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Selective activation of epidermal growth factor receptor in renal proximal tubule induces tubulointerstitial fibrosis.
Overstreet JM, Wang Y, Wang X, Niu A, Gewin LS, Yao B, Harris RC, Zhang MZ
(2017) FASEB J 31: 4407-4421
MeSH Terms: Animals, Cell Cycle Checkpoints, Epithelial Cells, ErbB Receptors, Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases, Fibrosis, Humans, Kidney, Kidney Tubules, Proximal, Mice, Transgenic, Myofibroblasts, Signal Transduction
Show Abstract · Added September 27, 2017
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy and renal fibrosis; however, the causative role of sustained EGFR activation is unclear. Here, we generated a novel kidney fibrotic mouse model of persistent EGFR activation by selectively expressing the EGFR ligand, human heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (hHB-EGF), in renal proximal tubule epithelium. hHB-EGF expression increased tyrosine kinase phosphorylation of EGFR and the subsequent activation of downstream signaling pathways, including ERK and AKT, as well as the profibrotic TGF-β1/SMAD pathway. Epithelial-specific activation of EGFR was sufficient to promote spontaneous and progressive renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis, as characterized by increased collagen deposition, immune cell infiltration, and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA)-positive myofibroblasts. Tubule-specific EGFR activation promoted epithelial dedifferentiation and cell-cycle arrest. Furthermore, EGFR activation in epithelial cells promoted the proliferation of α-SMA myofibroblasts in a paracrine manner. Genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of EGFR tyrosine kinase activity or downstream MEK activity attenuated the fibrotic phenotype. This study provides definitive evidence that sustained activation of EGFR in proximal epithelia is sufficient to cause spontaneous, progressive renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis, evident by epithelial dedifferentiation, increased myofibroblasts, immune cell infiltration, and increased matrix deposition.-Overstreet, J. M., Wang, Y., Wang, X., Niu, A., Gewin, L. S., Yao, B., Harris, R. C., Zhang, M.-Z. Selective activation of epidermal growth factor receptor in renal proximal tubule induces tubulointerstitial fibrosis.
© FASEB.
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12 MeSH Terms
Managing Resistance to EFGR- and ALK-Targeted Therapies.
Lovly CM, Iyengar P, Gainor JF
(2017) Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book 37: 607-618
MeSH Terms: Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase, Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung, Drug Resistance, Neoplasm, ErbB Receptors, Humans, Molecular Targeted Therapy, Mutation, Protein Kinase Inhibitors, Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
Show Abstract · Added September 10, 2020
Targeted therapies have transformed the management of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and placed an increased emphasis on stratifying patients on the basis of genetic alterations in oncogenic drivers. To date, the best characterized molecular targets in NSCLC are the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK). Despite steady advances in targeted therapies within these molecular subsets, however, acquired resistance to therapy is near universal. Recent preclinical models and translational efforts have provided critical insights into the molecular mechanisms of resistance to EGFR and ALK inhibitors. In this review, we present a framework for understanding resistance to targeted therapies. We also provide overviews of the molecular mechanisms of resistance and strategies to overcome resistance among EGFR-mutant and ALK-rearranged lung cancers. To date, these strategies have centered on the development of novel next-generation inhibitors, rationale combinations, and use of local ablative therapies, such as radiotherapy.
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Molecular dissection of effector mechanisms of RAS-mediated resistance to anti-EGFR antibody therapy.
