The publication data currently available has been vetted by Vanderbilt faculty, staff, administrators and trainees. The data itself is retrieved directly from NCBI's PubMed and is automatically updated on a weekly basis to ensure accuracy and completeness.
If you have any questions or comments, please contact us.
In HER2-overexpressing mammary epithelial cells, transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) activated phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt and enhanced survival and migration. Treatment with TGF-beta or expression of an activated TGF-beta type I receptor (Alk5 with the mutation T204D [Alk5(T204D)]) induced phosphorylation of TACE/ADAM17 and its translocation to the cell surface, resulting in increased secretion of TGF-alpha, amphiregulin, and heregulin. In turn, these ligands enhanced the association of p85 with ErbB3 and activated PI3K/Akt. RNA interference of TACE or ErbB3 prevented TGF-beta-induced activation of Akt and cell invasiveness. Treatment with TGF-beta or expression of Alk5(T204D) in HER2-overexpressing cells reduced their sensitivity to the HER2 antibody trastuzumab. Inhibition of Alk5, PI3K, TACE, or ErbB3 restored sensitivity to trastuzumab. A gene signature induced by Alk5(T204D) expression correlated with poor clinical outcomes in patients with invasive breast cancer. These results suggest that by acting on ErbB ligand shedding, an excess of TGF-beta may result in (i) conditioning of the tumor microenvironment with growth factors that can engage adjacent stromal and endothelial cells; (ii) potentiation of signaling downstream ErbB receptors, thus contributing to tumor progression and resistance to anti-HER2 therapies; and (iii) poor clinical outcomes in women with breast cancer.
PURPOSE - Activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) requires cell surface cleavage of EGFR ligands, uptake of soluble ligand by the receptor, and initiation of EGFR tyrosine kinase activity. We define these collective events as the EGFR axis. Transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) and amphiregulin are two EGFR ligands that are delivered preferentially to the basolateral surface of polarized epithelial cells where the EGFR resides. TACE/ADAM-17 (tumor necrosis factor-alpha converting enzyme/a disintegrin and metalloprotease) has been implicated in ectodomain cleavage of TGF-alpha and amphiregulin.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN - Using a human polarizing colorectal cancer (CRC) cell line, HCA-7, and a tissue array of normal colonic mucosa and primary and metastatic CRC, we determined the intracellular localization of TACE and the effects of EGFR axis inhibition in CRC.
RESULTS - Herein, we show that TACE is localized to the basolateral plasma membrane of polarized HCA-7 cells. TACE is overexpressed in primary and metastatic CRC tumors compared with normal colonic mucosa; the intensity of its immunoreactivity is inversely correlated with that of TGF-alpha and amphiregulin. Pharmacologic blockade of HCA-7 cells with an EGFR monoclonal antibody, a selective EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, and a selective TACE inhibitor results in concentration-dependent decreases in cell proliferation and active, phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinase. Combining suboptimal concentrations of these agents results in cooperative growth inhibition, increased apoptosis, and reduced mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation. Furthermore, an EGFR tyrosine kinase-resistant clone of HCA-7 cells is growth-inhibited by combined monoclonal antibody and TACE inhibition.
CONCLUSION - These results implicate TACE as a promising target of EGFR axis inhibition in CRC.
TNF-alpha converting enzyme (TACE; ADAM17), a member of the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) family of metalloproteases, has been shown to cleave a wide variety of cell surface proteins of immunological importance. Due to the broad expression of TACE and the early postnatal lethality of TACE-deficient mice, it has been difficult to assess the role of TACE in lymphocyte development. Indeed, it is not known whether hemopoietic and/or nonhemopoietic expression of TACE is required for normal lymphocyte development. In the current study, we analyzed the lymphoid system of tace(DeltaZn/DeltaZn) mice and tace(DeltaZn/DeltaZn) bone marrow RAG1(-/-) recipients. Our results clearly show that nonlymphocyte expression of TACE is required for normal lymphocyte development and lymphoid organ structure. Lack of TACE function resulted in a partial block in T cell development at the double-negative 4:double-positive transition in the thymus, a loss of B cell development/maturation in the spleen, and a lack of B cell follicle and germinal center formation in the spleen. Thus, TACE serves as a lymphocyte extrinsic factor that is essential for normal T development and peripheral B cell maturation.
