamine-induced increases in PGI(2) and PGE(2) production were due to increased expression and function of COX-2 because gene silencing by small interfering RNA or inhibition of the catalytic activity by a COX-2 inhibitor blocked prostanoid production. The effects of histamine on COX-2 expression and prostanoid production were mediated through H(1) receptors. In addition to the direct effect, histamine was found to amplify LPS-stimulated COX-2 expression and PGE(2) and PGI(2) production. In contrast, histamine did not stimulate thromboxane A(2) production in resting or LPS-activated HCAEC. Histamine-induced increases in the production of PGE(2) and PGI(2) were associated with increased expression of mRNA encoding PGE(2) and PGI(2) synthases. The physiological role of histamine on the regulation of COX-2 expression in the vasculature is indicated by the findings that the expression of COX-2 mRNA, but not COX-1 mRNA, was markedly reduced in the aortic tissues of histidine decarboxylase null mice. Thus, histamine plays an important role in the regulation of COX-2 expression and prostanoid homeostasis in vascular endothelium.
BACKGROUND & AIMS - The primary strategies to reduce the risk of serious gastropathy caused by traditional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are use of a coxib or concurrent use of a proton pump inhibitor or double-dose histamine-2 receptor antagonist. However, the relative clinical effectiveness of these therapeutic alternatives is understudied.
METHODS - We studied peptic ulcer hospitalizations in a cohort of Tennessee Medicaid enrollees between 1996 and 2004. To decrease potential "channeling" bias, the study included only new episodes of prescribed NSAID or coxib use and controlled for multiple baseline risk factors for upper gastrointestinal disease. There were 234,010 and 48,710 new episodes of NSAID and coxib use, respectively, with 363,037 person-years of follow-up and 1223 peptic ulcer hospitalizations.
RESULTS - Current users of NSAIDs with no gastroprotective cotherapy had an adjusted incidence of peptic ulcer hospitalizations of 5.65 per 1000 person-years, 2.76 (95% confidence interval, 2.35-3.23) times greater than that for persons not currently using either NSAIDs or coxibs. This risk was reduced by 39% (16%-56%, 95% CI) for current users of NSAIDs with gastroprotective cotherapy and 40% (23%-54%) for current users of coxibs without such cotherapy. Concurrent users of NSAIDs and proton pump inhibitors had a 54% (27%-72%) risk reduction, very similar to the 50% (27%-66%) reduction for concurrent users of proton pump inhibitors and coxibs.
CONCLUSIONS - These findings suggest that coprescribing a proton pump inhibitor with an NSAID is as effective as use of a coxib for reducing the risk of NSAID-induced gastropathy.
We showed previously that grapefruit and orange juices inhibited human enteric organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP)1A2 in vitro and lowered oral fexofenadine bioavailability clinically. Inhibition of OATP1A2 transport by flavonoids in grapefruit (naringin) and orange (hesperidin) was conducted in vitro. Two randomized, crossover, pharmacokinetic studies were performed clinically. In one study, 120 mg of fexofenadine was ingested with 300 ml grapefruit juice, an aqueous solution of naringin at the same juice concentration (1,200 microM), or water. In the other study, fexofenadine was administered with grapefruit juice, with or 2 h before aqueous suspension of the particulate fraction of juice containing known clinical inhibitors of enteric CYP3A4, but relatively low naringin concentration (34 microM), or with water. Naringin and hesperidin's half-maximal inhibitions were 3.6 and 2.7 microM, respectively. Fexofenadine area under the plasma drug concentration-time curves (AUCs) with grapefruit juice and naringin solution were 55% (P<0.001) and 75% (P<0.05) of that with water, respectively. Fexofenadine AUCs with grapefruit juice and particulate fractions were 57% (P<0.001), 96% (not significant (NS)), and 97% (NS) of that with water, respectively. Individuals tested in both studies (n=9 of 12) had highly reproducible fexofenadine AUC with water (r(2)=0.85, P<0.001) and extent of reduction of it with grapefruit juice (r(2)=0.72, P<0.01). Naringin most probably directly inhibited enteric OATP1A2 to decrease oral fexofenadine bioavailability. Inactivation of enteric CYP3A4 was probably not involved. Naringin appears to have sufficient safety, specificity, and sensitivity to be a clinical OATP1A2 inhibitor probe. Inherent OATP1A2 activity may be influenced by genetic factors. This appears to be the first report of a single dietary constituent clinically modulating drug transport.
