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The effects of neurotropic compounds on Ca-binding proteins (calmodulin, troponin C) were investigated. It was shown that the majority of neuroleptics of the phenothiazine group effectively interact with the both proteins and inhibit calmodulin-dependent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and Ca2+-activated actomyosin. ATPase. Neuroleptics of the butyrophenone group as well as imipramine and diphenehydramine having a low efficiency interact only with calmodulin. Methophenazine, a phenothiazine neuroleptic, being an effective inhibitor of calmodulin and of calmodulin-dependent phosphodiesterase, does not influence troponin C or Ca-dependent actomyosin ATPase. Therefore, this compound may be used as a convenient tool in the study of processes controlled by these Ca-binding proteins. It is concluded that troponin C possesses Ca-dependent sites which bind pharmacological agents structurally similar to that of calmodulin. However, these sites bind pharmacological agents with a low efficiency and exhibit selectivity towards certain drugs. Despite the obvious homology of the both Ca-binding proteins, i.e., calmodulin, troponin C, their effects on the processes under their control appear to be selective.
Using a new methodological approach based on the binding of 125I-labeled troponin C to troponins I and T immobilized on polyvinylchloride, the Ca2+-dependent interaction of troponin components was investigated. In the absence of Ca2+, two types of sites of troponin C--troponin T interaction were revealed (Kd = 3.6.10(-8) M and 5.10(-7) M). It was found that Ca2+ induced the formation of a troponin I--troponin C complex which was resistant to 5 M urea (Kd = 4.10(-8) M). In the absence of Ca2+, the binary troponin T--troponin C complex also revealed two types of interaction sites (Kd = 7.1.10(-8) M and 2.10(-7) M); however, in the presence of Ca2+ only high affinity sites whose number increased almost 2-fold were revealed. The events that may take place in the whole troponin complex during Ca2+ binding by troponin C are discussed.
This article provides a brief overview of well-established in vivo and in vitro methods that have contributed the most to the understanding of transport processes across the gastrointestinal epithelium. In vivo perfusion techniques in humans revolve around double- and triple-lumen per oral tubes. In animals, in vivo techniques include the single and recirculation perfusion techniques and the double-isotope technique for measurement of net absorption. In vitro methods of studying intestinal transport include the everted gut sac technique, the Ussing chamber, the use of isolated epithelial cells, and the use of brush border and basolateral membranes isolated from enterocytes. The use of fluorescent probes for the measurement of intracellular ionic concentrations is a new and powerful in vivo technique that is now being applied to the gastrointestinal tract.
The behavior of an array of fluorescent human alpha-thrombin derivatives in reporting binding of the fragment 2 domain of prothrombin was characterized as a representative application of the active-site-selective labeling approach to studies of blood coagulation proteinase regulatory interactions. An array of 16 thrombin derivatives was prepared by affinity labeling of the proteinase active site with the thioester peptide chloromethyl ketones, N alpha-[(acetylthio)acetyl]-D-Phe-Pro-Arg-CH2Cl or N alpha-[(acetylthio)acetyl]-D-Phe-Phe-Arg-CH2Cl, followed by selective modification of the NH2OH-generated thiol group on the covalently incorporated inhibitors with each of eight thiol-reactive fluorescence probes. The changes in probe fluorescence intensity of the derivatives, signaling changes in the environment of the catalytic site associated with fragment 2 binding, appeared to be a unique and unpredictable function of the structure of the probe and the connecting peptide. These results demonstrated the utility of the labeling approach for overcoming the problem of not being able to predict which fluorescent label will provide the most useful proteinase derivative for investigating an interaction by enabling a greater variety of them to be prepared and screened for those with the most desirable properties. To determine whether the approach could be extended to other proteinases, the specificity of labeling with the fluorescence probe iodoacetamide, 5-(iodoacetamido)fluorescein, by use of the two thioester inhibitors was evaluated for several other blood coagulation proteinases and related trypsin-like enzymes. All of the proteinases were labeled in an active-site-selective manner. The combined results of quantitating the labeling reactions for the proteinase and inhibitor combinations studied thus far showed active-site-specific incorporation of 0.98 +/- 0.10 mol of inhibitor/mol of active sites and 0.92 +/- 0.11 mol of probe/mol of active sites, representing an overall greater than or equal to 93% site-specificity of labeling. These results demonstrated the broad applicability of the labeling approach for fluorescence studies of proteinases that differ greatly in their catalytic specificities.
In a new strategy for labeling the active sites of serine proteinases with fluorescence probes (Bock, P. E. (1988) Biochemistry 27, 6633-6639), a thioester peptide chloromethyl ketone inhibitor is incorporated into the enzyme active center and used to produce a unique thiol group which provides a site for selective chemical modification with any one of many thiol-reactive fluorescence probes. This approach was developed to increase the opportunities for identifying fluorescent proteinase derivatives that act as reporters of binding interactions by allowing a large number of derivatives, representing a broad range of probe spectral properties, to be readily prepared. In the studies described here, the specificity of the labeling approach was evaluated quantitatively for the labeling of human alpha and beta/gamma-thrombin with the thioester peptide chloromethyl ketones, N alpha-[(acetylthio)acetyl]-D-Phe-Pro-Arg-CH2Cl and N alpha-[(acetylthio)acetyl]-D-Phe-Phe-Arg-CH2Cl, and the thiol-reactive fluorescence probe, 5-(iodoacetamido)fluorescein. Irreversible inactivation of thrombin by the inhibitors was accompanied by incorporation of 0.98 +/- 0.06 mol/mol of the thioester group into the active site, independent of a 470-fold difference between the thioester peptide chloromethyl ketones in the bimolecular rate constants of alpha-thrombin affinity labeling. Subsequent mild treatment of the covalent thrombin-inhibitor complexes with NH2OH in the presence of 5-(iodoacetamido)fluorescein resulted in generation of the thiol group together with its selective modification and incorporation of 0.96 +/- 0.07 mol of probe/mol of active sites. The incorporated label was localized to a 9000 molecular weight region of alpha and beta/gamma-thrombin containing the catalytic-site histidine residue. Evaluation of competing, side reactions showed that they did not significantly compromise the active site specificity of labeling. These results demonstrated equivalent, active-site-selective fluorescence probe labeling of alpha and beta/gamma-thrombin by use of either of the thioester peptide chloromethyl ketones, with a site specificity of greater than or equal to 94%.