Arachidonic acid is an essential constituent of cell membranes that is esterified to the sn-2 position of glycerophospholipids and is released from selected phospholipid pools by tightly regulated phospholipase cleavage. Metabolism of the released arachidonic acid by the cytochrome P450 enzyme system (cP450) generates biologically active compounds, including epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids. Here we report that 2-(14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoyl)glycerol (2-14,15-EG), a novel cP450 arachidonate metabolite produced in the kidney, is a potent mitogen for renal proximal tubule cells. This effect is mediated by activation of tumor necrosis factor alpha-converting enzyme (ADAM17), which cleaves membrane-bound transforming growth factor alpha (proTGF-alpha) and releases soluble TGF-alpha as a ligand that binds and activates epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). The present studies additionally demonstrate that the structurally related 14,15-EET stimulates release of soluble heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor as an EGFR ligand by activation of ADAM9, another member of the ADAM family. Thus, in addition to the characterization of 2-14,15-EG's mitogenic activity and signaling mechanism, our study provides the first example that two structurally related biologically active lipid mediators can activate different metalloproteinases and release different EGFR ligands in the same cell type to activate EGFR and stimulate cell proliferation.
Tumor-necrosis factor (TNF), a pleiotropic cytokine, triggers physiological and pathological responses in several organs. Here we show that deletion of the mouse gene Timp3 resulted in an increase in TNF-alpha converting enzyme activity, constitutive release of TNF and activation of TNF signaling in the liver. The increase in TNF in Timp3(-/-) mice culminated in hepatic lymphocyte infiltration and necrosis, features that are also seen in chronic active hepatitis in humans. This pathology was prevented when deletion of Timp3 was combined with Tnfrsf1a deficiency. In a liver regeneration model that requires TNF signaling, Timp3(-/-) mice succumbed to liver failure. Hepatocytes from Timp3(-/-) mice completed the cell cycle but then underwent cell death owing to sustained activation of TNF. This hepatocyte cell death was completely rescued by a neutralizing antibody to TNF. Dysregulation of TNF occurred specifically in Timp3(-/-), and not Timp1(-/-) mice. These data indicate that TIMP3 is a crucial innate negative regulator of TNF in both tissue homeostasis and tissue response to injury.
Epidermal growth factor (EGF) family ligands are derived by proteolytic cleavage of the ectodomains of integral membrane precursors. Previously, we established that tumor necrosis factor alpha-converting enzyme (TACE/ADAM17) is a physiologic transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) sheddase, and we also demonstrated enhanced shedding of amphiregulin (AR) and heparin-binding (HB)-EGF upon restoration of TACE activity in TACE-deficient EC-2 fibroblasts. Here we extended these results by showing that purified soluble TACE cleaved single sites in the juxtamembrane stalks of mouse pro-HB-EGF and pro-AR ectodomains in vitro. For pro-HB-EGF, this site matched the C terminus of the purified human growth factor, and we speculate that the AR cleavage site is also physiologically relevant. In contrast, ADAM9 and -10, both implicated in HB-EGF shedding, failed to cleave the ectodomain or cleaved at a nonphysiologic site, respectively. Cotransfection of TACE in EC-2 cells enhanced phorbol myristate acetate-induced but not constitutive shedding of epiregulin and had no effect on betacellulin (BTC) processing. Additionally, soluble TACE did not cleave the juxtamembrane stalks of either pro-BTC or pro-epiregulin ectodomains in vitro. Substitution of the shorter pro-BTC juxtamembrane stalk or truncation of the pro-TGF-alpha stalk to match the pro-BTC length reduced TGF-alpha shedding from transfected cells to background levels, whereas substitution of the pro-BTC P2-P2' sequence reduced TGF-alpha shedding less dramatically. Conversely, substitution of the pro-TGF-alpha stalk or lengthening of the pro-BTC stalk, especially when combined with substitution of the pro-TGF-alpha P2-P2' sequence, markedly increased BTC shedding. These results indicate that efficient TACE cleavage is determined by a combination of stalk length and scissile bond sequence.
EGF family growth factors, including transforming growth factor-alpha (TGFalpha), amphiregulin (AR), and heparin-binding EGF (HB-EGF), are invariably expressed as transmembrane precursors that are cleaved at one or more sites in the extracellular domain to release soluble growth factor. Considerable attention has focused on the identification of proteases responsible for these processing events. We previously implicated tumor necrosis factor-alpha converting enzyme (TACE/ADAM17) in the generation of soluble TGFalpha from its transmembrane precursor, proTGFalpha. Here, we review our findings that primary keratinocytes from Tace(deltaZn/deltaZn) mice, which express a nonfunctional TACE, released dramatically lower levels of soluble TGFalpha compared to their normal counterparts, even though TGFalpha mRNA and cell-associated protein levels were similar in the two cell populations. Restoration of TACE activity in Tace(deltaZn/deltaZn) cells increased shedding of TGFalpha species, including the mature, 6-kDa protein. Further, exogenous TACE enzyme accurately cleaved the N-terminal processing site of proTGFalpha in cell lysates, as well as both physiologic sites of a soluble proTGFalpha ectodomain. TACE also accurately cleaved peptide substrates corresponding to the processing sites of several additional EGF family members, and restoration of TACE activity enhanced the shedding of soluble AR and HB-EGF proteins from Tace(deltaZn/deltaZn) cells. Finally, reduction of functional TACE gene dosage greatly exacerbated the open-eye defect of Egfr(wa-2/wa-2) newborns, which is regulated by redundant actions of several EGF family ligands. The implications of these results for the biology of the EGF family and TACE are discussed.
