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Granulomas, focal accumulations of immune cells, form in the lung during Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Chemokines, chemotactic cytokines, are logical candidates for inducing migration of T lymphocytes and monocytes to and within the lung. TNF influences chemokine expression in some models. TNF-deficient mice infected with M. tuberculosis are highly susceptible to disease, and granuloma formation is inhibited. Through in vitro assays, we demonstrate that neutralization of TNF in M. tuberculosis-infected macrophages led to a reduction in many inflammatory chemokines, such as C-C chemokine ligand 5, CXC ligand 9 (CXCL9), and CXCL10. In TNF-deficient mice, immune cells migrated to the lungs early after infection, but did not organize to form granulomas within the lung. Although chemokine expression, as measured in whole lung tissue, was not different, the expression of chemokines in the CD11b(+) subset of cells isolated ex vivo from the lungs of TNF-deficient mice had reduced expression of C-C chemokine ligand 5, CXCL9, and CXCL10 at early time points after TNF neutralization. Local expression of CXCR3-binding chemokines within the lungs, as determined by in situ hybridization, was also affected by TNF. Therefore, TNF affects the expression of chemokines by macrophages in vitro and CD11b(+) cells in vivo, which probably influences the local chemokine gradients and granuloma formation.
The CXC subfamily of chemokines plays an important role in diverse processes, including inflammation, wound healing, growth regulation, angiogenesis, and tumorigenesis. The ELR-CXC chemokine, CXCL1 or MGSA/GROalpha, is traditionally considered to attract neutrophils to sites of inflammation. The non-ELR-CXC chemokine, CXCL10 or IP-10, is chemotactic for monocytes, B cells, and activated T lymphocytes. In addition to its role in leukocyte migration, CXCL10 inhibits the angiogenic functions of the ELR-CXC chemokines as well as bFGF and VEGF. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are required for the interaction of bFGF and vEGF ligands and their receptors. However, the role of HSPGs in regulating the ELR-chemokines signaling and biological functions is poorly understood. We show here that the CXCL1 maximal binding to CXCR2 expressed on HEK293 and CHO-K1 cells is dependent on the presence of cell surface HSPGs. The cell surface HSPGs on cells are required for CXCL1-induced PAK1 activation. Moreover, CXCL10 can inhibit CXCL1-induced PAK1 and ERK activation as well as the CXCL1-induced chemotaxis through decreasing CXCL1 binding to cell surface heparan sulfate. These data indicate that HSPGs are involved in modulating CXCL1-induced PAK1 activation and chemotaxis through regulating CXCL1 binding activity to CXCR2 receptor. CXCL10 inhibits CXCL1-induced PAK1 activation and chemotaxis by interfering with appropriate binding of CXCL1 to CXCR2 receptor.
Mutations in the ras oncogenes have been linked to many different cancers. In contrast to the extensive body of knowledge related to the genetics of ras activation, relatively little is known of the transcriptional events triggered by ras. In previous work we have used differential display to identify Mob-1, a member of alpha-chemokine family, as one of the immediate transcriptional targets following Ras activation. Here, we provide additional experimental evidence to support this finding by the use of an inducible H-ras expression system, the treatment of Ras farnesyl transferase inhibitor and activation of endogenous Ras by serum growth factors. We further demonstrate that IP-10, the human homolog of Mob-1, is overexpressed in the majority of colorectal cancers.