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To understand the physiological significance of the reduction in fasting insulin produced by dietary methionine restriction (MR), hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps were used to examine the effect of the diet on overall and tissue-specific insulin sensitivity in mice. The steady-state glucose infusion rate was threefold higher in the MR group and consistent with the 2.5- to threefold increase in 2-deoxyglucose uptake in skeletal muscle, heart, and white adipose tissue. Dietary MR enhanced suppression of hepatic glucose production by insulin, enhanced insulin-dependent Akt phosphorylation in the liver, and increased hepatic expression and circulating fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF-21) by fourfold. Limitation of media methionine recapitulated amplification of Akt phosphorylation by insulin in HepG2 cells but not in 3T3-L1 adipocytes or C2C12 myotubes. Amplification of insulin signaling in HepG2 cells by MR was associated with reduced glutathione, where it functions as a cofactor for phosphatase and tensin homolog. In contrast, FGF-21, but not restricting media methionine, enhanced insulin-dependent Akt phosphorylation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. These findings provide a potential mechanism for the diet-induced increase in insulin sensitivity among tissues that involves a direct effect of methionine in liver and an indirect effect in adipose tissue through MR-dependent increases in hepatic transcription and release of FGF-21.
© 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.
BACKGROUND - Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) is a phosphate regulatory hormone that directly stimulates left ventricular hypertrophy in experimental models. The role of FGF-23 in cardiovascular disease development in the general population is unclear. We tested associations of FGF-23 with major subclinical and clinical cardiovascular disease outcomes in a large prospective cohort.
METHODS AND RESULTS - We evaluated 6547 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) who were initially free of cardiovascular disease. We measured serum FGF-23 using the Kainos immunoassay. The MESA measured left ventricular mass by MRI, coronary calcium by computed tomography, and carotid intima-media thickness by ultrasound. The MESA adjudicated incident heart failure, coronary heart disease, and stroke by medical record review. After adjustment, the highest FGF-23 quartile was associated with an estimated 2.4-g greater left ventricular mass (95% confidence interval, 0.4-4.5 greater) and a 26% greater odds of higher coronary calcium scores (95% confidence interval, 9%-46% greater) compared with the lowest quartile. During 7.5-year follow-up, each 20-pg/mL higher FGF-23 concentration was associated with a 19% greater risk of heart failure (95% confidence interval, 3%-37% greater) and a 14% greater risk of coronary heart disease (95% confidence interval, 1%-28% greater). FGF-23 was not associated with carotid intima-media thickness or stroke.
CONCLUSIONS - Higher serum FGF-23 concentrations are associated with subclinical cardiac disease and with new heart failure and coronary disease events, but not with carotid intima-media thickness or stroke. FGF-23 may be a novel cardiovascular risk factor in the general population.
© 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.
In the developing brain, the production of neurons from multipotent precursors must be carefully regulated in order to generate the appropriate numbers of various differentiated neuronal types. Inductive signals from extrinsic elements such as growth factors need to be integrated with timely expression of intrinsic elements such as transcription factors that define the competence of the cell. The transcriptional Mediator complex offers a mechanism to coordinate the timing and levels of intrinsic and extrinsic influences by acting as a rapid molecular switch for transcription of poised RNA pol II. The epithalamus is a highly conserved region of the vertebrate brain that differentiates early and rapidly in the zebrafish. It includes the pineal and parapineal organs and the habenular nuclei. Mutation of the Mediator complex subunit Med12 impairs the specification of habenular and parapineal neurons and causes a loss of differentiation in pineal neurons and photoreceptors. Although FGF ligands and transcription factors for parapineal and photoreceptor development are still expressed in the pineal complex of med12 mutants, FGF signaling is impaired and transcription factor expression is reduced and/or delayed. We find that the timely expression of one of these transcription factors, tbx2b, is controlled by Med12 and is vital for parapineal specification. We propose that the Mediator complex is responsible for subtle but significant changes in transcriptional timing and amplitude that are essential for coordinating the development of neurons in the epithalamus.
© 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.
Insulin-independent glucose disposal (referred to as glucose effectiveness [GE]) is crucial for glucose homeostasis and, until recently, was thought to be invariable. However, GE is reduced in type 2 diabetes and markedly decreased in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice. Strategies aimed at increasing GE should therefore be capable of improving glucose tolerance in these animals. The gut-derived hormone FGF19 has previously been shown to exert potent antidiabetic effects in ob/ob mice. In ob/ob mice, we found that systemic FGF19 administration improved glucose tolerance through its action in the brain and that a single, low-dose i.c.v. injection of FGF19 dramatically improved glucose intolerance within 2 hours. Minimal model analysis of glucose and insulin data obtained during a frequently sampled i.v. glucose tolerance test showed that the antidiabetic effect of i.c.v. FGF19 was solely due to increased GE and not to changes of either insulin secretion or insulin sensitivity. The mechanism underlying this effect appears to involve increased metabolism of glucose to lactate. Together, these findings implicate the brain in the antidiabetic action of systemic FGF19 and establish the brain’s capacity to rapidly, potently, and selectively increase insulin-independent glucose disposal.
The identity of niche signals necessary to maintain embryonic nephron progenitors is unclear. Here we provide evidence that Fgf20 and Fgf9, expressed in the niche, and Fgf9, secreted from the adjacent ureteric bud, are necessary and sufficient to maintain progenitor stemness. Reduction in the level of these redundant ligands in the mouse led to premature progenitor differentiation within the niche. Loss of FGF20 in humans, or of both ligands in mice, resulted in kidney agenesis. Sufficiency was shown in vitro where Fgf20 or Fgf9 (alone or together with Bmp7) maintained isolated metanephric mesenchyme or sorted nephron progenitors that remained competent to differentiate in response to Wnt signals after 5 or 2 days in culture, respectively. These findings identify a long-sought-after critical component of the nephron stem cell niche and hold promise for long-term culture and utilization of these progenitors in vitro.
Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death for both men and women worldwide. Since most of the symptoms found for lung cancer are nonspecific, diagnosis is mostly done at late and progressed stage with the consecutive poor therapy outcome. Effective early detection techniques are sorely needed. The emerging field of salivary diagnostics could provide scientifically credible, easy-to-use, non-invasive and cost-effective detection methods. Recent advances have allowed us to develop discriminatory salivary biomarkers for a variety of diseases from oral to systematic diseases. In this study, salivary transcriptomes of lung cancer patients were profiled and led to the discovery and pre-validation of seven highly discriminatory transcriptomic salivary biomarkers (BRAF, CCNI, EGRF, FGF19, FRS2, GREB1, and LZTS1). The logistic regression model combining five of the mRNA biomarkers (CCNI, EGFR, FGF19, FRS2, and GREB1) could differentiate lung cancer patients from normal control subjects, yielding AUC value of 0.925 with 93.75 % sensitivity and 82.81 % specificity in the pre-validation sample set. These salivary mRNA biomarkers possess the discriminatory power for the detection of lung cancer. This report provides the proof of concept of salivary biomarkers for the non-invasive detection of the systematic disease. These results poised the salivary biomarkers for the initiation of a multi-center validation in a definitive clinical context.
Recent studies indicate that nephron progenitor cells of the embryonic kidney are arranged in a series of compartments of an increasing state of differentiation. The earliest progenitor compartment, distinguished by expression of CITED1, possesses greater capacity for renewal and differentiation than later compartments. Signaling events governing progression of nephron progenitor cells through stages of increasing differentiation are poorly understood, and their elucidation will provide key insights into normal and dysregulated nephrogenesis, as well as into regenerative processes that follow kidney injury. In this study, we found that the mouse CITED1(+) progenitor compartment is maintained in response to receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) ligands that activate both FGF and EGF receptors. This RTK signaling function is dependent on RAS and PI3K signaling but not ERK. In vivo, RAS inactivation by expression of sprouty 1 (Spry1) in CITED1(+) nephron progenitors results in loss of characteristic molecular marker expression and in increased death of progenitor cells. Lineage tracing shows that surviving Spry1-expressing progenitor cells are impaired in their subsequent epithelial differentiation, infrequently contributing to epithelial structures. These findings demonstrate that the survival and developmental potential of cells in the earliest embryonic nephron progenitor cell compartment are dependent on FGF/EGF signaling through RAS.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES - Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is an independent risk factor for mortality in patients with ESRD. Before FGF23 testing can be integrated into clinical practice of ESRD, further understanding of its determinants is needed.
DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS - In a study of 67 adults undergoing peritoneal dialysis, we tested the hypothesis that longer dialysis vintage and lower residual renal function and renal phosphate clearance are associated with higher FGF23. We also compared the monthly variability of FGF23 versus parathyroid hormone (PTH) and serum phosphate.
RESULTS - In unadjusted analyses, FGF23 correlated with serum phosphate (r = 0.66, P < 0.001), residual renal function (r = -0.37, P = 0.002), dialysis vintage (r = 0.31, P = 0.01), and renal phosphate clearance (r = -0.38, P = 0.008). In adjusted analyses, absence of residual renal function and greater dialysis vintage associated with higher FGF23, independent of demographics, laboratory values, peritoneal dialysis modality and adequacy, and treatment with vitamin D analogs and phosphate binders. Urinary and dialysate FGF23 clearances were minimal. In three serial monthly measurements, within-subject variability accounted for only 10% of total FGF23 variability compared with 50% for PTH and 60% for serum phosphate.
CONCLUSIONS - Increased serum phosphate, loss of residual renal function, longer dialysis vintage, and lower renal phosphate clearance are associated with elevated FGF23 levels in ESRD patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. FGF23 may be a more stable marker of phosphate metabolism in ESRD than PTH or serum phosphate.
Hepatic glucagon action increases in response to accelerated metabolic demands and is associated with increased whole body substrate availability, including circulating lipids. The hypothesis that increases in hepatic glucagon action stimulate AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) and fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) expression in a manner modulated by fatty acids was tested in vivo. Wild-type (gcgr(+/+)) and glucagon receptor-null (gcgr(-/-)) littermate mice were studied using an 18-h fast, exercise, and hyperglucagonemic-euglycemic clamps plus or minus increased circulating lipids. Fasting and exercise in gcgr(+/+), but not gcgr(-/-) mice, increased hepatic phosphorylated AMPKα at threonine 172 (p-AMPK(Thr(172))) and PPARα and FGF21 mRNA. Clamp results in gcgr(+/+) mice demonstrate that hyperlipidemia does not independently impact or modify glucagon-stimulated increases in hepatic AMP/ATP, p-AMPK(Thr(172)), or PPARα and FGF21 mRNA. It blunted glucagon-stimulated acetyl-CoA carboxylase phosphorylation, a downstream target of AMPK, and accentuated PPARα and FGF21 expression. All effects were absent in gcgr(-/-) mice. These findings demonstrate that glucagon exerts a critical regulatory role in liver to stimulate pathways linked to lipid metabolism in vivo and shows for the first time that effects of glucagon on PPARα and FGF21 expression are amplified by a physiological increase in circulating lipids.