Kasper S, Reis H, Ziegler S, Nothdurft S, Mueller A, Goetz M, Wiesweg M, Phasue J, Ting S, Wieczorek S, Even A, Worm K, Pogorzelski M, Breitenbuecher S, Meiler J, Paul A, Trarbach T, Schmid KW, Breitenbuecher F, Schuler M
(2017) Oncotarget 8: 45898-45917
MeSH Terms: Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological, Apoptosis, Biomarkers, Cell Line, Tumor, Colorectal Neoplasms, Drug Resistance, Neoplasm, ErbB Receptors, Exons, Genes, ras, Humans, Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases, Mutation, Odds Ratio, Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases, Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt, Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2, Signal Transduction
Show Abstract · Added March 17, 2018
Monoclonal antibodies targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), cetuximab and panitumumab, are a mainstay of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) treatment. However, a significant number of patients suffer from primary or acquired resistance. RAS mutations are negative predictors of clinical efficacy of anti-EGFR antibodies in patients with mCRC. Oncogenic RAS activates the MAPK and PI3K/AKT pathways, which are considered the main effectors of resistance. However, the relative impact of these pathways in RAS-mutant CRC is less defined. A better mechanistic understanding of RAS-mediated resistance may guide development of rational intervention strategies. To this end we developed cancer models for functional dissection of resistance to anti-EGFR therapy in vitro and in vivo. To selectively activate MAPK- or AKT-signaling we expressed conditionally activatable RAF-1 and AKT in cancer cells. We found that either pathway independently protected sensitive cancer models against anti-EGFR antibody treatment in vitro and in vivo. RAF-1- and AKT-mediated resistance was associated with increased expression of anti-apoptotic BCL-2 proteins. Biomarkers of MAPK and PI3K/AKT pathway activation correlated with inferior outcome in a cohort of mCRC patients receiving cetuximab-based therapy. Dual pharmacologic inhibition of PI3K and MEK successfully sensitized primary resistant CRC models to anti-EGFR therapy. In conclusion, combined targeting of MAPK and PI3K/AKT signaling, but not single pathways, may be required to enhance the efficacy of anti-EGFR antibody therapy in patients with RAS-mutated CRC as well as in RAS wild type tumors with clinical resistance.
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17 MeSH Terms
A Chimeric Egfr Protein Reporter Mouse Reveals Egfr Localization and Trafficking In Vivo.
Yang YP, Ma H, Starchenko A, Huh WJ, Li W, Hickman FE, Zhang Q, Franklin JL, Mortlock DP, Fuhrmann S, Carter BD, Ihrie RA, Coffey RJ
(2017) Cell Rep 19: 1257-1267
MeSH Terms: Adult Stem Cells, Amphiregulin, Animals, Embryo, Mammalian, ErbB Receptors, Genes, Reporter, Green Fluorescent Proteins, Hepatocytes, Intestinal Mucosa, Mice, Microscopy, Fluorescence, Protein Transport, Recombinant Proteins, Transgenes
Show Abstract · Added June 21, 2017
EGF receptor (EGFR) is a critical signaling node throughout life. However, it has not been possible to directly visualize endogenous Egfr in mice. Using CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing, we appended a fluorescent reporter to the C terminus of the Egfr. Homozygous reporter mice appear normal and EGFR signaling is intact in vitro and in vivo. We detect distinct patterns of Egfr expression in progenitor and differentiated compartments in embryonic and adult mice. Systemic delivery of EGF or amphiregulin results in markedly different patterns of Egfr internalization and trafficking in hepatocytes. In the normal intestine, Egfr localizes to the crypt rather than villus compartment, expression is higher in adjacent epithelium than in intestinal tumors, and following colonic injury expression appears in distinct cell populations in the stroma. This reporter, under control of its endogenous regulatory elements, enables in vivo monitoring of the dynamics of Egfr localization and trafficking in normal and disease states.
Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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14 MeSH Terms
Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition downregulates -induced epithelial inflammatory responses, DNA damage and gastric carcinogenesis.
Sierra JC, Asim M, Verriere TG, Piazuelo MB, Suarez G, Romero-Gallo J, Delgado AG, Wroblewski LE, Barry DP, Peek RM, Gobert AP, Wilson KT
(2018) Gut 67: 1247-1260
MeSH Terms: Animals, Antineoplastic Agents, Cell Culture Techniques, Epithelial Cells, ErbB Receptors, Gastritis, Gefitinib, Gerbillinae, Helicobacter Infections, Helicobacter pylori, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Quinazolines, Stomach Neoplasms
Show Abstract · Added June 29, 2017
OBJECTIVE - Gastric cancer is the third leading cause of cancer death worldwide and infection by is the strongest risk factor. We have reported increased epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) phosphorylation in the -induced human carcinogenesis cascade, and association with DNA damage. Our goal was to determine the role of EGFR activation in gastric carcinogenesis.
