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BACKGROUND - Evidence-based guidelines recommend the use of parenteral prostaglandin (PP) therapy in patients with advanced pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Despite this, many patients with PAH die without PP therapy. We sought to examine the frequency of PP use at a large referral center and characterize patients with PAH who died without receiving PP.
METHODS - We conducted a single-center retrospective cohort analysis of consecutive patients with PAH between 2008 and 2012. Clinical data and cause of death were compared between patients with PAH treated with PP (PAH-PP) and those who were not but were not documented as poor PP candidates (PAH-nonPP).
RESULTS - Of the 101 patients who received a diagnosis of PAH and died, 61 received PP therapy. Of the 40 patients not treated with PP, 10 did not have documented evaluations for PP therapy (PAH-nonPP) whereas 30 were not considered candidates or refused PP therapy. Compared with PAH-PP, PAH-nonPP had a longer 6-min walk distance, had a longer duration between time of diagnosis and date of worse functional class visit, were less likely to be diagnosed as functional class IV, and had significantly lower right atrial pressure. None of the PAH-nonPP died of progressive PAH.
CONCLUSIONS - We found that most patients who die with PAH are evaluated for PP therapy at a large referral center and the small minority of PAH-nonPP tended to have less severe disease and die of non-PAH-related causes. Our data suggest that at large pulmonary hypertension (PH) centers, the vast majority of patients who are appropriate candidates receive PP therapy.
Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Asians have high prevalence of central obesity despite the low prevalence of general obesity. We evaluated associations between the central obesity measure, waist-hip ratio (WHR) with total and cause-specific mortality in middle-aged and elderly Chinese participants. Data arise from two prospective population-based cohort studies: the Shanghai Men's Health Study involves 53,425 men (participation rate = 74.0%), age 40-74 at baseline, and the Shanghai Women's Health Study involves 63,017 women (participation rate = 92.7%), age 40-70 at baseline. Information on lifestyle factors and anthropometric measurements were taken at baseline interview. Vital status and causes of death were obtained via surveys and annual linkages to relevant Shanghai registries through December 31, 2011. After median follow-up time of 7.5 years for the Shanghai Men's Health Study and 13.2 years for the Shanghai Women's Health Study, there were 2,058 and 3,167 deaths, respectively. In models adjusted for BMI and other potential confounders, WHR was associated with all-cause mortality; hazard ratios (HRs) (95% confidence intervals) across the first to fifth quintile increased from 1 (Reference), 1.10 (0.95,1.27), 1.21 (1.04,1.41), 1.11 (0.96,1.30), to 1.42 (1.22,1.65) in men and from 1 (Reference), 1.10 (0.96,1.27), 1.11 (0.97,1.27), 1.20 (1.05,1.37), to 1.48 (1.30,1.69) in women. WHR had a stronger association with cardiovascular disease, with multivariate-adjusted HRs of 1.5 to 1.7 observed for the highest versus lowest quintile of WHR. Dose-response associations were also seen for cancer and other-cause deaths. Stratified analyses suggested a stronger association with mortality among normal weight (BMI <25) than over-weight (BMI ≥25) individuals. Positive associations with mortality were observed in subgroups defined by follow-up duration, comorbidity, age, smoking, and physical activity. Greater central adiposity is associated with increased mortality in Chinese adults, even among individuals with low BMI. Physicians and the public should be aware of central adiposity's independent effects on health.
BACKGROUND - A healthy diet, as defined by the US Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA), has been associated with lower morbidity and mortality from major chronic diseases in studies conducted in predominantly non-Hispanic white individuals. It is unknown whether this association can be extrapolated to African-Americans and low-income populations.
METHODS AND FINDINGS - We examined the associations of adherence to the DGA with total and cause-specific mortality in the Southern Community Cohort Study, a prospective study that recruited 84,735 American adults, aged 40-79 y, from 12 southeastern US states during 2002-2009, mostly through community health centers that serve low-income populations. The present analysis included 50,434 African-Americans, 24,054 white individuals, and 3,084 individuals of other racial/ethnic groups, among whom 42,759 participants had an annual household income less than US$15,000. Usual dietary intakes were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Adherence to the DGA was measured by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI), 2010 and 2005 editions (HEI-2010 and HEI-2005, respectively). During a mean follow-up of 6.2 y, 6,906 deaths were identified, including 2,244 from cardiovascular disease, 1,794 from cancer, and 2,550 from other diseases. A higher HEI-2010 score was associated with lower risks of disease death, with adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of 0.80 (95% CI, 0.73-0.86) for all-disease mortality, 0.81 (95% CI, 0.70-0.94) for cardiovascular disease mortality, 0.81 (95% CI, 0.69-0.95) for cancer mortality, and 0.77 (95% CI, 0.67-0.88) for other disease mortality, when comparing the highest quintile with the lowest (all p-values for trend < 0.05). Similar inverse associations between HEI-2010 score and mortality were observed regardless of sex, race, and income (all p-values for interaction > 0.50). Several component scores in the HEI-2010, including whole grains, dairy, seafood and plant proteins, and ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids, showed significant inverse associations with total mortality. HEI-2005 score was also associated with lower disease mortality, with a HR of 0.86 (95% CI, 0.79-0.93) when comparing extreme quintiles. Given the observational study design, however, residual confounding cannot be completely ruled out. In addition, future studies are needed to evaluate the generalizability of these findings to African-Americans of other socioeconomic status.