Small unilamellar liposomes were used in this study of shear stress effects on the trans-bilayer flux of calcium ions (Ca2+). Liposome suspensions were prepared from 99% egg phosphatidylcholine by a microporous filter extrusion technique. The inner aqueous phase of the unilamellar liposomes contained indo-1(5-), a fluorescent indicator of free Ca2+. The external aqueous phase was composed of Hepes-buffered saline containing normal physiological levels of common ionic species. Calcium ion levels were set at 100 nM and 1 mM in the inner and outer aqueous phases, respectively. Liposome suspensions were exposed to graded levels of uniform shear stress in an optically modified rotational viscometer. Intraliposome Ca2+ concentration was estimated from continuous measurement of indo-1(5-) fluorescence. Electronically measured particle size distribution was used to determine liposome surface area for estimation of trans-bilayer Ca2+ flux. Trans-bilayer Ca2+ flux increased linearly with applied shear rate from 27 s-1 to 2700 s-1. Diffusional resistance of the lipid bilayer, not the convective resistance of the surrounding fluid, was the limiting step in the transport of Ca2+. Liposome permeability to Ca2+ increased by nearly two orders of magnitude over the physiologically relevant shear rate range studied. Solute transport in injectable liposome preparations may be dramatically influenced by cardiovascular fluid stress. Solute delivery rates determined in liposomes exposed to static conditions may not accurately predict in vivo, cardiovascular solute transport.
Helicobacter pylori broth culture supernatants induce eukaryotic cell vacuolation in vitro, a phenomenon that has been attributed to cytotoxic activity. We sought to characterize further the vacuolation of HeLa cells that occurs in response to H pylori culture supernatant. Nascent vacuoles were detectable by electron microscopy after 90 minutes of incubation with H pylori supernatant and were not associated with any identifiable organelle. After 6 days of incubation with H pylori supernatant, vacuoles were membrane-bound structures filled with electron-dense debris, which resembled secondary lysosomes. Acid phosphatase activity was detected within the vacuoles. The vacuoles induced by H pylori supernatant were then compared with vacuoles induced by trimethylamine, a weak base known to induce lysosomal swelling. Neutral red dye rapidly entered the vacuoles induced by either H pylori supernatant or trimethylamine, and both types of vacuoles were reversible. Compared with trimethylamine-induced vacuoles, the vacuoles induced by H pylori supernatant were larger and typically lacked a limiting membrane. In the early stages of formation, vacuoles induced by trimethylamine were labeled by lucifer yellow, a pinocytotic marker, whereas H pylori cytotoxin-induced vacuoles were not. These data suggest that trimethylamine-induced vacuoles arise directly from endocytic compartments, whereas H pylori cytotoxin induces vacuole formation via an autophagic mechanism.
We have developed a technique for analysis of granulocyte reactive oxygen species formation in whole blood using flow cytometry and two color immunofluorescence. This technique relies upon the use of specific fluorescent dye (LDS-751) to stain nucleated cells, eliminating erythrocytes from analysis. Using LDS-751, forward angle light scatter, and 90 degrees side scatter, a granulocyte gate, monocyte gate, and lymphocyte gate were identified. Analysis with multiple FITC conjugated monoclonal antibodies demonstrated greater than 95% purity of a flow cytometrically identified granulocyte population in whole blood without physical manipulation of the blood. Utilizing 2'7' dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA), we were able to measure granulocyte intracellular reactive oxygen species production. Dose response curves were obtained for the effect of granulocyte agonists phorbol myristate acetate, FMLP, and heat fixed Staphylococcus aureus on reactive oxygen species production. The techniques described in this paper should be useful for measuring granulocyte activation in vivo with flow cytometry.
A dopaminergic projection from the ventral tegmental area to the ventral pallidum was identified in the rat using anterograde tract tracing and combined retrograde tracing-immunocytochemistry. The projection was found to be topographically organized such that fibers innervating the ventromedial ventral pallidum arose from neurons located along the midline nuclei of the ventral mesencephalon, including the nucleus interfascicularis and nucleus linearis caudalis. Ventral tegmental neurons situated more laterally, in the nucleus parabrachialis pigmentosus and nucleus paranigralis, projected to the ventromedial and dorsolateral ventral pallidum. The substantia nigra did not supply a major contribution to this projection. The proportion of ventral tegmental area dopaminergic neurons projecting to the ventral pallidum ranged from approximately 30% to 60%. The functional significance of the projection is indicated since intra-ventral pallidum microinjections of dopamine elicited a dose-dependent increase in locomotor activity. Furthermore, whereas pretreatment of the ventral pallidum with the GABAA agonist muscimol has been shown to attenuate opioid-induced locomotor activity elicited from the ventral pallidum, it did not attenuate the dopamine-induced motor response. Thus, while mu-opioids in the ventral pallidum may presynaptically regulate GABAergic efferents from the nucleus accumbens, it appears that the dopaminergic input directly influences the ventral pallidal output neuron which is involved in locomotion.