DESIGN - We evaluated gefitinib, a specific EGFR inhibitor, in chemoprevention of -induced gastric inflammation and cancer development. Mice with genetically targeted epithelial cell-specific deletion of ( mice) were also used.
RESULTS - In C57BL/6 mice, gefitinib decreased and expression by gastric epithelial cells, myeloperoxidase-positive inflammatory cells in the mucosa and epithelial DNA damage induced by infection. Similar reductions in chemokines, inflammatory cells and DNA damage occurred in infected versus control mice. In -infected transgenic insulin-gastrin (INS-GAS) mice and gerbils, gefitinib treatment markedly reduced dysplasia and carcinoma. Gefitinib blocked ri-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase 1/3 (MAPK1/3) and activator protein 1 in gastric epithelial cells, resulting in inhibition of chemokine synthesis. MAPK1/3 phosphorylation and JUN activation was reduced in gastric tissues from infected wild-type and INS-GAS mice treated with gefitinib and in primary epithelial cells from versus mice. Epithelial EGFR activation persisted in humans and mice after eradication, and gefitinib reduced gastric carcinoma in INS-GAS mice treated with antibiotics.
CONCLUSIONS - These findings suggest that epithelial EGFR inhibition represents a potential strategy to prevent development of gastric carcinoma in -infected individuals.
Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
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14 MeSH Terms
SFK/FAK Signaling Attenuates Osimertinib Efficacy in Both Drug-Sensitive and Drug-Resistant Models of EGFR-Mutant Lung Cancer.
Ichihara E, Westover D, Meador CB, Yan Y, Bauer JA, Lu P, Ye F, Kulick A, de Stanchina E, McEwen R, Ladanyi M, Cross D, Pao W, Lovly CM
(2017) Cancer Res 77: 2990-3000
MeSH Terms: Acrylamides, Aniline Compounds, Animals, Antineoplastic Agents, Drug Resistance, Neoplasm, ErbB Receptors, Female, Focal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases, Humans, Lung Neoplasms, Mice, Mice, Nude, Mutation, Piperazines, Signal Transduction, Transfection, src-Family Kinases
Show Abstract · Added September 10, 2020
Mutant-selective EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), such as osimertinib, are active agents for the treatment of -mutant lung cancer. Specifically, these agents can overcome the effects of the T790M mutation, which mediates resistance to first- and second-generation EGFR TKI, and recent clinical trials have documented their efficacy in patients with -mutant lung cancer. Despite promising results, therapeutic efficacy is limited by the development of acquired resistance. Here we report that Src family kinases (SFK) and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) sustain AKT and MAPK pathway signaling under continuous EGFR inhibition in osimertinib-sensitive cells. Inhibiting either the MAPK pathway or the AKT pathway enhanced the effects of osimertinib. Combined SFK/FAK inhibition exhibited the most potent effects on growth inhibition, induction of apoptosis, and delay of acquired resistance. SFK family member was amplified in osimertinib-resistant -mutant tumor cells, the effects of which were overcome by combined treatment with osimertinib and SFK inhibitors. In conclusion, our data suggest that the concomitant inhibition of both SFK/FAK and EGFR may be a promising therapeutic strategy for -mutant lung cancer. .
©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.
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EGFR-mediated macrophage activation promotes colitis-associated tumorigenesis.