CONCLUSIONS - Our results showed, to our knowledge for the first time, that adherence to the DGA was associated with lower total and cause-specific mortality in a low-income population, including a large proportion of African-Americans, living in the southeastern US.
The Shanghai Men's Health Study (SMHS) is a population-based cohort study of 61,480 men aged 40-74 years, launched in 2002 in urban Shanghai to investigate the contribution of lifestyle/environmental factors and genetic susceptibility to cancer and other non-communicable diseases (NCDs). At baseline, trained interviewers collected detailed information on personal and dietary habits, occupational/medical history and physical activity, and took anthropometric measurements (response rate: 74%). Blood, urine and DNA were collected from 75%, 89% and 89% of participants, respectively. The cohort has been followed up through a combination of in-person surveys every 3-4 years and annual record linkage with cancer and vital statistics registries. Response rates for in-person follow-up surveys were over 91% and coverage for mortality nearly 100%. SMHS participants have a high smoking rate (58.6%) and moderate alcohol-drinking rate (29.3%), but low obesity rate (2.6%). They have a low calorie intake from fat (16.2% of total calorie intake) and protein (16.4%), high calorie intake from carbohydrates (67.4%), and high intake of soy food, cruciferous vegetables and fish (156.5, 110.6 and 51.7 g/day, respectively). With its unique exposure pattern and wealth of data and biological samples, the SMHS is well positioned for long-term research into NCD aetiology and prognosis. Information about accessing the SMHS resources can be found at: http://www.mc.vanderbilt.edu/swhs-smhs/.
© The Author 2015; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.
BACKGROUND - Up-to-date evidence on levels and trends for age-sex-specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality is essential for the formation of global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) we estimated yearly deaths for 188 countries between 1990, and 2013. We used the results to assess whether there is epidemiological convergence across countries.
METHODS - We estimated age-sex-specific all-cause mortality using the GBD 2010 methods with some refinements to improve accuracy applied to an updated database of vital registration, survey, and census data. We generally estimated cause of death as in the GBD 2010. Key improvements included the addition of more recent vital registration data for 72 countries, an updated verbal autopsy literature review, two new and detailed data systems for China, and more detail for Mexico, UK, Turkey, and Russia. We improved statistical models for garbage code redistribution. We used six different modelling strategies across the 240 causes; cause of death ensemble modelling (CODEm) was the dominant strategy for causes with sufficient information. Trends for Alzheimer's disease and other dementias were informed by meta-regression of prevalence studies. For pathogen-specific causes of diarrhoea and lower respiratory infections we used a counterfactual approach. We computed two measures of convergence (inequality) across countries: the average relative difference across all pairs of countries (Gini coefficient) and the average absolute difference across countries. To summarise broad findings, we used multiple decrement life-tables to decompose probabilities of death from birth to exact age 15 years, from exact age 15 years to exact age 50 years, and from exact age 50 years to exact age 75 years, and life expectancy at birth into major causes. For all quantities reported, we computed 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs). We constrained cause-specific fractions within each age-sex-country-year group to sum to all-cause mortality based on draws from the uncertainty distributions.
FINDINGS - Global life expectancy for both sexes increased from 65.3 years (UI 65.0-65.6) in 1990, to 71.5 years (UI 71.0-71.9) in 2013, while the number of deaths increased from 47.5 million (UI 46.8-48.2) to 54.9 million (UI 53.6-56.3) over the same interval. Global progress masked variation by age and sex: for children, average absolute differences between countries decreased but relative differences increased. For women aged 25-39 years and older than 75 years and for men aged 20-49 years and 65 years and older, both absolute and relative differences increased. Decomposition of global and regional life expectancy showed the prominent role of reductions in age-standardised death rates for cardiovascular diseases and cancers in high-income regions, and reductions in child deaths from diarrhoea, lower respiratory infections, and neonatal causes in low-income regions. HIV/AIDS reduced life expectancy in southern sub-Saharan Africa. For most communicable causes of death both numbers of deaths and age-standardised death rates fell whereas for most non-communicable causes, demographic shifts have increased numbers of deaths but decreased age-standardised death rates. Global deaths from injury increased by 10.7%, from 4.3 million deaths in 1990 to 4.8 million in 2013; but age-standardised rates declined over the same period by 21%. For some causes of more than 100,000 deaths per year in 2013, age-standardised death rates increased between 1990 and 2013, including HIV/AIDS, pancreatic cancer, atrial fibrillation and flutter, drug use disorders, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and sickle-cell anaemias. Diarrhoeal diseases, lower respiratory infections, neonatal causes, and malaria are still in the top five causes of death in children younger than 5 years. The most important pathogens are rotavirus for diarrhoea and pneumococcus for lower respiratory infections. Country-specific probabilities of death over three phases of life were substantially varied between and within regions.
