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Results: 11 to 20 of 58

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How category learning affects object representations: not all morphspaces stretch alike.
Folstein JR, Gauthier I, Palmeri TJ
(2012) J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 38: 807-20
MeSH Terms: Adult, Discrimination (Psychology), Female, Humans, Learning, Male, Pattern Recognition, Visual, Photic Stimulation, Pilot Projects, Psychomotor Performance, Reaction Time, Visual Perception
Show Abstract · Added May 27, 2014
How does learning to categorize objects affect how people visually perceive them? Behavioral, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging studies have tested the degree to which category learning influences object representations, with conflicting results. Some studies have found that objects become more visually discriminable along dimensions relevant to previously learned categories, while others have found no such effect. One critical factor we explore here lies in the structure of the morphspaces used in different studies. Studies finding no increase in discriminability often use blended morphspaces, with morphparents lying at corners of the space. By contrast, studies finding increases in discriminability use factorial morphspaces, defined by separate morphlines forming axes of the space. Using the same 4 morphparents, we created both factorial and blended morphspaces matched in pairwise discriminability. Category learning caused a selective increase in discriminability along the relevant dimension of the factorial space, but not in the blended space, and led to the creation of functional dimensions in the factorial space, but not in the blended space. These findings demonstrate that not all morphspaces stretch alike: Only some morphspaces support enhanced discriminability to relevant object dimensions following category learning. Our results have important implications for interpreting neuroimaging studies reporting little or no effect of category learning on object representations in the visual system: Those studies may have been limited by their use of blended morphspaces.
2012 APA, all rights reserved
0 Communities
2 Members
0 Resources
12 MeSH Terms
Stereopsis and binocular rivalry are based on perceived rather than physical orientations.
Chopin A, Mamassian P, Blake R
(2012) Vision Res 63: 63-8
MeSH Terms: Analysis of Variance, Depth Perception, Discrimination (Psychology), Dominance, Ocular, Female, Humans, Male, Optical Illusions, Photic Stimulation, Vision, Binocular
Show Abstract · Added January 20, 2015
Binocular rivalry is an intriguing phenomenon: when different images are displayed to the two eyes, perception alternates between these two images. What determines whether two monocular images engage in fusion or in rivalry: the physical difference between these images or the difference between the percepts resulting from the images? We investigated that question by measuring the interocular difference of grid orientation needed to produce a transition from fusion to rivalry and by changing those transitions by means of a superimposed tilt illusion. Fusion was attested by a correct stereoscopic slant perception of the grid. The superimposed tilt illusion was achieved in displaying small segments on the grids. We found that the illusion can change the fusion-rivalry transitions indicating that rivalry and fusion are based on the perceived orientations rather than the displayed ones. In a second experiment, we confirmed that the absence of binocular rivalry resulted in fusion and stereoscopic slant perception. We conclude that the superimposed tilt illusion arises at a level of visual processing prior to those stages mediating binocular rivalry and stereoscopic depth extraction.
Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
0 Communities
1 Members
0 Resources
10 MeSH Terms
Comparing biological motion perception in two distinct human societies.
Pica P, Jackson S, Blake R, Troje NF
(2011) PLoS One 6: e28391
MeSH Terms: Adolescent, Adult, Child, Discrimination (Psychology), Ethnic Groups, Female, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Motion Perception, Societies, Young Adult
Show Abstract · Added January 20, 2015
Cross cultural studies have played a pivotal role in elucidating the extent to which behavioral and mental characteristics depend on specific environmental influences. Surprisingly, little field research has been carried out on a fundamentally important perceptual ability, namely the perception of biological motion. In this report, we present details of studies carried out with the help of volunteers from the Mundurucu indigene, a group of people native to Amazonian territories in Brazil. We employed standard biological motion perception tasks inspired by over 30 years of laboratory research, in which observers attempt to decipher the walking direction of point-light (PL) humans and animals. Do our effortless skills at perceiving biological activity from PL animations, as revealed in laboratory settings, generalize to people who have never before seen representational depictions of human and animal activity? The results of our studies provide a clear answer to this important, previously unanswered question. Mundurucu observers readily perceived the coherent, global shape depicted in PL walkers, and experienced the classic inversion effects that are typically found when such stimuli are turned upside down. In addition, their performance was in accord with important recent findings in the literature, in the abundant ease with which they extracted direction information from local motion invariants alone. We conclude that the effortless, veridical perception of PL biological motion is a spontaneous and universal perceptual ability, occurring both inside and outside traditional laboratory environments.
0 Communities
1 Members
0 Resources
12 MeSH Terms
Does acquisition of Greeble expertise in prosopagnosia rule out a domain-general deficit?