Hardbower DM, Coburn LA, Asim M, Singh K, Sierra JC, Barry DP, Gobert AP, Piazuelo MB, Washington MK, Wilson KT
(2017) Oncogene 36: 3807-3819
MeSH Terms: Animals, Carcinogenesis, Colitis, Colon, Colonic Neoplasms, Dextran Sulfate, ErbB Receptors, Humans, Immunity, Innate, Macrophage Activation, Macrophages, Male, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Mice, Transgenic, Neovascularization, Pathologic, Precancerous Conditions, Signal Transduction
Show Abstract · Added March 12, 2017
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling is a known mediator of colorectal carcinogenesis. Studies have focused on the role of EGFR signaling in epithelial cells, although the exact nature of the role of EGFR in colorectal carcinogenesis remains a topic of debate. Here, we present evidence that EGFR signaling in myeloid cells, specifically macrophages, is critical for colon tumorigenesis in the azoxymethane-dextran sodium sulfate (AOM-DSS) model of colitis-associated carcinogenesis (CAC). In a human tissue microarray, colonic macrophages demonstrated robust EGFR activation in the pre-cancerous stages of colitis and dysplasia. Utilizing the AOM-DSS model, mice with a myeloid-specific deletion of Egfr had significantly decreased tumor multiplicity and burden, protection from high-grade dysplasia and significantly reduced colitis. Intriguingly, mice with gastrointestinal epithelial cell-specific Egfr deletion demonstrated no differences in tumorigenesis in the AOM-DSS model. The alterations in tumorigenesis in myeloid-specific Egfr knockout mice were accompanied by decreased macrophage, neutrophil and T-cell infiltration. Pro-tumorigenic M2 macrophage activation was diminished in myeloid-specific Egfr-deficient mice, as marked by decreased Arg1 and Il10 mRNA expression and decreased interleukin (IL)-4, IL10 and IL-13 protein levels. Surprisingly, diminished M1 macrophage activation was also detectable, as marked by significantly reduced Nos2 and Il1b mRNA levels and decreased interferon (IFN)-γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-1β protein levels. The alterations in M1 and M2 macrophage activation were confirmed in bone marrow-derived macrophages from mice with the myeloid-specific Egfr knockout. The combined effect of restrained M1 and M2 macrophage activation resulted in decreased production of pro-angiogenic factors, CXCL1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and reduced CD31 blood vessels, which likely contributed to protection from tumorigenesis. These data reveal that EGFR signaling in macrophages, but not in colonic epithelial cells, has a significant role in CAC. EGFR signaling in macrophages may prove to be an effective biomarker of CAC or target for chemoprevention in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
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17 MeSH Terms
Association between GWAS-identified lung adenocarcinoma susceptibility loci and EGFR mutations in never-smoking Asian women, and comparison with findings from Western populations.
