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Reduction of extracellular ferricyanide by intact cells reflects the activity of an as yet unidentified trans-plasma membrane oxidoreductase. In human erythrocytes, this activity was found to be limited by the ability of the cells to recycle intracellular ascorbic acid, its primary trans-membrane electron donor. Ascorbate-dependent ferricyanide reduction by erythrocytes was partially inhibited by reaction of one or more cell-surface sulfhydryls with p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonic acid, an effect that persisted in resealed ghosts prepared from such treated cells. However, treatment of intact cells with the sulfhydryl reagent had no effect on NADH-dependent ferricyanide or ferricytochrome c reductase activities of open ghosts prepared from treated cells. When cytosol-free ghosts were resealed to contain trypsin or pronase, ascorbate-dependent reduction of extravesicular ferricyanide was doubled, whereas NADH-dependent ferricyanide and ferricytochrome c reduction were decreased by proteolytic digestion. The trans-membrane ascorbate-dependent activity was also found to be inhibited by reaction of sulfhydryls on its cytoplasmic face. These results show that the trans-membrane ferricyanide oxidoreductase is limited by the ability of erythrocytes to recycle intracellular ascorbate, that it does not involve the endofacial NADH-dependent cytochrome b(5) reductase system, and that it is a trans-membrane protein that contains sensitive sulfhydryl groups on both membrane faces.
BACKGROUND - Decreased red blood cell survival contributes to the anemia of chronic renal failure patients. Because patients on chronic dialysis therapy are frequently exposed to excessive complement activation, we investigated the susceptibility of this patient population to erythrocyte C5b-9 deposition, complement-mediated lysis, and ghost formation.
METHODS - We developed a flow cytometric assay using antibodies to both glycophorin and the C5b-9 complex to detect C5b-9 deposition on intact erythrocytes and erythrocyte ghosts. Serum C5b-9 levels and C5b-9 deposition on erythrocyte ghosts were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
RESULTS - A significant increase in C5b-9 deposition on intact erythrocytes was demonstrated in patients with advanced chronic renal failure (2.2 +/- 0.5%) and in patients on chronic maintenance hemodialysis (2.3 +/- 0.4%) compared with normal volunteers (0.9 +/- 0.1%, P = 0.005 vs. chronic renal failure, P < 0.001 vs. chronic hemodialysis patients). There was also a significantly higher percentage of C5b-9-positive erythrocyte ghosts in patients with advanced chronic renal failure (20.6 +/- 5%) and in chronic hemodialysis patients (15.5 +/- 3.1%) compared with normal controls (2.6 +/- 0.9%, P < or = 0.001 vs. advanced chronic renal failure and chronic hemodialysis patients). Treatment of erythrocyte preparations with cobra venom factor, which activates the complement cascade, resulted in dramatic increases in the percentages of C5b-9-positive erythrocyte ghosts in patients with chronic renal failure (49.9 +/- 6.9%) and in chronic hemodialysis patients (45.0 +/- 4.2%) compared with normal volunteers (22.3 +/- 2.7%, P < 0.001 vs. chronic renal failure and chronic hemodialysis patients). Erythrocyte membrane expression of the complement regulatory proteins CD59 and CD55 did not significantly differ between normal controls and hemodialysis patients. Plasma C5b-9 levels after cobra venom factor stimulation were higher in chronic renal failure patients (538 micrograms/ml) compared with normal controls (345 micrograms/ml, P < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS - Patients with chronic renal failure and on hemodialysis therapy are susceptible to erythrocyte C5b-9 deposition with subsequent lysis and ghost formation. Susceptibility to complement-mediated erythrocyte injury may contribute to the anemia of chronic renal disease.
