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Dopamine is essential to the proper functioning of basal ganglia (BG) because loss of dopaminergic input profoundly alters the activity of these nuclei. Experimental evidence suggests that multiple aspects of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the BG are altered with the loss of dopaminergic input. Using whole-cell patch-clamp recording in rat brain slices, we examined whether activity of dopamine receptors is necessary to maintain signaling properties of group I metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes, mGluR1 and 5, in the rat globus pallidus (GP), one of the nuclei in the BG circuit. Dopaminergic depletion due to systemic treatment with reserpine caused a change in the signaling properties of group I mGluRs, where mGluR1 lost the ability to depolarize GP neurons, while mGluR5 gained such ability. Bath-application of dopamine or D1- and D2-like dopamine receptor agonists to slices from reserpinized rats partly reversed these effects and caused mGluR1 to gain back its ability to depolarize GP neurons. On the other hand, stimulation of either D1-like or D2-like dopamine receptors was sufficient to abolish the activating properties of mGluR5 acquired following reserpine treatment. Interestingly, inhibition of protein kinase A activity alone was sufficient to largely reverse plasticity in function of group I mGluRs that was induced by reserpine treatment. Our data reveal that specific roles of group I mGluRs in the GP depend on the activity of D1-like and D2-like dopamine receptors, further corroborating the importance of dopamine in maintaining proper glutamatergic neurotransmission in the BG.
Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes can modulate dopamine (DA) neurotransmission and thereby modify the behavioral effects of drugs acting on DA systems. Insulin replacement, and in some conditions repeated treatment with amphetamine, can partially restore sensitivity of STZ-treated rats to dopaminergic drugs. The present study sought to characterize the role of insulin and amphetamine in modulating the behavioral effects of drugs that selectively act on D2/D3 receptors. In control rats, quinpirole and quinelorane produced yawning, whereas raclopride and gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) produced catalepsy. Raclopride antagonized quinpirole- and quinelorane-induced yawning with similar potency. STZ treatment increased blood glucose concentration, decreased body weight, and markedly reduced sensitivity to quinpirole-induced yawning, quinelorane-induced yawning as well as to raclopride-induced catalepsy, while enhancing sensitivity to GHB-induced catalepsy. Repeated treatment with amphetamine partially restored sensitivity of STZ-treated rats to amphetamine-stimulated locomotion and also produced conditioned place preference, without affecting blood glucose and body weight changes. However, amphetamine treatment did not restore sensitivity to the behavioral effects of quinpirole, raclopride, or GHB, suggesting differential regulation of dopamine transporter activity and sensitivity of D2 receptors in hypoinsulinemic rats. Insulin replacement in STZ-treated rats normalized blood glucose and body weight changes and fully restored sensitivity to quinpirole-induced yawning, as well as to raclopride-induced catalepsy, while reducing sensitivity to GHB-induced catalepsy. Overall, these data indicate that changes in insulin status markedly affect sensitivity to the behavioral effects of dopaminergic drugs. The results underscore the importance of insulin in modulating DA neurotransmission; these effects might be especially relevant to understanding the co-morbidity of eating disorders and substance abuse.
BACKGROUND - Acute tubular necrosis (ATN) occurs commonly in critically ill patients and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Fenoldopam is a dopamine receptor alpha1-specific agonist that increases renal blood flow in patients with kidney failure. We hypothesized that administration of low-dose fenoldopam during early ATN would decrease the need for dialysis therapy and/or incidence of death at 21 days.
METHODS - We conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial in 155 patients with early ATN. Patients were considered eligible for enrollment if serum creatinine level increased to 50% greater than admission levels within 24 hours and mean arterial pressure was greater than 70 mm Hg. Patients were randomly assigned to the administration of placebo or fenoldopam for 72 hours.