Seow WJ, Matsuo K, Hsiung CA, Shiraishi K, Song M, Kim HN, Wong MP, Hong YC, Hosgood HD, Wang Z, Chang IS, Wang JC, Chatterjee N, Tucker M, Wei H, Mitsudomi T, Zheng W, Kim JH, Zhou B, Caporaso NE, Albanes D, Shin MH, Chung LP, An SJ, Wang P, Zheng H, Yatabe Y, Zhang XC, Kim YT, Shu XO, Kim YC, Bassig BA, Chang J, Ho JC, Ji BT, Kubo M, Daigo Y, Ito H, Momozawa Y, Ashikawa K, Kamatani Y, Honda T, Sakamoto H, Kunitoh H, Tsuta K, Watanabe SI, Nokihara H, Miyagi Y, Nakayama H, Matsumoto S, Tsuboi M, Goto K, Yin Z, Shi J, Takahashi A, Goto A, Minamiya Y, Shimizu K, Tanaka K, Wu T, Wei F, Wong JY, Matsuda F, Su J, Kim YH, Oh IJ, Song F, Lee VH, Su WC, Chen YM, Chang GC, Chen KY, Huang MS, Yang PC, Lin HC, Xiang YB, Seow A, Park JY, Kweon SS, Chen CJ, Li H, Gao YT, Wu C, Qian B, Lu D, Liu J, Jeon HS, Hsiao CF, Sung JS, Tsai YH, Jung YJ, Guo H, Hu Z, Wang WC, Chung CC, Lawrence C, Burdett L, Yeager M, Jacobs KB, Hutchinson A, Berndt SI, He X, Wu W, Wang J, Li Y, Choi JE, Park KH, Sung SW, Liu L, Kang CH, Hu L, Chen CH, Yang TY, Xu J, Guan P, Tan W, Wang CL, Sihoe AD, Chen Y, Choi YY, Hung JY, Kim JS, Yoon HI, Cai Q, Lin CC, Park IK, Xu P, Dong J, Kim C, He Q, Perng RP, Chen CY, Vermeulen R, Wu J, Lim WY, Chen KC, Chan JK, Chu M, Li YJ, Li J, Chen H, Yu CJ, Jin L, Lo YL, Chen YH, Fraumeni JF, Liu J, Yamaji T, Yang Y, Hicks B, Wyatt K, Li SA, Dai J, Ma H, Jin G, Song B, Wang Z, Cheng S, Li X, Ren Y, Cui P, Iwasaki M, Shimazu T, Tsugane S, Zhu J, Jiang G, Fei K, Wu G, Chien LH, Chen HL, Su YC, Tsai FY, Chen YS, Yu J, Stevens VL, Laird-Offringa IA, Marconett CN, Lin D, Chen K, Wu YL, Landi MT, Shen H, Rothman N, Kohno T, Chanock SJ, Lan Q
(2017) Hum Mol Genet 26: 454-465
MeSH Terms: Adenocarcinoma, Adenocarcinoma of Lung, Antigens, Nuclear, Asian Continental Ancestry Group, Butyrophilins, Case-Control Studies, ErbB Receptors, European Continental Ancestry Group, Female, Genetic Predisposition to Disease, Genome-Wide Association Study, Genotype, Germ-Line Mutation, HLA-DP beta-Chains, Humans, Lung Neoplasms, Male, Membrane Proteins, Nerve Tissue Proteins, Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide, Sex Characteristics, Smoking, Transcription Factors
Show Abstract · Added April 3, 2018
To evaluate associations by EGFR mutation status for lung adenocarcinoma risk among never-smoking Asian women, we conducted a meta-analysis of 11 loci previously identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Genotyping in an additional 10,780 never-smoking cases and 10,938 never-smoking controls from Asia confirmed associations with eight known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Two new signals were observed at genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10-8), namely, rs7216064 (17q24.3, BPTF), for overall lung adenocarcinoma risk, and rs3817963 (6p21.3, BTNL2) which is specific to cases with EGFR mutations. In further sub-analyses by EGFR status, rs9387478 (ROS1/DCBLD1) and rs2179920 (HLA-DPB1) showed stronger estimated associations in EGFR-positive compared to EGFR-negative cases. Comparison of the overall associations with published results in Western populations revealed that the majority of these findings were distinct, underscoring the importance of distinct contributing factors for smoking and non-smoking lung cancer. Our results extend the catalogue of regions associated with lung adenocarcinoma in non-smoking Asian women and highlight the importance of how the germline could inform risk for specific tumour mutation patterns, which could have important translational implications.
Published by Oxford University Press 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.
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23 MeSH Terms
Mutational landscape of EGFR-, MYC-, and Kras-driven genetically engineered mouse models of lung adenocarcinoma.