Lipid-soluble antioxidants, such as alpha-tocopherol, protect cell membranes from oxidant damage. In this work we sought to determine whether the amphipathic derivative of ascorbate, ascorbate 6-palmitate, is retained in the cell membrane of intact erythrocytes, and whether it helps to protect the cells against peroxidative damage. We found that ascorbate 6-palmitate binding to erythrocytes was dose-dependent, and that the derivative was retained during the multiple wash steps required for preparation of ghost membranes. Ascorbate 6-palmitate remained on the extracellular surface of the cells, because it was susceptible to oxidation or removal by several cell-impermeant agents. When bound to the surface of erythrocytes, ascorbate 6-palmitate reduced ferricyanide, an effect that was associated with generation of an ascorbyl free radical signal on EPR spectroscopy. Erythrocyte-bound ascorbate 6-palmitate protected membrane alpha-tocopherol from oxidation by both ferricyanide and a water-soluble free radical initiator, suggesting that the derivative either reacted directly with the exogenously added oxidant, or that it was able to recycle the alpha-tocopheroxyl radical to alpha-tocopherol in the cell membrane. Ascorbate 6-palmitate also partially protected cis-parinaric acid from oxidation when this fluorescent fatty acid was intercalated into the membrane of intact cells. These results show that an amphipathic ascorbate derivative is retained on the exterior cell surface of human erythrocytes, where it helps to protect the membrane from oxidant damage originating outside the cells.
Ascorbic acid can recycle alpha-tocopherol from the tocopheroxyl free radical in lipid bilayers and in micelles, but such recycling has not been demonstrated to occur across cell membranes. In this work the ability of intracellular ascorbate to protect and to recycle alpha-tocopherol in intact human erythrocytes and erythrocyte ghosts was investigated. In erythrocytes that were 80% depleted of intracellular ascorbate by treatment with the nitroxide Tempol, both 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) and ferricyanide oxidized alpha-tocopherol to a greater extent than in cells not depleted of ascorbate. In contrast, in erythrocytes in which the intracellular ascorbate concentration had been increased by loading with dehydroascorbate, loss of alpha-tocopherol was less with both oxidants than in control cells. Protection against AAPH-induced oxidation of alpha-tocopherol was not prevented by extracellular ascorbate oxidase, indicating that the protection was due to intracellular and not to extracellular ascorbate. Incubation of erythrocytes with lecithin liposomes also generated an oxidant stress, which caused lipid peroxidation in the liposomes and depleted erythrocyte alpha-tocopherol, leading to hemolysis. Ascorbate loading of the erythrocytes delayed liposome oxidation and decreased loss of alpha-tocopherol from both cells and from alpha-tocopherol-loaded liposomes. When erythrocyte ghosts were resealed to contain ascorbate and challenged with free radicals generated by AAPH outside the ghosts, intravesicular ascorbate was totally depleted over 1 h of incubation, whereas alpha-tocopherol decreased only after ascorbate was substantially oxidized. These results suggest that ascorbate within the erythrocyte protects alpha-tocopherol in the cell membrane by a direct recycling mechanism.
Lipophilic derivatives of ascorbic acid may protect lipid bilayers and micelles against lipid peroxidation. In this work the binding, accessibility, and reducing capacity of ascorbate 6-palmitate (A6P) were studied in human erythrocyte membranes. In contrast to less lipophilic carbon-6-modified ascorbate derivatives, A6P bound to erythrocyte membranes in a concentration-dependent manner. This binding was preserved following centrifugation washes, but was largely reversed by extraction with bovine serum albumin. Most of the ascorbyl groups of membrane-bound A6P were readily accessible to oxidation by water-soluble oxidants. Ferricyanide quantitatively oxidized membrane-bound A6P, but the latter spared endogenous tocopherols from destruction. In EPR studies, A6P was much more effective than ascorbate in reducing nitroxide spin labels positioned at either carbon-5 or carbon-16 of membrane-bound stearic acid in both intact cells and in membranes. A6P, thus, appears to intercalate into the erythrocyte membrane with the ascorbyl group located superficially, but with access to the hydrophobic membrane interior, and with the ability to recycle endogenous alpha-tocopherol during oxidant stress.