The goals of this study were to assess the extent of human intestinal drug transporter expression, determine the subcellular localization of the drug uptake transporter OATP1A2, and then to assess the effect of grapefruit juice consumption on OATP1A2 expression relative to cytochrome P450 3A4 and MDR1. Expression of drug uptake and efflux transporters was assessed using human duodenal biopsy samples. Fexofenadine uptake by different transporters was measured in a transporter-transfected cell line. We investigated the influence of grapefruit juice on pharmacokinetics of orally administered fexofenadine. The effect of grapefruit juice on the expression of intestinal transporters was determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. In the duodenum of healthy volunteers, an array of CYP enzymes as well as uptake and efflux transporters was expressed. Importantly, uptake transporters thought to be liver-specific, such as OATP1B1 and 1B3, as well as OATP2B1 and 1A2 were expressed in the intestine. However, among OATP transporters, only OATP1A2 was capable of fexofenadine uptake when assessed in vitro. OATP1A2 colocalized with MDR1 to the brush border domain of enterocytes. Consumption of grapefruit juice concomitantly or 2 h before fexofenadine administration was associated with reduced oral fexofenadine plasma exposure, whereas intestinal expression of either OATP1A2 or MDR1 remained unaffected. In conclusion, an array of drug uptake and efflux transporters are expressed in the human intestine. OATP1A2 is likely the key intestinal uptake transporter for fexofenadine absorption whose inhibition results in the grapefruit juice effect. Although short-term grapefruit juice ingestion was associated with reduced fexofenadine availability, OATP1A2 or MDR1 expression was unaffected.
Systemic mastocytosis is characterized by an abnormal proliferation of tissue mast cells. Symptoms of mastocytosis are primarily attributed to the release of mast cell mediators during episodes of systemic activation of the excessive numbers of mast cells. Thus, biochemical evidence for the release of increased quantities of mast cell secretory products can suggest or confirm, depending on the clinical situation, a diagnosis of systemic mastocytosis. A major advantage of the biochemical approach to the diagnosis of systemic mast cell disease is that it has allowed the recognition of a class of patients in whom episodes of systemic mastocyte activation can be unequivocally documented biochemically but in whom clear-cut evidence of abnormal mast cell proliferation is lacking by current histologic criteria. Although the release of increased quantities of mast cell mediators can be demonstrated during episodes of mast cell activation in such patients, mediator levels are usually normal at quiescent times. By contrast, patients with proliferative mast cell disease (mastocytosis) usually exhibit chronic overproduction of mast cell mediators. Mast cell secretory products that can be measured in an attempt to obtain biochemical evidence of systemic mast cell activation include histamine, prostaglandin D2, tryptase, and heparin. The analytical approaches to assessing release of those individual mast cell products are evaluated. In general, the diagnosis and investigation of patients with systemic mast cell activation can best be accomplished by concerted use of histologic examination of key tissues together with analysis of chemical markers of the mast cell.
Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a disabling condition that commonly affects otherwise normal young females. Because these patients can present with a flushing disorder, we hypothesized that mast cell activation (MCA) can contribute to its pathogenesis. Here we describe POTS patients with MCA (MCA+POTS), diagnosed by episodes of flushing and abnormal increases in urine methylhistamine, and compared them to POTS patients with episodic flushing but normal urine methylhistamine and to normal healthy age-matched female controls. MCA+POTS patients were characterized by episodes of flushing, shortness of breath, headache, lightheadedness, excessive diuresis, and gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting. Triggering events include long-term standing, exercise, premenstrual cycle, meals, and sexual intercourse. In addition, patients were disabled by orthostatic intolerance and a characteristic hyperadrenergic response to posture, with orthostatic tachycardia (from 79+/-4 to 114+/-6 bpm), increased systolic blood pressure on standing (from 117+/-5 to 126+/-7 mm Hg versus no change in POTS controls), increased systolic blood pressure at the end of phase II of the Valsalva maneuver (157+/-12 versus 117+/-9 in normal controls and 119+/-7 mm Hg in POTS; P=0.048), and an exaggerated phase IV blood pressure overshoot (50+/-10 versus 17+/-3 mm Hg in normal controls; P<0.05). In conclusion, MCA should be considered in patients with POTS presenting with flushing. These patients often present with a typical hyperadrenergic response, but beta-blockers should be used with great caution, if at all, and treatment directed against mast cell mediators may be required.
BACKGROUND - The influence of platelet von Willebrand factor (vWF)-glycoprotein (GP)Ib-V-IX and GPIIb-IIIa receptor interactions in the context of hyperacute rejection (HAR) of pulmonary xenografts has not previously been explored.