RESULTS - Overall, 22 of 80 patients (27.5%) in the fenoldopam group reached the primary end point compared with 29 of 75 patients (38.7%) in the placebo group (P = 0.235). This 11% absolute reduction in the primary end point was not statistically significant (P = 0.23). Similarly, there was no difference in the incidence of dialysis therapy between patients randomly assigned to fenoldopam (13 of 80 patients; 16.25%) versus the placebo group (19 of 75 patients; 25.3%; P = 0.163). Moreover, there was no statistically significant difference in 21-day mortality rates between the 2 groups (fenoldopam, 13.8% versus placebo, 25.3%; P = 0.068). In secondary analyses, fenoldopam tended to reduce the primary end point in patients without diabetes and postoperative cardiothoracic surgery patients with early ATN (fenoldopam patients without diabetes, 14 of 54 patients [25.9%] versus placebo patients without diabetes, 23 of 52 patients [44.2%]; P = 0.048) and postoperative cardiothoracic patients (6 of 34 patients [17.6%] versus 14 of 36 patients [38.8%]; P = 0.049). Conversely, fenoldopam did not improve the primary end point in patients with diabetes or those with acute renal failure from other causes. A larger multicenter trial using separate randomizations for patients with and without diabetes will be needed to determine the efficacy of fenoldopam mesylate in specific subpopulations with ATN.
CONCLUSION - Fenoldopam does not reduce the incidence of death or dialysis therapy in intensive care unit patients with early ATN.
Orexin/hypocretin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus and adjacent perifornical area (LH/PFA) innervate midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons that project to corticolimbic sites and subserve psychostimulant-induced locomotor activity. However, it is not known whether dopamine neurons in turn regulate the activity of orexin cells. We examined the ability of dopamine agonists to activate orexin neurons in the rat, as reflected by induction of Fos. The mixed dopamine agonist apomorphine increased Fos expression in orexin cells, with a greater effect on orexin neurons located medial to the fornix. Both the selective D1-like agonist, A-77636, and the D2-like agonist, quinpirole, also induced Fos in orexin cells, suggesting that stimulation of either receptor subtype is sufficient to activate orexin neurons. Consistent with this finding, combined SCH 23390 (D1 antagonist)-haloperidol (D2 antagonist) pretreatment blocked apomorphine-induced activation of medial as well as lateral orexin neurons; in contrast, pretreatment with either the D1-like or D2-like antagonists alone did not attenuate apomorphine-induced activation of medial orexin cells. In situ hybridization histochemistry revealed that LH/PFA cells rarely express mRNAs encoding dopamine receptors, suggesting that orexin cells are transsynaptically activated by apomorphine. We therefore lesioned the nucleus accumbens, a site known to regulate orexin cells, but this treatment did not alter apomorphine-elicited activation of medial or lateral orexin neurons. Interestingly, apomorphine failed to activate orexin cells in isoflurane-anaesthetized animals. These data suggest that apomorphine-induced arousal but not accumbens-mediated hyperactivity is required for dopamine to transsynaptically activate orexin neurons.
Dopamine D1 receptor interactions with arrestins have been characterized using heterologously expressed D1 receptor and arrestins. The purpose of this study was to investigate the interaction of the endogenous D1 receptor with endogenous arrestin2 and 3 in neostriatal neurons. Endogenous arrestin2 and 3 in striatal homogenates bound to the C-terminus of the D1 receptor in a glutathione-S-transferase (GST) pulldown assay, with arrestin3 binding more strongly. The D1 C-terminus and, to a lesser extent, the third cytoplasmic loop also bound purified arrestin2 and 3. In neostriatal neurons, 2, 5, and 20 min agonist treatment increased the colocalization of the D1 receptor and arrestin3 immunoreactivity without altering the colocalization of the D1 receptor and arrestin2. Further, agonist treatment for 5 and 20 min caused translocation of arrestin3, but not arrestin2, to the membrane. The binding of arrestin3, but not arrestin2, to the D1 receptor was increased as assessed by coimmunoprecipitation after agonist treatment for 5 and 20 min. Agonist treatment of neurons induced D1 receptor internalization (35-45%) that was maximal within 2-5 min, a time-course similar to that of the increase in colocalization of the D1 receptor with arrestin3. These data indicate that the D1 receptor preferentially interacts with arrestin3 in neostriatal neurons.