The dominant motional mode for membrane proteins is uniaxial rotational diffusion about the membrane normal axis, and investigations of their rotational dynamics can yield insight into both the oligomeric state of the protein and its interactions with other proteins such as the cytoskeleton. However, results from the spectroscopic methods used to study these dynamics are dependent on the orientation of the probe relative to the axis of motion. We have employed polarized fluorescence confocal microscopy to measure the orientation of eosin-5-maleimide covalently reacted with Lys-430 of human erythrocyte band 3. Steady-state polarized fluorescence images showed distinct intensity patterns, which were fit to an orientation distribution of the eosin absorption and emission dipoles relative to the membrane normal axis. This orientation was found to be unchanged by trypsin treatment, which cleaves band 3 between the integral membrane domain and the cytoskeleton-attached domain. this result suggests that phosphorescence anisotropy changes observed after trypsin treatment are due to a rotational constraint change rather than a reorientation of eosin. By coupling time-resolved prompt fluorescence anisotropy with confocal microscopy, we calculated the expected amplitudes of the e-Dt and e-4Dt terms from the uniaxial rotational diffusion model and found that the e-4Dt term should dominate the anisotropy decay. Delayed fluorescence and phosphorescence anisotropy decays of control and trypsin-treated band 3 in ghosts, analyzed as multiple uniaxially rotating populations using the amplitudes predicted by confocal microscopy, were consistent with three motional species with uniaxial correlation times ranging from 7 microseconds to 1.4 ms.
A new spin-labeled maleimide derivative of the anion exchange inhibitor 4-4'-diaminodihydrostilbene-2,2'-disulfonate (H2DADS) has been synthesized as a site-specific molecular probe of the stilbenedisulfonate binding site of the anion exchange protein 1 (AE-1; band 3) in human erythrocytes. This probe, SL-H2DADS-maleimide, specifically and covalently labels the Mr 17 kDa integral membrane segment of band 3 with a 1:1 stoichiometry and inhibits essentially 100% of the band 3-mediated anion exchange. The linear V1 EPR spectrum of spin-labeled intact erythrocytes is indicative of a spatially isolated probe which is effectively immobilized on the submicrosecond time scale. Several independent lines of experimental evidence have shown that the nitroxide moiety of SL-H2DADS-maleimide-labeled band 3 is sequestered in a highly protected protein environment. These results are consistent with the observation that the spin-label is rigidly linked to band 3 in a fixed orientation with respect to the membrane normal axis [Hustedt, E. J., & Beth, A. H., (1996) Biochemistry 35, 6944-6954]. The nitroxide moieties of the SL-H2DADS-maleimide-labeled band 3 dimer are greater than 20 A from each other and are also more than 20 A from a monomer-monomer contact surface defined by cross-linking with the spin-labeled reagent BSSDA [bis(sulfo-N-succinimidyl)doxyl-2-spiro-5'-azelate]. These properties make SL-H2DADS-maleimide an extremely useful molecular probe for characterization of the physical properties of the band 3 stilbenedisulfonate binding site, determination of distances between the stilbenedisulfonate site and other segments of band 3, and investigation of the global rotational dynamics of human erythrocyte band 3.
A role for ascorbate-derived electrons in protection against oxidative damage to membrane lipids was investigated in resealed human erythrocyte ghosts. Incubation of resealed ghosts with the membrane-impermeant oxidant ferricyanide doubled the ghost membrane concentration of F2-isoprostanes, a sensitive marker of lipid peroxidation. Incorporation of ascorbate into ghosts during resealing largely prevented F2-isoprostane formation due to extravesicular ferricyanide. This protection was associated with a rapid transmembrane oxidation of intravesicular ascorbate by extravesicular ferricyanide. Transmembrane electron transfer, which was measured indirectly as ascorbate-dependent ferricyanide reduction, correlated with the content of alpha-tocopherol in the ghost membrane in several respects. First, ascorbate resealed within ghosts protected against ferricyanide-induced oxidation of endogenous alpha-tocopherol in the ghost membrane. Second, when exogenous alpha-tocopherol was incorporated into the ghost membrane during the resealing step, subsequent ferricyanide reduction was enhanced. Last, incubation of intact erythrocytes with soybean phospholipid liposomes, followed by resealed ghost preparation, caused a proportional decrease in both the membrane content of alpha-tocopherol and in ferricyanide reduction. Incorporation of exogenous alpha-tocopherol during resealing of ghosts prepared from liposome-treated cells completely restored the ferricyanide-reducing capacity of the ghosts. These results suggest that the transmembrane transfer of ascorbate-derived electrons in erythrocyte ghosts is dependent in part on alpha-tocopherol and that such transfer may help to protect the erythrocyte membrane against oxidant stress originating outside the cell.
