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In human liver microsomes the oxidations of benzene, chlorzoxazone, aniline, dimethylformamide, and 4-nitrophenol were significantly correlated with each other and with the level of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2E1 estimated by immunoblotting. Moreover, benzene oxidation to water-soluble metabolites was suppressed by 0.1 mM diethyldithiocarbamate, supposedly a specific inhibitor of CYP2E1 at this level. None of these metabolic rates correlated with immunochemically determined levels of CYP1A2, 2C9, and 3A4 nor oxidation of 7-ethoxyresorufin, tolbutamide, and nifedipine. Benzene oxidation to water-soluble metabolites was characterized by typical Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The different benzene K(m) values seen in individual human microsomal samples were not correlated with the level or activity of CYP1A2, 2C9, 2E1, and 3A4 but could be due to CYP2E1 microheterogeneity. The lowest K(m) for benzene oxidation could be related to C/D and/or c1/c2 polymorphism of CYP2E1 gene. Covalent binding of benzene reactive metabolites to microsomal proteins was also correlated with the CYP2E1 metabolic rates and immunochemical levels. At high concentrations of benzene covalent binding was inversely related to benzene concentrations (as well as to formation of water-soluble metabolites) in agreement with the view that secondary metabolites, mainly benzoquinone, are responsible for the covalent binding.
Previous in vivo studies have supported protein cross-linking by CS2 as both a mechanism of neurotoxicity and a potential biomarker of effect through the detection of a structure responsible for CS2-mediated protein cross-linking, namely, lysine-lysine thiourea. In this study, the structure of a previously uncharacterized stable protein cross-link produced by CS2 in vivo involving lysine and the N-terminal valine of globin has been determined. Rats were exposed to 50, 500, and 800 ppm CS2 for 2, 4, 8, and 13 weeks by inhalation or to 3 mmol/kg N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate administered orally on alternating days for 8 and 16 weeks. Acid hydrolysis, using 6 N HCl, of globin from control and exposed rats caused cyclization of the valine-lysine thiourea cross-link in treated rats to isopropyl norleucyl thiohydantoin. The hydrolysate was separated by size-exclusion chromatography, and the fraction that coeluted with the synthetic deuterated isopropyl norleucyl thiohydantoin internal standard was derivatized with 3-[4'-(ethylene-N,N, N-trimethylamino)phenyl]-2-isothiocyanate and analyzed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry using selected reaction monitoring detection. Derivatized isopropyl norleucyl thiohydantoin obtained from CS2-treated rats displayed a cumulative dose response and was detectable at the lowest exposure (50 ppm, 2 weeks) at levels of approximately 50 pmol/g of globin. N, N-Diethyldithiocarbamate-treated rats, but not controls, also contained a CS2-generated valine-lysine thiourea cross-link on globin. In vitro incubation of human hemoglobin with either CS2 or N, N-diethyldithiocarbamate also resulted in the formation of CS2-generated valine-lysine thiourea. These observations demonstrate the potential of thiourea cross-linking involving a free amino terminus and epsilon-amino groups of lysine to accumulate in a long-lived globular protein and suggest that cross-linking of globin may provide a specific dosimeter of internal exposure for CS2 capable of assessing exposure over subchronic periods.
CS2, a known neurotoxicant, is used in the viscose production of rayon and is also a decomposition product of N, N-diethyldithiocarbamate, a metabolic product of the drug disulfiram used in alcohol aversion therapy. Previous in vitro investigations have demonstrated the ability of CS2 to cross-link proteins through thiourea, dithiocarbamate ester, and disulfide structures. Although in vivo studies have supported protein cross-linking as both a mechanism of neurotoxicity and a potential biomarker of effect, the chemical structures responsible for CS2-mediated protein cross-linking in vivo have not been elucidated. In the present study, the structure of one type of stable protein cross-link produced on erythrocyte spectrin by CS2 in vivo is determined. Rats were exposed to 50, 500, and 800 ppm CS2 for 13 weeks by inhalation or to 3 mmol/kg N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate administered orally on alternating days for 8 weeks. Erythrocyte spectrin preparations from control and exposed rats were hydrolyzed using 6 N HCl and separated by size-exclusion chromatography. The fraction that coeluted with the synthetic deuterated lysine-lysine thiourea internal standard was derivatized with 3-[4'-[(N,N,N-trimethylamino)ethylene]phenyl] 2-isothiocyanate and analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry using selected reaction monitoring detection. Lysine-lysine thiourea was detected in spectrin preparations obtained from CS2-treated rats at 500 and 800 ppm and N, N-diethyldithiocarbamate-treated rats, but not from controls. These results establish that CS2-mediated protein cross-linking occurs in vivo through the generation of Lys-Lys thiourea and that diethyldithiocarbamate can, through in vivo release of CS2, produce the same cross-linking structure. This observation supports the utility of cross-linking of peripheral proteins as a specific dosimeter of internal exposure for CS2 and provides a mechanistic explanation to account for the high-molecular-weight neurofilament protein species isolated from rats exposed to CS2 or N, N-diethyldithiocarbamate.