Converging data suggest a dysfunction of prefrontal cortical GABAergic interneurons in schizophrenia. Morphological and physiological studies indicate that cortical GABA cells are modulated by a variety of afferents. The peptide transmitter neurotensin may be one such modulator of interneurons. In the rat prefrontal cortex (PFC), neurotensin is exclusively localized to dopamine axons and has been suggested to be decreased in schizophrenia. However, the effects of neurotensin on cortical interneurons are poorly understood. We used in vivo microdialysis in freely moving rats to assess whether neurotensin regulates PFC GABAergic interneurons. Intra-PFC administration of neurotensin concentration-dependently increased extracellular GABA levels; this effect was impulse dependent, being blocked by treatment with tetrodotoxin. The ability of neurotensin to increase GABA levels in the PFC was also blocked by pretreatment with 2-[1-(7-chloro-4-quinolinyl)-5-(2,6-dimethoxyphenyl)pyrazole-3-yl)carbonylamino]tricyclo(22.214.171.124 [EC] .3.7)decan-2-carboxylic acid (SR48692), a high-affinity neurotensin receptor 1 (NTR1) antagonist. This finding is consistent with our observation that NTR1 was localized to GABAergic interneurons in the PFC, particularly parvalbumin-containing interneurons. Because neurotensin is exclusively localized to dopamine axons in the PFC, we also determined whether neurotensin plays a role in the ability of dopamine agonists to increase extracellular GABA levels. We found that D2 agonist-elicited increases in PFC GABA levels were blocked by pretreatment with SR48692, consistent with data indicating that D2 autoreceptor agonists increase neurotensin release from dopamine-neurotensin axons in the PFC. These findings suggest that neurotensin plays an important role in regulating prefrontal cortical interneurons and that it may be useful to consider neurotensin agonists as an adjunct in the treatment of schizophrenia.
In mammalian kidney, dopamine produced in the proximal tubule (PT) acts as an autocrine/paracrine natriuretic hormone that inhibits salt and fluid reabsorption in the PT. In high-salt-treated animals, PT dopamine activity increases and inhibits reabsorption, leading to increased salt and fluid delivery to the macula densa (MD) and subsequent natriuresis and diuresis. Regulated cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the MD represents another intrinsic system mediating renal salt and water homeostasis. Renal cortical COX-2 is inversely related to salt intake, and decreased extracellular NaCl stimulates COX-2 expression in cultured MD/cortical thick ascending limb cells. The current study investigated interactions between renal dopamine and cortical COX-2 systems. In rats fed a control diet, the dopamine precursor l-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) or the DA1 receptor agonist SKF-81297 suppressed cortical COX-2 expression. High salt suppressed cortical COX-2 expression, which was attenuated by inhibition of dopamine production with benserazide or the DA1 receptor antagonist, SCH-23390. In contrast, l-DOPA or the dopamine-metabolizing enzyme inhibitor entacapone suppressed low-salt-induced cortical COX-2 expression. Inhibition of PT reabsorption with the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide suppressed cortical COX-2 expression. In contrast, treatment with distally acting diuretics led to elevation of cortical COX-2. These results indicate that dopamine modulates renal cortical COX-2 expression by modifying PT reabsorption.