Bukach CM, Gauthier I, Tarr MJ, Kadlec H, Barth S, Ryan E, Turpin J, Bub DN
(2012) Neuropsychologia 50: 289-304
MeSH Terms: Discrimination (Psychology), Female, Form Perception, Humans, Learning, Male, Middle Aged, Neuropsychological Tests, Prosopagnosia, Recognition (Psychology), Time Factors
Show Abstract · Added February 23, 2016
According to the expertise account of face specialization, a deficit that affects general expertise mechanisms should similarly impair the expert individuation of both faces and other visually homogeneous object classes. To test this possibility, we attempted to train a prosopagnosic patient, LR, to become a Greeble expert using the standard Greeble expertise-training paradigm (Gauthier & Tarr, 2002). Previous research demonstrated that LR's prosopagnosia was related to an inability to simultaneously use multiple features in a speeded face recognition task (Bukach, Bub, Gauthier, & Tarr, 2006). We hypothesized that LR's inability to use multiple face features would manifest in his acquisition of Greeble expertise, even though his basic object recognition is unimpaired according to standard neuropsychological testing. Although LR was eventually able to reach expertise criterion, he took many more training sessions than controls, suggesting use of an abnormal strategy. To further explore LR's Greeble processing strategies, we assessed his ability to use multiple Greeble features both before and after Greeble training. LR's performance in two versions of this task demonstrates that, even after training, he relies heavily on a single feature to identify Greebles. This correspondence between LR's face recognition and post-training Greeble recognition supports the idea that impaired face recognition is simply the most visible symptom of a more general object recognition impairment in acquired prosopagnosia.
Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
0 Communities
1 Members
0 Resources
11 MeSH Terms
Training experts: individuation without naming is worth it.
Bukach CM, Vickery TJ, Kinka D, Gauthier I
(2012) J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 38: 14-7
MeSH Terms: Adult, Concept Formation, Discrimination (Psychology), Female, Form Perception, Games, Experimental, Humans, Learning, Male, Neuropsychological Tests, Young Adult
Show Abstract · Added February 23, 2016
There is growing evidence that individuation experience is necessary for development of expert object discrimination that transfers to new exemplars. Individuation training in human studies has primarily used label association tasks where labels are learned at both the individual and more abstract (basic) level, and expertise criterion requires that individual-level judgments become as fast as basic-level judgments. However, there are training situations when the use of labels is not practical (e.g., with animals or some clinical populations). Moreover, labeling itself can facilitate object discrimination, thus it is unclear what role labels play in the acquisition of expertise in such training paradigms. Here, participants completed an online game that did not require labels in which they interacted with novel objects (Greebles) or control objects (Yufos). Games either required individuation or categorization. We then assessed the impact of this exposure on an abridged Greeble training paradigm. As expected, participants who played Yufo games or Greeble categorization games showed a significant basic-level advantage for Greebles in the abridged training paradigm, typical of novices. However, participants who played the Greeble identity game showed a reduced basic-level advantage, suggesting that individuation without labels may be sufficient to acquire perceptual expertise.
0 Communities
1 Members
0 Resources
11 MeSH Terms
What limits working memory capacity? Evidence for modality-specific sources to the simultaneous storage of visual and auditory arrays.
Fougnie D, Marois R
(2011) J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 37: 1329-41
MeSH Terms: Acoustic Stimulation, Adolescent, Adult, Analysis of Variance, Attention, Auditory Perception, Color Perception, Discrimination (Psychology), Female, Humans, Male, Memory, Short-Term, Neuropsychological Tests, Photic Stimulation, Psychophysics, Reaction Time, Young Adult
Show Abstract · Added February 15, 2016
There is considerable debate on whether working memory (WM) storage is mediated by distinct subsystems for auditory and visual stimuli (Baddeley, 1986) or whether it is constrained by a single, central capacity-limited system (Cowan, 2006). Recent studies have addressed this issue by measuring the dual-task cost during the concurrent storage of auditory and visual arrays (e.g., Cocchini, Logie, Della Sala, MacPherson, & Baddeley, 2002; Fougnie & Marois, 2006; Saults & Cowan, 2007). However, studies have yielded widely different dual-task costs, which have been taken to support both modality-specific and central capacity-limit accounts of WM storage. Here, we demonstrate that the controversies regarding such costs mostly stem from how these costs are measured. Measures that compare combined dual-task capacity with the higher single-task capacity support a single, central WM store when there is a large disparity between the single-task capacities (Experiment 1) but not when the single-task capacities are well equated (Experiment 2). In contrast, measures of the dual-task cost that normalize for differences in single-task capacity reveal evidence for modality-specific stores, regardless of single-task performance. Moreover, these normalized measures indicate that dual-task cost is much smaller if the tasks do not involve maintaining bound feature representations in WM (Experiment 3). Taken together, these experiments not only resolve a discrepancy in the field and clarify how to assess the dual-task cost but also indicate that WM capacity can be constrained both by modality-specific and modality-independent sources of information processing.
0 Communities
1 Members
0 Resources
17 MeSH Terms
Making something out of nothing: neutral content modulates attention in generalized anxiety disorder.
