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CD19 is a coreceptor on B cells that enhances the increase in cytoplasmic calcium and ERK2 activation when coligated with the B cell Ag receptor. Constructs containing point mutations and truncations were expressed in Daudi human B lymphoblastoid cells to systematically determine the requirement for individual CD19 cytoplasmic tyrosines in these responses. Evidence for activity was found for Y330, Y360, and Y421 as well as that previously published for Y391. Precipitates formed with phosphopeptides consisting of CD19 sequences flanking these residues were used to screen for cytoplasmic proteins that mediate signaling. Phosphopeptide Y330 precipitated Grb2 and Sos, whereas phosphopeptides Y391 and Y421 both precipitated Vav and phospholipase C-gamma2. These molecules also were found associated with native CD19. In mapping studies with altered constructs, CD19 Y330 and/or Y360 were necessary for binding Grb2 and Sos. Vav associated with CD19 constitutively in unstimulated cells by a tyrosine-independent mechanism requiring the portion of CD19 encoded by exons 9-12. After B cell Ag receptor stimulation, Vav association was tyrosine-dependent, but binding was influenced by multiple residues. However, when maximally phosphorylated by pervanadate, Y391 and, to a lesser extent, Y421 were sufficient. CD19 Y391 was also both necessary and sufficient for binding phospholipase C-gamma2. Thus, different tyrosines along the CD19 cytoplasmic domain provide scaffolding for the formation of complexes of different signaling molecules.
We looked for clonal chromosomal abnormalities in myeloid cell lineages in the bone marrow aspirates from six children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The study was carried out using a combination of MAC (morphology, antibody, chromosomes) and in situ hybridization procedures. In patients whose leukemic cells expressed only lymphoid antigens, we found chromosomal aberrations in CD10- and CD20/22-positive lymphoid cells. Mature CD22+ and CD3+ lymphocytes did not have the chromosomal aberrations. In one patient whose leukemic cells also expressed myeloid-associated antigens, the clonal chromosome aberrations were seen not only in the CD10+ and CD19+ blasts, but also in glycophorin A-positive morphologically nonleukemic erythroblasts.
CD19 is the hallmark differentiation antigen of the B lineage. Its early expression has implicated a role for CD19 during the antigen-independent phases of B-cell development, whereas in mature B cells CD19 can act synergistically with surface immunoglobulin to induce activation. We have generated CD19-deficient mice and found that development of conventional B cells is unperturbed. However, mature CD19-/- B cells show a profound deficiency in responding to protein antigens that require T-cell help. This is accompanied by a lack of germinal centre formation and affinity maturation of serum antibodies. Thus CD19 is crucial for both initial B-cell activation by T-cell-dependent antigens and the maturation and/or selection of the activated cells into the memory compartment. An impairment in ligand-driven selection may also be responsible for the observation of a striking reduction in the B-1 (formerly Ly-1) B-cell subset, thought to develop under the control of self-antigens and bacterial antigens (reviewed in ref. 2).