The cAMP signaling cascade plays a critical role in regulating synaptic efficacy and cellular excitability in hippocampus. Adenylyl cyclase (AC) activation and subsequent generation of cAMP occurs through a number of mechanisms in area CA1 of hippocampus, including Galpha(s)-mediated stimulation upon G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) activation and Ca2+ -mediated stimulation upon NMDA receptor activation. In addition, activation of Gi/o-coupled receptor subtypes can regulate cAMP levels through modulation of AC activity. Multiple Gi/o-coupled receptor subtypes are expressed in area CA1, where they are commonly thought to dampen synaptic transmission and excitability, in part through inhibition of AC activity and cAMP generation. However, a large family of ACs exists, and in recombinant systems, the cAMP signals generated by these AC isoforms are both inhibited and enhanced by Gi/o-coupled receptors in a manner dependent on the AC isoform and stimulus. Thus, we have assessed the effects of activating several different Gi/o-coupled receptors on the generation of cAMP induced either by NMDA receptor activation or by beta-adrenergic receptor activation within area CA1 of mouse hippocampus. We find that in situ the effect of Gi/o-coupled receptor activation does indeed depend upon the means by which ACs are activated. In addition, the effects are also Gi/o-coupled receptor-specific, suggesting additional complexity. These data indicate that Gi/o-coupled receptors may play roles in "routing" second messenger signaling in area CA1.
Chronic morphine leads to compensatory up-regulation of cAMP signaling pathways in numerous brain regions. One potential consequence of up-regulated cAMP signaling is increased phosphorylation of cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), a transcription factor that may regulate neuroadaptations related to morphine dependence. Altered gene expression within the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a ventral component of the striatum that receives substantial dopaminergic input, may play a role in some of the motivational aspects of opiate withdrawal. To determine if morphine withdrawal leads to increased CREB phosphorylation in striatal tissues, we examined the effects of naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal on CREB phosphorylation in primary cultures of rat striatal neurons. Precipitated morphine withdrawal was associated with enhanced dopamine-, SKF 82958 (D1 receptor agonist)-, and forskolin-induced CREB phosphorylation. During precipitated withdrawal, D1 receptor-mediated CREB phosphorylation was dependent on cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). Precipitated withdrawal also led to up-regulation of c-fos mRNA in response to SKF 82958. CREB protein levels were not altered by acute or chronic morphine. These results suggest that D1 receptor-mediated signal transduction is enhanced during morphine withdrawal. Furthermore, they are consistent with in vivo evidence suggesting that increased CREB activation in portions of the striatum (e.g. the NAc) is related to dysphoric states associated with drug withdrawal.
Recent findings have shown that dendritically released dopamine (DA) plays an important modulatory role in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr). It is therefore possible that the loss of DA observed in Parkinson's disease (PD) could hold important consequences for nigral function. Previously, we have shown that activation of presynaptically localized group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) inhibits excitatory transmission at the subthalamic nucleus (STN)-SNr synapse and that activation of presynaptically localized group III mGluRs decreases excitatory and inhibitory transmission in the SNr. To test the hypothesis that nigral DA can modulate mGluR function in the SNr, we performed whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from gamma-aminobutyric acidergic SNr neurons in slices obtained from rats that were acutely reserpinized. In slices obtained from reserpinized animals, the effect of group II mGluR activation by the selective agonist (+)-2-aminobicyclo[3.1.0]-hexane-2,6-dicarboxylate monohydrate (LY354740) (100 nM), but not group III mGluR activation [L-(+)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid, L-AP4, 500 microM], at STN-SNr synapses is significantly decreased. This effect could be mimicked in control slices by prior bath application of haloperidol (20 microM) and R-(+)-7-chloro-8-hydroxy-3-methyl-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine (SCH23390) (20 microM) but not sulpiride (50 microM). Furthermore, application of dopamine (100 microM) and (+/-)-6-chloro-7,8-dyhydroxy-3allyl-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetra-hydro-1H-benzazepine (SKF82958) (1 microM) but not quinpirole (10 microM) could rescue the group II mGluR effect in reserpinized slices. The effect of group III mGluR activation (L-AP4, 100 microM) on inhibitory synaptic transmission was also significantly reduced in slices from reserpine-treated animals. This effect was mimicked by haloperidol (20 microM), SCH23390 (20 microM), and sulpiride (50 microM) in control slices. Thus, in a Parkinsonian state, the loss of nigral DA may add to the overall pathophysiological changes in basal ganglia output.