The neurotoxicity of N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate (DEDC) is established, although the mechanisms responsible for its neurotoxicity are not. Previous experiments have demonstrated that DEDC has the ability to produce CS2-mediated protein cross-linking in vitro and that DEDC releases CS2 in vivo. The release of CS2 with subsequent cross-linking of proteins presents a potential mechanism through which DEDC may exert its neurotoxicity. In the present study DEDC (3 mmol/kg po) was given to rats every other day for 8 and 16 weeks. At the end of each treatment period, erythrocyte spectrin, hemoglobin, and spinal cord neurofilament preparations were isolated and examined for cross-linking using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, reverse phase HPLC, and Western blot techniques, respectively. Additional rats were perfused and sections of the lumbar and cervical spinal cord and the muscular branch of the posterior tibial nerve were removed and examined by light and electron microscopy. Relative to controls, significant levels of cross-linking were observed in all the proteins examined at both 8 and 16 weeks of treatment. Morphological changes were not detected at 8 weeks, but at 16 weeks degenerated and swollen axons filled with disorganized masses of neurofilaments were present in the distal regions of the long tracts of the lumbar and cervical spinal cord and also in the muscular branch of the posterior tibial nerve. The ability of DEDC to covalently cross-link proteins in vivo and to produce axonal structural changes identical to those produced by CS2 is consistent with release of CS2 from DEDC being a contributing mechanism in DEDC-induced neurotoxicity.
Copyright 1998 Academic Press.
Nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide are both constitutive products of the endothelium. Because NO is readily inactivated by superoxide, the bioactivity of endothelium-derived NO (EDNO) is dependent on local activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD). We examined the effects of chronic inhibition of copper-zinc SOD (CuZnSOD) using a rat model of dietary copper restriction. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a Cu-deficient diet and received either no Cu replacement (Cu-deficient) or Cu in the drinking water (Cu-sufficient). Compared with Cu-sufficient animals, Cu-deficiency was associated with a 68% reduction in CuZnSOD activity and a 58% increase in vascular superoxide as estimated by lucigenin chemiluminescence (both P < .05). Compared with Cu-sufficient animals, arterial relaxation in the thoracic aorta from Cu-deficient animals was 10-fold less sensitive to acetylcholine, a receptor-dependent EDNO agonist, but only 1.5-fold less sensitive to A23187, a receptor-independent EDNO agonist, and only 1.25-fold less sensitive to authentic NO (all P < .05). In contrast, acute inhibition of CuZnSOD with 10 mM diethyldithiocarbamate produced a more uniform reduction in sensitivity to acetylcholine (8-fold), A23187 (10-fold), and NO (4-fold; all P < .001). Cu-deficient animals demonstrated a 2.5-fold increase in plasma-esterified F2-isoprostanes, a stable marker of lipid peroxidation, that correlated inversely with arterial relaxation to acetylcholine (R = -.83; P < .0009) but not A23187 or authentic NO. From these findings, we conclude that chronic inhibition of CuZnSOD inhibits EDNO-mediated arterial relaxation through two mechanisms, one being direct inactivation of NO and the other being lipid peroxidation that preferentially interrupts receptor-mediated stimulation of EDNO.
Dithiocarbamates and CS2 have been associated with neurobehavioural changes suggestive of central dopaminergic dysfunction. Diethyldithiocarbamate (DEDC), dimethyldithiocarbamate (DMDC), and methyldithiocarbamate (MDC) were examined for their ability to inhibit tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity in PC12 cells and transfected CHO fibroblasts that expressed TH (CHO/TH) activity when tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) was added to medium. DEDC or DMDC did not significantly alter viability of PC12 cells or CHO/TH cells at < or = 100 microM for 18 h; the EC50 for each compound was approximately 5 mM in both cell lines. In contrast, the EC50 for MDC was 41 or 74 microM in PC12 or CHO/TH cultures, respectively. There was no change in immunodetectable levels of TH in PC12 or CHO/TH cells following exposure to subcytotoxic concentrations of dithiocarbamates. DEDC and DMDC (5 to 100 microM) produced concentration-dependent reductions in PC12 cell dopamine and dopac levels as well as in dopa levels in CHO/TH cultures. Reduction of PC12 catechols was not due to altered vesicular storage. In vitro PC12 TH activity was 80.2 +/- 3.4% or 82.4 +/- 2.9% of control following exposure to 100 microM DEDC or DMDC, respectively, and was not fully restored by incubation with Fe2+. These results show that DEDC and DMDC, but not MDC, are low potency cytotoxins that decrease TH activity in cultured cells through mechanisms other than inhibition of BH4 biosynthesis or iron chelation.