INTERPRETATION - For most countries, the general pattern of reductions in age-sex specific mortality has been associated with a progressive shift towards a larger share of the remaining deaths caused by non-communicable disease and injuries. Assessing epidemiological convergence across countries depends on whether an absolute or relative measure of inequality is used. Nevertheless, age-standardised death rates for seven substantial causes are increasing, suggesting the potential for reversals in some countries. Important gaps exist in the empirical data for cause of death estimates for some countries; for example, no national data for India are available for the past decade.
FUNDING - Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
OBJECTIVES - To evaluate associations of sleep duration with total mortality and disease-specific mortality in a Chinese population.
DESIGN - Prospective study conducted from 1996 (for women)/2002 (for men) to 2010.
SETTING - A population-based cohort study in Shanghai, China.
INTERVENTION - None.
MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS - A total of 113,138 participants (68,548 women and 44,590 men) of the Shanghai Women's and Men's Health Studies, aged 44-79 y and 40-75 y (women and men, respectively) at sleep duration assessment, were included in the study. In-person interviews were conducted to collect information on sleep duration, socioeconomic status, living conditions, history of chronic disease, participation in regular exercise, and family history of disease. The cohort has been followed using a combination of biannual in-person interviews and record linkages with Shanghai's population-based death registry. Survival status of participants on December 31, 2010 was included as the study outcome. Relative risks were calculated using a Cox proportional model stratified by sex and comorbidity score. There were 4,277 deaths (2,356 among women; 1,921 among men) during a median follow-up time of 7.12 y for women and 6.07 y for men. Among both women and men, sleep duration showed a J-shaped association with total mortality. Hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 1.15 (1.01-1.32), 1.06 (0.94-1.20), 1.17 (1.04-1.32), 1.36 (1.13-1.64), and 2.11 (1.77-2.52) for women and 1.06 (0.90-1.25), 1.07 (0.94-1.23), 1.13 (1.00-1.28), 1.34 (1.10-1.62), and 1.55 (1.29-1.86) for men who slept 4-5, 6, 8, 9, and ≥ 10 h per day, respectively, compared with those who slept 7 h per day. Associations for disease-specific mortality, including cardiovascular disease, stroke, diabetes, and cancer, also generally followed the same J-shaped pattern. The sleep duration-mortality association was more evident among participants with comorbidities, but varied little by sex.
CONCLUSION - In our study population of Chinese adults, shorter and longer sleep durations were independently associated with increased risk of mortality. But longer sleep duration had a higher mortality risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes than short sleep.
© 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES - Little is known about the utility of self-rated general health assessments in persons with moderate-to-severe CKD. This study examined the ability of a single self-rated health measure to predict all-cause mortality and kidney disease progression in a cohort of 443 patients with stages 3-4 CKD, recruited between 2005 and 2011, and followed until the end of 2012. The performance of models incorporating self-rated health measures was compared with previously published predictive models and more complex models comprising a multibiomarker panel.
DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS - Participants were asked "In general, would you say your health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?" Outcomes examined were time to all-cause mortality, kidney disease progression (initiation of RRT or 30% loss of eGFR), and a composite of these events. Model performances were compared using a nonparametric area under the curve (AUC) analysis.
RESULTS - Over a median follow-up of 3.3 years, 118 (27%) participants died and 138 (31%) had progression of kidney disease. Fair-to-poor self-rated health status was associated with significantly greater risks of mortality (fully adjusted hazard ratio [HR] for relative to good-to-excellent self-rated health, 2.76; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.28 to 5.89), kidney disease progression (HR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.49 to 2.56), and the combined end point (HR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.66 to 2.96). For 3-year mortality prediction, the self-rated health model (AUC, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.76 to 0.85) had significantly higher AUCs than the base model (AUC, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.66 to 0.76) and the multibiomarker panel model (AUC, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.68 to 0.80) (P=0.03 and P=0.04, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS - A single, easily obtained measure of self-rated health helps identify patients with CKD at high risk of mortality and kidney disease progression. Routine evaluation of self-rated health may help target individuals who might benefit from more intensive monitoring strategies.
Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Nephrology.
Second-line therapy for corticosteroid-refractory or -dependent acute graft-versus-host disease remains ill-defined, due to limited efficacy of drugs and evolving clinical trial endpoints. Six-month freedom from treatment failure has been proposed as a novel clinical trial endpoint and is defined by the absence of death, malignancy relapse/progression, or addition of a next line of systemic immunosuppressive therapy within 6 months of intervention and prior to diagnosis of chronic graft-versus-host disease. We analyzed the 6-month freedom from treatment failure endpoint in 128 patients enrolled from three centers who were treated with extracorporeal photopheresis as second-line therapy for acute graft-versus-host disease. The incidence of 6-month freedom from treatment failure was 77.3% with a 2-year survival rate of 56%. Corticosteroid dose or response status at onset of second-line therapy did not influence outcome. Higher grade of acute graft-versus-host disease (grade 2 versus grades 3-4) at onset of photopheresis predicted for poor outcome as measured by survival (hazard ratio 2.78, P<0.001), non-relapse mortality (hazard ratio 2.78, P=0.001) and 6-month freedom from treatment failure (hazard ratio 3.05, P<0.001). For the 91 patients who achieved 6-month freedom from treatment failure, 1-year, 2-year and 3-year survival rates were 78.9%, 70.8% and 69.5%, respectively. Six-month freedom from treatment failure is a reasonable early surrogate for outcome and should be considered as a clinical trial endpoint. This study demonstrates the durable effect of photopheresis as second-line therapy for corticosteroid-refractory or -dependent acute graft-versus-host disease using 6-month freedom from treatment failure as the primary endpoint.
Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.
Albuminuria and reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) associate with two apolipoprotein L1 gene (APOL1) variants in nondiabetic African Americans (AAs). Whether APOL1 associates with subclinical atherosclerosis and survival remains unclear. To determine this, 717 African American-Diabetes Heart Study participants underwent computed tomography to determine coronary artery-, carotid artery-, and aorta-calcified atherosclerotic plaque mass scores in addition to the urine albumin:creatinine ratio (UACR), eGFR, and C-reactive protein (CRP). Associations between mass scores and APOL1 were assessed adjusting for age, gender, African ancestry, body mass index (BMI), hemoglobin A1c, smoking, hypertension, use of statins and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, albuminuria, and eGFR. Participants were 58.9% female with mean age 56.5 years, eGFR 89.5 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), UACR 169.6 mg/g, and coronary artery-, carotid artery-, and aorta-calcified plaque mass scores of 610, 171, and 5378, respectively. In fully adjusted models, APOL1 risk variants were significantly associated with lower levels of carotid artery-calcified plaque (β=-0.42, s.e. 0.18; dominant model) and marginally lower coronary artery plaque (β=-0.36, s.e. 0.21; dominant model), but not with aorta-calcified plaque, CRP, UACR, or eGFR. By the end of a mean follow-up of 5.0 years, 89 participants had died. APOL1 nephropathy risk variants were significantly associated with improved survival (hazard ratio 0.67 for one copy; 0.44 for two copies). Thus, APOL1 nephropathy variants associate with lower levels of subclinical atherosclerosis and reduced risk of death in AAs with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
OBJECTIVE - Not all individuals with type 2 diabetes and high coronary artery calcified plaque (CAC) experience the same risk for adverse outcomes. This study examined a subset of high-risk individuals based on CAC >1,000 mg (using a total mass score) and evaluated whether differences in a range of modifiable cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors provided further insights into risk for mortality.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - We assessed contributors to all-cause mortality among 371 European American individuals with type 2 diabetes and CAC >1,000 from the Diabetes Heart Study (DHS) after 8.2 ± 3.0 years (mean ± SD) of follow-up. Differences in known CVD risk factors, including modifiable CVD risk factors, were compared between living (n = 218) and deceased (n = 153) participants. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to quantify risk for all-cause mortality.
RESULTS - Deceased participants had a longer duration of type 2 diabetes (P = 0.02) and reduced use of cholesterol-lowering medications (P = 0.004). Adjusted analyses revealed that vascular calcified plaque scores were associated with increased risk for mortality (hazard ratio 1.31-1.63; 3.89 × 10(-5) < P < 0.03). Higher HbA1c, lipids, and C-reactive protein and reduced kidney function also were associated with a 1.1- to 1.5-fold increased risk for mortality (3.45 × 10(-6) < P < 0.03) after adjusting for confounding factors.
CONCLUSIONS - Even in this high-risk group, vascular calcification and known CVD risk factors provide useful information for ongoing assessment. The use of cholesterol-lowering medication seemed to be protective for mortality.
© 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.