We previously implicated tumor necrosis factor-alpha converting enzyme (TACE/ADAM17) in the processing of the integral membrane precursor to soluble transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha), pro-TGF-alpha. Here we examined TGF-alpha processing in a physiologically relevant cell model, primary keratinocytes, showing that cells lacking TACE activity shed dramatically less TGF-alpha as compared with wild-type cultures and that TGF-alpha cleavage was partially restored by infection of TACE-deficient cells with TACE-encoding adenovirus. Moreover, cotransfection of TACE-deficient fibroblasts with pro-TGF-alpha and TACE cDNAs increased shedding of mature TGF-alpha with concomitant conversion of cell-associated pro-TGF-alpha to a processed form. Purified TACE accurately cleaved pro-TGF-alpha in vitro at the N-terminal site and also cleaved a soluble form of pro-TGF-alpha containing only the ectodomain at the C-terminal site. In vitro, TACE accurately cleaved peptides corresponding to cleavage sites of several epidermal growth factor (EGF) family members, and transfection of TACE into TACE-deficient cells increased the shedding of amphiregulin and heparin-binding EGF (HB-EGF) proteins. Consistent with the hypothesis that TACE regulates EGF receptor (EGFR) ligand availability in vivo, mice heterozygous for Tace and homozygous for an impaired EGFR allele (wa-2) were born with open eyes significantly more often than Tace(+/+)Egfr(wa-2)(/)(wa-2) counterparts. Collectively, these data support a broad role for TACE in the regulated shedding of EGFR ligands.
PURPOSE - Hypoxia and growth factors are postulated to be involved in the development of retinal neovascularization through the regulation of extracellular proteinase production. It has been shown that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are elevated in the retina during the neovascularization process. However, the factors and mechanisms that regulate the expression of these enzymes are not well characterized. The present study examines the potential role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha as a regulator of MMPs in the retinal neovascularization process.
METHODS - C57/Bl6 mice were treated with 75% oxygen (experimental) or room air (control) from postnatal days (P)7 through P12, followed by room air until P17. Retinas were collected at P13, P15, or P17 and total RNA analyzed for the relative level of TNFalpha, TNF receptor (p55), and TNFalpha-converting enzyme (TACE). Immunostaining was used to identify changes in TNF protein expression as well as to localize TNFalpha within specific retinal cell types. The role of TNFalpha in stimulating retinal microvascular endothelial cell (RMVEC) proteinase production was evaluated using isolated murine RMVECs grown in normoxic or hypoxic conditions. Message expression was analyzed by RT-PCR and protein expression by zymographic analysis.
RESULTS - TNFalpha mRNA was increased in the retinas of experimental animals on P13 and P15, during the early stages of retinal neovascularization. In addition to being expressed by Müller glial cells and the inner nuclear layer, additional expression was noted in the outer nuclear layer of experimental animals. No significant level of apoptosis was detected in the retina of experimental animals with retinal neovascularization. Isolated RMVECs did not significantly increase MMP production directly in response to a hypoxic stimulus, but required the presence of exogenous TNFalpha. TNFalpha increased the expression of MT1-MMP, MMP-3, and MMP-9 in these cells. The levels of TACE and p55, proteins important in mediating the response of cells to TNFalpha, were found to be increased by the angiogenic protein, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which was also elevated in the experimental retinas.
CONCLUSIONS - TNFalpha levels increase in experimental mouse retinas exposed to hypoxic stimuli. Increased production of MMPs by RMVECs does not occur directly in response to a hypoxic stimulus. These cells are responsive, however, to stimulation by TNFalpha, which enhances the production of specific members of the MMP family. VEGF also plays a role in this process through its regulation of TACE and p55 mRNA in the vascular endothelial cells. These findings support the hypothesis that these two growth factors have a role in the regulation of extracellular proteinase expression during retinal neovascularization.