N,N-Diethyldithiocarbamate and its disulfide are used as pesticides, in industrial processes, and as therapeutic agents, providing numerous opportunities for human exposure. Animal studies and in vitro investigations have demonstrated adverse effects following exposure to dithiocarbamates. The ability of dithiocarbamates to decompose to parent amine and CS2 suggests that these adverse effects may be mediated through release of CS2. The toxicity of CS2 is well established, and covalent cross-linking of proteins has been presented as a potential molecular mechanism of CS2 induced neuropathy. In the present investigation the ability of N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate to effect covalent cross-linking of proteins under physiological conditions is examined. Using 13C NMR, cross-linking was observed to proceed through dithiocarbamate formation on protein amino groups followed by the production of bis(thiocarbamoyl) disulfide, dithiocarbamate ester, and thiourea cross-linking structures. The presence of bis(lysyl) thiourea cross-linking structures was verified by complete protein hydrolysis in conjunction with GC/MS. Generation of inter- and intramolecular cross-linking was established using denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under reducing conditions and revealed that cross-linking proceeded more rapidly for N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate than for equimolar CS2 under similar conditions. Covalent cross-linking of solubilized neurofilament triplet proteins, the putative neurotoxic targets, was examined. Both N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate and CS2 were able to covalently cross-link the low molecular weight component of the neurofilament triplet proteins, but neither produced intermolecular cross-linking of the medium or high molecular weight component. These results establish that N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate promoted protein cross-linking occurs under physiological conditions and proceeds through liberation of CS2.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Changes in striatal dopamine (DA) neurochemistry, tyrosine hydroxylase immunocytochemistry of DA fibers, and behavior following the combined administration of diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) to mice were assessed. The combined treatment of DDC and MPTP produced a dose-dependent decrease in striatal DA levels and a dose-related increase in the striatal DOPAC:DA ratio. Cumulative doses of MPTP equal to or exceeding 53.0 (26.5 mg/kg x 2. i.p.), given in combination with DDC, were effective in reducing striatal DA levels to less than 25% of control levels 2 weeks after treatment. Tyrosine hydroxylase immunocytochemistry revealed large deafferentation of DA terminal regions in striatum, moderate reductions in nucleus accumbens and dendritic regions of substantia nigra, and slight reductions in the number of DA cell bodies in substantia nigra. Mice treated with DDC and MPTP became hyperactive during the light phase of their diurnal cycle: psychopharmacological data suggest that postsynaptic DA receptors were supersensitized following this treatment. These data provide evidence that the combined treatment of DDC and MPTP produces severe and enduring depletion of mesostriatal DA, and also concomitant behavioral changes in mice.
Endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) is rapidly inactivated by radicals. Endothelial cells possess several antioxidant defense mechanisms. It is not clear which intrinsic antioxidant defense systems are important to preserve the release of biologically active EDRF. We impaired antioxidant defense in normal vascular tissue by inhibiting catalase activity with 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (AT), superoxide dismutase with diethyldithiocarbamate (DETC), and by reducing glutathione content via inhibiting glutathione synthesis with L-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO). Pretreatment of rabbit aorta in vitro with DETC markedly reduced endothelium-dependent relaxation in response to acetylcholine and calcium ionophore A23187 and, to a lesser extent, reduced endothelium-independent relaxation in response to nitroprusside. Pretreatment of cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) with DETC did not alter release of nitrogen oxides (measured by chemiluminescence), but, the effluent of pretreated cells showed marked depression in vasodilator activity (measured by bioassay). Pretreatment of rabbit aorta in vitro with AT did not alter endothelium-dependent and -independent relaxations. Pretreatment of BAEC with BSO did not alter the release of nitrogen oxides or the vasodilator activity. These results suggest that endothelial superoxide dismutase activity, but not catalase or glutathione, is necessary for the release of biologically active EDRF. An imbalance of the intrinsic superoxide dismutase and the production of superoxide anions may therefore predispose to impaired endothelium-dependent relaxations and alter vascular reactivity.
The role of human cytochrome P-450 IIE1 (P-450 IIE1) in the oxidation of a number of suspect carcinogens was examined by using a variety of approaches, including (1) selective inhibition of catalytic activity in human liver microsomes by diethyldithiocarbamate, which was found to be a selective mechanism-based inactivator of P-450 IIE1, (2) correlation of rates of different catalytic activities with each other and with chlorzoxazone 6-hydroxylation, an indicator of P-450 IIE1, in human liver microsomes, (3) demonstration of catalytic activity in reconstituted systems containing purified human P-450 IIE1, and (4) immunoinhibition of catalytic activity in human liver microsomes with rabbit anti-human P-450 IIE1. The results collectively indicate that P-450 IIE1 is a major catalyst of the oxidation of benzene, styrene, CCl4, CHCl3, CH2Cl2, CH3Cl, CH3CCl3, 1,2-dichloropropane, ethylene dichloride, ethylene dibromide, vinyl chloride, vinyl bromide, acrylonitrile, vinyl carbamate, ethyl carbamate, and trichloroethylene. Levels of P-450 IIE1 can vary considerably among individual humans--the availability of chlorzoxazone as a noninvasive probe of human P-450 IIE1 and of disulfiram (oxidized diethyldithiocarbamate) as an inhibitor may facilitate discernment of the in vivo significance of human P-450 IIE1 as a factor in the bioactivation and detoxication of these cancer suspects. Further, many investigations with diethyldithiocarbamate, disulfiram, and ethanol in humans and experimental animals may be interpreted in light of mechanisms involving P-450 IIE1.