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Products of inflammation and the activation of nitric oxide synthase have been proposed as a mechanism of oligodendrocyte injury in CNS inflammation. There are currently three well described and known isoforms of NOS. Of these, neuronal NOS (nNOS) was initially discovered in neurons, endothelial NOS (eNOS) in vascular endothelium, while the inducible form of NOS (iNOS) is known to be activated in oligodendrocytes, astrocytes and microglia. We examined the activation of nNOS and the down stream effects of NO production in oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPC) and MO3.13 cell line following culture with LPS. Our studies show that both MO3.13 cells and OPC are susceptible to the cellular injury resulting from LPS mediated activation and NO production. Activation of the TLR4 receptor with LPS led to decrease in cell viability that was associated with loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and impaired enzymatic activity of complex I and complex IV protein of the respiratory chain. 7-NI, a known inhibitor of nNOS was able to rescue of cells from LPS mediated mitochondrial damage. Loss of mitochondrial function was associated with translocation of cytochrome C and apoptosis inducing factor to the cytosol, setting the stage for apoptosis. Phosphorylation of PI3K and Akt was required for optimal activation of NOS. These studies provide a biochemical basis for nNOS mediated oligodendrocyte injury and suggest similar mechanisms may play a role in diseases characterized by oligodendrocyte loss and demyelination.
Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier B.V. and Mitochondria Research Society. All rights reserved. All rights reserved.
NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2)-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) are critical for neutrophil (polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN)) microbicidal function. Nox2 also plays a role in intracellular signaling, but the site of oxidase assembly is unknown. It has been proposed to occur on secondary granules. We previously demonstrated that intracellular NADPH oxidase-derived ROS production is required for endotoxin priming. We hypothesized that endotoxin drives Nox2 assembly on endosomes. Endotoxin induced ROS generation within an endosomal compartment as quantified by flow cytometry (dihydrorhodamine 123 and Oxyburst Green). Inhibition of endocytosis by the dynamin-II inhibitor Dynasore blocked endocytosis of dextran, intracellular generation of ROS, and priming of PMN by endotoxin. Confocal microscopy demonstrated a ROS-containing endosomal compartment that co-labeled with gp91(phox), p40(phox), p67(phox), and Rab5, but not with the secondary granule marker CD66b. To further characterize this compartment, PMNs were fractionated by nitrogen cavitation and differential centrifugation, followed by free flow electrophoresis. Specific subfractions made superoxide in the presence of NADPH by cell-free assay (cytochrome c). Subfraction content of membrane and cytosolic subunits of Nox2 correlated with ROS production. Following priming, there was a shift in the light membrane subfractions where ROS production was highest. CD66b was not mobilized from the secondary granule compartment. These data demonstrate a novel, nonphagosomal intracellular site for Nox2 assembly. This compartment is endocytic in origin and is required for PMN priming by endotoxin.
We provide evidence for the first time, that two natural compounds ginsenoside Rh2 (G-Rh2) and betulinic acid (Bet A) synergistically induce apoptosis in human cervical adenocarcinoma (HeLa), human lung cancer A549, and human hepatoma HepG2 cells. G-Rh2 and Bet A cooperated to induce Bax traslocation to mitochondria and cytochrome c release. Co-treatment of G-Rh2 and Bet A resulted in enhanced cleavage of caspase-8 and Bid. Moreover, specific inhibition of caspase-8 by siRNA technology effectively reduced caspase-9 processing, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage, caspase-3 activation, and apoptosis in co-treated cells, which indicated that the caspase-8 feedback amplification pathway may have been involved in the apoptosis process. A previous study has shown that G-Rh2 induces cancer cell apoptosis via a Bcl-2 and/or Bcl-xL-independent mechanism, and Bet A induces apoptosis mainly through a mitochondrial pathway with tumor specificity. Since the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL are frequently overexpressed in human cancer cells, combined treatment with G-Rh2 and Bet A may be a novel strategy to enhance efficacy of anticancer therapy. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
The exposure of electrospray droplets to acid vapors can significantly affect protein charge state distributions (CSDs) derived from unbuffered solutions. Such experiments have been conducted by leaking acidic vapors into the counter-current nitrogen drying gas of an electrospray interface. On the basis of changes in protein CSDs, protein folding and unfolding phenomena are implicated in these studies. Additionally, noncovalently bound complexes are preserved, and transient intermediates are observed, such as high charge state ions of holomyoglobin. CSDs of proteins containing disulfide bonds shift slightly, if at all, with acid vapor leak-in, but when these disulfide bonds are reduced in solution, charge states higher than the number of basic sites (Lys, Arg, His, and N-terminus) are observed. Since there is no observed change in the CSD of buffered proteins exposed to acidic vapors, this novel multiple charging phenomenon is attributed to a pH effect. Thus, this acid vapor leak-in approach can be used to reverse "wrong-way-round" nanoelectrospray conditions by altering solution pH in the charged droplets relative to the pH in bulk solution. In general, the exposure of electrospray droplets to acidic vapors provides means for altering protein CSDs independent of bulk unbuffered solution pH.