Several fluorescent sulfhydryl reagents were tested as probes for assessing substrate-induced conformational change of the human erythrocyte glucose carrier. Of these, 2-(4'-maleimidylanilino)-naphthalene-6-sulfonic acid (Mal-ANS) inhibited 3-O-methylglucose transport most strongly and specifically labeled a previously characterized exofacial sulfhydryl on the glucose carrier. Analysis of equilibrium cytochalasin B binding in cells treated with Mal-ANS suggested that the inhibition of transport was due to a partial channel-blocking effect, and not to competition for the substrate binding site or to hindrance of carrier conformational change. In purified glucose carrier prepared from cells labeled on the exofacial sulfhydryl with Mal-ANS, a blue shift in the peak of fluorescence indicated that the fluorophore was in a relatively hydrophobic environment. Mal-ANS fluorescence in such preparations was quenched by ligands with affinity for the outward-facing carrier (ethylidene glucose, D-glucose, and maltose), but not by inhibitors considered to bind to the inward-facing carrier conformation (cytochalasin B or phenyl beta-D-glucoside). The effect of ethylidene glucose appeared to be related to an interaction with the glucose carrier, since the concentration dependence of ethylidene glucose-induced quench correlated well with the ability of the sugar analog to inhibit cytochalasin B binding to intact cells. The hydrophilic quenchers iodide and acrylamide decreased carrier-bound Mal-ANS fluorescence, resulting in downward-curving Stern-Volmer plots. Whereas ethylidene glucose enhanced iodide-induced quench, it had no effect on that of acrylamide.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
The conformation of the human erythrocyte glucose transport protein has been shown to determine its susceptibility to enzymatic cleavage on a large cytoplasmic loop. We took the converse approach and investigated the effects of tryptic digestion on the conformational structure of this protein. Exhaustive tryptic digestion of protein-depleted erythrocyte ghosts decreased the affinity of the residual transporter for cytochalasin B by 3-fold but did not affect the total number of binding sites. Tryptic digestion also increased the affinity of the residual transporter for D-glucose and inward-binding sugar phenyl beta-D-glucopyranoside but decreased that for the outward-binding 4,6-O-ethylidene glucose. These results suggest that tryptic cleavage stabilized the remaining transporter in an inward-facing conformation, but one with decreased affinity for cytochalasin B. The steady-state fluorescence emission scan of the purified reconstituted glucose transport protein was unaffected by tryptic digestion. Addition of increasing concentrations of potassium iodide resulted in linear Stern-Volmer plots, which were also unaffected by prior tryptic digestion. The tryptophan oxidant N-bromosuccinimide was investigated to provide a more sensitive measure of tryptophan environment. This agent irreversibly inhibited 3-O-methylglucose transport in intact erythrocytes and cytochalasin B binding in protein-depleted ghosts, with a half-maximal effect observed for each activity at about 0.3-0.4 nM. Treatment of purified glucose transport protein with N-bromosuccinimide resulted in a time-dependent quench of tryptophan fluorescence, which was resolved into two components by nonlinear regression using global analysis. Tryptic digestion retarded the rate of oxidation of the more slowly reacting class of tryptophans. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)