McFadden DG, Politi K, Bhutkar A, Chen FK, Song X, Pirun M, Santiago PM, Kim-Kiselak C, Platt JT, Lee E, Hodges E, Rosebrock AP, Bronson RT, Socci ND, Hannon GJ, Jacks T, Varmus H
(2016) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 113: E6409-E6417
MeSH Terms: Adenocarcinoma, Adenocarcinoma of Lung, Animals, Carcinogens, Cell Transformation, Neoplastic, DNA Copy Number Variations, DNA Mutational Analysis, Disease Models, Animal, ErbB Receptors, Gene Dosage, Genes, myc, Genes, ras, Genome-Wide Association Study, Lung Neoplasms, Mice, Mice, Transgenic, Mutation, Point Mutation, ROC Curve, Whole Exome Sequencing
Show Abstract · Added April 26, 2017
Genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) of cancer are increasingly being used to assess putative driver mutations identified by large-scale sequencing of human cancer genomes. To accurately interpret experiments that introduce additional mutations, an understanding of the somatic genetic profile and evolution of GEMM tumors is necessary. Here, we performed whole-exome sequencing of tumors from three GEMMs of lung adenocarcinoma driven by mutant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), mutant Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (Kras), or overexpression of MYC proto-oncogene. Tumors from EGFR- and Kras-driven models exhibited, respectively, 0.02 and 0.07 nonsynonymous mutations per megabase, a dramatically lower average mutational frequency than observed in human lung adenocarcinomas. Tumors from models driven by strong cancer drivers (mutant EGFR and Kras) harbored few mutations in known cancer genes, whereas tumors driven by MYC, a weaker initiating oncogene in the murine lung, acquired recurrent clonal oncogenic Kras mutations. In addition, although EGFR- and Kras-driven models both exhibited recurrent whole-chromosome DNA copy number alterations, the specific chromosomes altered by gain or loss were different in each model. These data demonstrate that GEMM tumors exhibit relatively simple somatic genotypes compared with human cancers of a similar type, making these autochthonous model systems useful for additive engineering approaches to assess the potential of novel mutations on tumorigenesis, cancer progression, and drug sensitivity.
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20 MeSH Terms
Activation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Macrophages Mediates Feedback Inhibition of M2 Polarization and Gastrointestinal Tumor Cell Growth.
Zhao G, Liu L, Peek RM, Hao X, Polk DB, Li H, Yan F
(2016) J Biol Chem 291: 20462-72
MeSH Terms: Animals, Cell Line, Tumor, ErbB Receptors, Gastrointestinal Neoplasms, Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic, Heparin-binding EGF-like Growth Factor, Humans, Interleukin-4, Macrophages, Peritoneal, Mice, Mice, Knockout, RAW 264.7 Cells, Transcriptional Activation
Show Abstract · Added April 6, 2017
EGF receptor (EGFR) in tumor cells serves as a tumor promoter. However, information about EGFR activation in macrophages in regulating M2 polarization and tumor development is limited. This study aimed to investigate the effects of EGFR activation in macrophages on M2 polarization and development of gastrointestinal tumors. IL-4, a cytokine to elicit M2 polarization, stimulated release of an EGFR ligand, HB-EGF, and transactivation and down-regulation of EGFR in Raw 264.7 cells and peritoneal macrophages from WT mice. Knockdown of HB-EGF in macrophages inhibited EGFR transactivation by IL-4. IL-4-stimulated STAT6 activation, Arg1 and YM1 gene expression, and HB-EGF production were further enhanced by inhibition of EGFR activity in Raw 264.7 cells using an EGFR kinase inhibitor and in peritoneal macrophages from Egfr(wa5) mice with kinase inactive EGFR and by knockdown of EGFR in peritoneal macrophages from Egfr(fl/fl) LysM-Cre mice with myeloid cell-specific EGFR deletion. Chitin induced a higher level of M2 polarization in peritoneal macrophages in Egfr(fl/fl) LysM-Cre mice than that in Egfr(fl/fl) mice. Accordingly, IL-4-conditioned medium stimulated growth and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in gastric epithelial and colonic tumor cells, which were suppressed by that from Raw 264.7 cells with HB-EGF knockdown but promoted by that from Egfr(wa5) and Egfr(fl/fl) LysM-Cre peritoneal macrophages. Clinical assessment revealed that the number of macrophages with EGFR expression became less, indicating decreased inhibitory effects on M2 polarization, in late stage of human gastric cancers. Thus, IL-4-stimulated HB-EGF-dependent transactivation of EGFR in macrophages may mediate inhibitory feedback for M2 polarization and HB-EGF production, thereby inhibiting gastrointestinal tumor growth.
© 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
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13 MeSH Terms