We examined whether betulin, a naturally abundant compound, has anticancer functions in human cancer cells. The results showed that betulin significantly inhibited cell viability in cervix carcinoma HeLa cells, hepatoma HepG2 cells, lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells, and breast cancer MCF-7 cells with IC(50) values ranging from 10 to 15 microg/mL. While betulin exhibited only moderate anticancer activity in other human cancer cells such as hepatoma SK-HEP-1 cells, prostate carcinoma PC-3, and lung carcinoma NCI-H460, with IC(50) values ranging from 20 to 60 microg/mL, it showed minor growth inhibition in human erythroleukemia K562 cells (IC(50) > 100 microg/mL). We further investigated the mechanism of anticancer activity by betulin, using HeLa cells as an experimental model. Betulin (10 microg/mL) induces apoptotic cell death, as evidenced by morphological characteristics such as membrane phosphatidylserine translocation, nuclear condensation/fragmentation, and apoptotic body formation. A kinetics analysis showed that the depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential and the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c occurred as early as 30 min after treatment with betulin. Betulin, unlike its chemical derivative betulinic acid, did not directly trigger mitochondrial cytochrome c release in isolated mitochondria. Importantly, Bax and Bak were rapidly translocated to the mitochondria 30 min after betulin treatment. The sequential activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3/-7 and the cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) were observed behind those mitochondrial events. Furthermore, specific downregulation of either caspase-9, Bax, or Bak by siRNA effectively reduced PARP cleavage and caspase-3 activation. Taken together, the lines of evidence demonstrate that betulin triggers apoptosis of human cancer cells through the intrinsic apoptotic pathway.
BACKGROUND - Ceramides are intracellular lipid mediator implicated in various cellular responses, including oxidative stress and programmed cell death. Studies demonstrated strong links between ceramide and the mitochondria in the regulation of apoptosis. However, the mechanism of apoptosis induced by ceramides is not fully understood. The present study delineates importance of the redox state of cytochrome c for release of cytochrome c and apoptosis of human mammary adenocarcinoma MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells induced by ceramides.
METHODS - The study uses MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, isolated mitochondria, submitochondrial particles, and oxidized and reduced cytochrome c. Methods used include flow cytometry, immunoblotting, spectroscopy, and respirometry.
RESULTS - We show that ceramides induce mitochondrial oxidative stress and release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria of these cells. Our findings show that ceramides react with oxidized cytochrome c whereas reduced cytochrome c does not react with ceramides. We also show that oxidized cytochrome c reacted with ceramides exerts lower reducibility and function to support mitochondrial respiration. Furthermore, our data show that glutathione protects cytochrome c of reacting with ceramides by increasing the reduced state of cytochrome c.
CONCLUSIONS - Ceramides induce oxidative stress and apoptosis in human mammary adenocarcinoma cells by interacting with oxidized cytochrome c leading to the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria. Our findings suggest a novel mechanism for protective role of glutathione.
GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE - Our study suggests that the redox state of cytochrome c is important in oxidative stress and apoptosis induced by ceramides.
Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
In this report, we describe a dual ionization source ion mobility-mass spectrometer (IM-MS) instrument platform for investigations that critically compare ion mobility collision cross section (CCS) measurements obtained from different ionization methods. The instrument incorporates both matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) and nanoelectrospray ionization (nESI) sources. The nESI source incorporates a keyhole geometry ion funnel design which facilitates axial ion focusing, accumulation, and generation of short duration (10-30 mus) ion pulses for use with the IM-MS. The IM-MS instrument operation is independent of which ionization source is used. This allows comparisons of collision cross section measurements to be made between both ion sources with minimal differences in the instrumental arrangement. The performance of the nESI ion source is evaluated by measuring the collision cross section values of the charge states of equine cytochrome c (z = 9-16), and values are in good agreement (<2% deviation) with those previously reported in the literature. Several charge states (z = 8-11) of cytochrome c exhibit multiple cross sectional features in the ion mobility analysis. An analysis of the tryptic peptides of cytochrome c formed by both ESI and MALDI demonstrate that, on average, +1 MALDI ions are similar in CCS to +1 ESI ions and are smaller than +2 ESI ions. The ion mobility resolving power with ESI (30-35) is comparable to that obtained using MALDI (35-40), which suggests that both sources produce sufficiently narrow ion pulses for the measurement to be predominately diffusion rather than gate pulse width limited.