Olatunji BO, Ciesielski BG, Armstrong T, Zhao M, Zald DH
(2011) Depress Anxiety 28: 427-34
MeSH Terms: Adult, Anxiety Disorders, Attention, Discrimination (Psychology), Emotions, Fear, Female, Field Dependence-Independence, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Orientation, Pattern Recognition, Visual, Personality Assessment, Reaction Time, Reference Values
Show Abstract · Added May 27, 2014
BACKGROUND - Although an attentional bias for threat has been implicated in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), evidence supporting such a bias has been inconsistent. This study examines whether exposure to different emotional content modulates attention disengagement and impairs the perception of subsequently presented nonemotional targets in GAD.
METHODS - Patients with GAD (n = 30) and controls (n = 30) searched for a target embedded within a series of rapidly presented images. Critically, an erotic, fear, disgust, or neutral distracter image appeared 200 msec or 800 msec before the target.
RESULTS - Impaired target detection was observed among GAD patients relative to controls following only fear and neutral distractors. However, this effect did not significantly vary as a function of distractor stimulus duration before the target. Furthermore, group differences in target detection after fear distractors were no longer significant when controlling target detection after neutral distractors. Subsequent analysis also revealed that the impaired target detection among those with GAD relative to controls following neutral (but not fear) distractors was mediated by deficits in attentional control.
CONCLUSIONS - The implications of these findings for further delineating the function of attentional biases in GAD are discussed.
© 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
0 Communities
1 Members
0 Resources
16 MeSH Terms
Race-specific perceptual discrimination improvement following short individuation training with faces.
McGugin RW, Tanaka JW, Lebrecht S, Tarr MJ, Gauthier I
(2011) Cogn Sci 35: 330-47
MeSH Terms: Adult, Continental Population Groups, Discrimination (Psychology), Face, Female, Humans, Male, Practice (Psychology), Psychomotor Performance, Reaction Time, Recognition (Psychology), Visual Perception
Show Abstract · Added February 23, 2016
This study explores the effect of individuation training on the acquisition of race-specific expertise. First, we investigated whether practice individuating other-race faces yields improvement in perceptual discrimination for novel faces of that race. Second, we asked whether there was similar improvement for novel faces of a different race for which participants received equal practice, but in an orthogonal task that did not require individuation. Caucasian participants were trained to individuate faces of one race (African American or Hispanic) and to make difficult eye-luminance judgments on faces of the other race. By equating these tasks we are able to rule out raw experience, visual attention, or performance/success-induced positivity as the critical factors that produce race-specific improvements. These results indicate that individuation practice is one mechanism through which cognitive, perceptual, and/or social processes promote growth of the own-race face recognition advantage.
Copyright © 2010 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
0 Communities
1 Members
0 Resources
12 MeSH Terms
Indecision on decisional separability.
Mack ML, Richler JJ, Gauthier I, Palmeri TJ
(2011) Psychon Bull Rev 18: 1-9
MeSH Terms: Decision Making, Depth Perception, Discrimination (Psychology), Humans, Multivariate Analysis, Orientation, Pattern Recognition, Visual, Signal Detection, Psychological, Size Perception, Uncertainty
Show Abstract · Added May 27, 2014
The theoretical framework of General Recognition Theory (GRT; Ashby & Townsend, Psychological Review, 93, 154-179, 1986) coupled with the empirical analysis tools of Multidimensional Signal Detection Analysis (MSDA; Kadlec & Townsend, Multidimensional models of perception and recognition, pp. 181-228, 1992) have become one important method for assessing dimensional interactions in perceptual decision-making. In this article, we critically examine MSDA and characterize cases where it is unable to discriminate two kinds of dimensional interactions: perceptual separability and decisional separability. We performed simulations with known instances of violations of perceptual or decisional separability, applied MSDA to the data generated by these simulations, and evaluated MSDA on its ability to accurately characterize the perceptual versus decisional source of these simulated dimensional interactions. Critical cases of violations of perceptual separability are often mischaracterized by MSDA as violations of decisional separability.
0 Communities
2 Members
0 Resources
10 MeSH Terms
Irrelevant objects of expertise compete with faces during visual search.
McGugin RW, McKeeff TJ, Tong F, Gauthier I
(2011) Atten Percept Psychophys 73: 309-17
MeSH Terms: Attention, Awareness, Discrimination (Psychology), Face, Female, Humans, Male, Orientation, Pattern Recognition, Visual, Practice (Psychology), Reaction Time, Recognition (Psychology), Young Adult
Show Abstract · Added February 23, 2016
Prior work suggests that nonface objects of expertise can interfere with the perception of faces when the two categories are alternately presented, suggesting competition for shared perceptual resources. Here, we ask whether task-irrelevant distractors from a category of expertise compete when faces are presented in a standard visual search task. Participants searched for a target (face or sofa) in an array containing both relevant and irrelevant distractors. The number of distractors from the target category (face or sofa) remained constant, whereas the number of distractors from the irrelevant category (cars) varied. Search slopes, calculated as a function of the number of irrelevant cars, were correlated with car expertise. The effect was not due to car distractors grabbing attention, because they did not compete with sofa targets. Objects of expertise interfere with face perception even when they are task irrelevant, visually distinct, and separated in space from faces.
0 Communities
1 Members
0 Resources
13 MeSH Terms