METHODS - Aurintricarboxylic acid (ATA, an inhibitor of platelet-GPIb interactions with vWF), SC52012A (SC, a synthetic GPIIb/IIIa inhibiting peptide), or both were added to heparinized whole human blood before perfusion of isolated piglet lungs. Results were compared with unmodified blood ("unmodified").
RESULTS - Perfusion of porcine lungs with unmodified human blood resulted in an immediate rise in pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), fluid and platelet sequestration in the lung, and, without exception, cessation of function within 15 minutes with a mean survival of 8 minutes. Addition of ATA or SC before lung perfusion significantly decreased the rise in PVR, diminished histamine release, and prolonged survival to 31+/-11 and 31+/-22 minutes, respectively. When the therapies were combined, mean survival was 156+/-77 minutes (P<0.05 vs. either monotherapy). Complement activation was synergistically attenuated only when the drugs were used together.
CONCLUSIONS - Platelet protein receptor adhesive interactions play an important role in amplification of complement activation during hyperacute lung rejection. Inhibiting recruitment of platelets at the site of initial immunologic injury to endothelial cells may protect porcine organs against thrombosis and inflammation during the initial exposure to human blood.
We examined expression, function, and regulation of the cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 gene in gastric parietal cells. COX-2-specific mRNA was isolated from purified (>95%) canine gastric parietal cells in primary culture and measured by Northern blots using a human COX-2 cDNA probe. Carbachol was the most potent inducer of COX-2 gene expression. Gastrin and histamine exhibited minor stimulatory effects. Carbachol-stimulated expression was inhibited by intracellular Ca(2+) chelator 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid-AM (90%), protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor GF-109203X (48%), and p38 kinase inhibitor SB-203580 (48%). Nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB inhibitor 1-pyrrolidinecarbodithioic acid inhibited carbachol-stimulated expression by 80%. Similar results were observed in the presence of adenoviral vector Ad.dom.neg.IkappaB, which expresses a repressor of NF-kappaB. Addition of SB-203580 with Ad.dom.neg.IkappaB almost completely blocked carbachol stimulation of COX-2 gene expression. We examined the effect of carbachol on PGE(2) release by enzyme-linked immunoassay. Carbachol induced PGE(2) release. Ad.dom.neg.IkappaB, alone or with SB-203580, produced, respectively, partial (70%) and almost complete (>80%) inhibition of carbachol-stimulated PGE(2) production. Selective COX-2 inhibitor NS-398 blocked carbachol-stimulated PGE(2) release without affecting basal PGE(2) production. In contrast, indomethacin inhibited both basal and carbachol-stimulated PGE(2) release. Carbachol induces COX-2 gene expression in the parietal cells through signaling pathways that involve intracellular Ca(2+), PKC, p38 kinase, and activation of NF-kappaB. The functional significance of these effects seems to be stimulation of PGE(2) release.
OBJECTIVES - Our objective was to examine the effect of different fruits and their constituents on P-glycoprotein and organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) activities in vitro and on drug disposition in humans.
METHODS - P-glycoprotein-mediated digoxin or vinblastine efflux was determined in polarized epithelial cell monolayers. OATP-mediated fexofenadine uptake was measured in a transfected cell line. The oral pharmacokinetics of 120 mg fexofenadine was assessed with water, 25%-strength grapefruit juice, or normal-strength grapefruit, orange, or apple juices (1.2 L over 3 hours) in a randomized 5-way crossover study in 10 healthy subjects.
RESULTS - Grapefruit juice and segments and apple juice at 5% of normal strength did not alter P-glycoprotein activity. Grapefruit extract reduced transport. 6',7'-Dihydroxybergamottin had modest inhibitory activity (50% inhibitory concentration [IC(50)], 33 micromol/L). In contrast, grapefruit, orange, and apple juices at 5% of normal strength markedly reduced human OATP and rat oatp activity. 6',7'-Dihydroxybergamottin potently inhibited rat oatp3 and oatp1 (IC(50), 0.28 micromol/L). Other furanocoumarins and bioflavonoids also reduced rat oatp3 activity. Grapefruit, orange, and apple juices decreased the fexofenadine area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC), the peak plasma drug concentration (C(max)), and the urinary excretion values to 30% to 40% of those with water, with no change in the time to reach C(max), elimination half-life, renal clearance, or urine volume in humans. Change in fexofenadine AUC with juice was variable among individuals and inversely dependent on value with water.
CONCLUSIONS - Fruit juices and constituents are more potent inhibitors of OATPs than P-glycoprotein activities, which can reduce oral drug bioavailability. Results support a new model of intestinal drug absorption and mechanism of food-drug interaction.