CONTEXT - P450 oxidoreductase (POR) deficiency causes disordered steroidogenesis; severe mutations cause genital ambiguity in both sexes plus the Antley-Bixler skeletal malformation syndrome, whereas mild mutations can cause adult infertility.
OBJECTIVE - We describe four patients with POR deficiency and identify and characterize the activities of their mutations. A 46,XY male with micropenis and two 46,XX female infants with genital ambiguity presented with skeletal malformations, and a 46,XX adolescent presented with primary amenorrhea, elevated 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, and low sex steroids.
METHODS - The coding regions of the POR gene were sequenced, and the identified mutations were recreated in human POR cDNA expression vectors lacking 27 N-terminal residues. POR and human P450c17 were expressed in bacteria. POR activity was measured by four assays: reduction of cytochrome c, oxidation of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, and support of the 17alpha-hydroxylase and 17,20 lyase activities of P450c17.
RESULTS - All four patients were compound heterozygotes for POR mutations, including five novel mutations: L577R, N185K, delE217, and frameshift mutations 1363delC and 697-698insGAAC. N185K and delE217 lacked measurable activity in the assays based on P450c17 but retained partial activity in the assays based on cytochrome c. As assessed by V(max)/Km, L577R supported 46% of 17alpha-hydroxylase activity but only 27% of 17,20 lyase activity. Computational modeling of these novel mutants revealed the structural basis for their reduced or absent activities.
CONCLUSION - These patients illustrate the broad clinical spectrum of POR deficiency, including amenorrhea and infertility as the sole manifestation. POR assays based on P450c17 correlate well with hormonal and clinical phenotypes.
Stroke is the third leading cause of death in the United States, yet no neuroprotective agents for treatment are clinically available. There is a pressing need to understand the signaling molecules that mediate ischemic cell death and identify novel neuroprotective targets. Cyclopentenone isoprostanes (IsoPs), formed after free radical-mediated peroxidation of arachidonic acid, are used as markers of stress, but their bioactivity is poorly understood. We have recently shown that 15-A(2t)-IsoP is a potent neurotoxin in vitro and increases the free radical burden in neurons. In this work, we demonstrate that 15-A(2t)-IsoP is abundantly produced in stroke-infarcted human cortical tissue. Using primary neuronal cultures we found that minimally toxic exposure to 15-A(2t)-IsoP does not alter ATP content, but in combination with oxygen glucose deprivation resulted in a significant hyperpolarization of the mitochondrial membrane and dramatically increased neuronal cell death. In the presence of Ca(2+), 15-A(2t)-IsoP led to a rapid induction of the permeability transition pore and release of cytochrome c. Taken with our previous work, these data support a model in which ischemia causes generation of reactive oxygen species, calcium influx, lipid peroxidation, and 15-A(2t)-IsoP formation. These factors combine to enhance opening of the permeability transition pore leading to cell death subsequent to mitochondrial cytochrome c release. These data are the first documentation of significant 15-A(2t)-IsoP formation after acute ischemic stroke and suggest that the addition of 15-A(2t)-IsoP to in vitro models of ischemia may help to more fully recapitulate stroke injury.
Diallyl disulfide (DADS), an important component of garlic (Allium sativum) derivative, has been demonstrated to exert a potential molecular target against human cancers. We investigated DADS-induced expressions of Apaf1, cystatin B, caspase-3 and FADD (fas-associated protein with death domain) in breast, prostate and lung cancer cells. These showed coincident data when further examined by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. Furthermore, DADS induced a marked amount of Bax translocation, cytochrome c release and activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9. DADS-treated tumor cells triggered mitochondria-mediated signaling pathways that led to a significant increase in apoptosis induction. Further studies with caspase-3 and caspase-9 inhibitors (zDEVD-fmk and zLEHD-fmk, respectively) proved that DADS induces apoptosis through a caspase-3-dependent pathway. DADS is only an agent used in the study. The molecular mechanism presented therefore provides strong additional support to the hypothesis that DADS is a strong inducer of apoptosis through a Bax-triggered mitochondria-mediated and caspase-3-dependent pathway. This study shows clearly that DADS causes caspase-dependent apoptosis in human cancer cells through a Bax-triggered mitochondrial pathway. Therefore, the mitochondrial pathway might be the target for cancer chemoprevention and/or chemotherapy by DADS.
Published by Elsevier Inc.