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The present study was designed to investigate Cl- transport across rat ileal basolateral membranes. Basolateral membrane vesicles were prepared by a well-validated technique. The purity of the basolateral membrane vesicles was verified by marker enzyme studies and by studies of d-glucose and calcium uptake. Cl- uptake was studied by a rapid filtration technique. Neither an outwardly directed pH gradient, nor a HCO3- gradient, or their combination could elicit any stimulation of Cl- transport when compared with no gradient. 4,4-Diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2-disulfonic acid at 5 mM concentration did not inhibit Cl- uptake under gradient condition. Similarly, the presence of the combination of outwardly directed Na+ and HCO3- gradients did not stimulate Cl- uptake compared with the combination of K+ and HCO3- gradients or no HCO3- gradient. This is in contrast to our results in the brush border membranes, where an outwardly directed pH gradient caused an increase in Cl- uptake. Cl- uptake was stimulated in the presence of combined Na+ and K+ gradient. Bumetanide at 0.1 mM concentration inhibited the initial rate of Cl- uptake in the presence of combined Na+ and K+ gradients. Kinetic studies of bumetanide-sensitive Cl- uptake showed a Vmax of 5.6 +/- 0.7 nmol/mg protein/5 sec and a Km of 30 +/- 8.7 mM. Cl- uptake was stimulated by an inside positive membrane potential induced by the ionophore valinomycin in the setting of inwardly directed K+ gradient compared with voltage clamp condition. These studies demonstrate two processes for Cl- transport across the rat ileal basolateral membrane: one is driven by an electrogenic diffusive process and the second is a bumetanide-sensitive Na+/K+/2 Cl- process. Cl- uptake is not enhanced by pH gradient, HCO3- gradient, their combination, or outwardly directed HCO3- and Na+ gradients.
Glutamine metabolism in the liver is essential for gluconeogenesis and ureagenesis. During the suckling period there is high hepatic protein accretion and the portal vein glutamine concentration is twice that in the adult, whereas hepatic vein glutamine concentration is similar between adult and suckling rats. Therefore, we hypothesized that glutamine uptake by the liver could be greater in the suckling period compared to the adult period. The present studies were, therefore, designed to investigate the transport of glutamine by plasma membranes of rat liver during maturation (suckling--2-week old, weanling--3-week old and adult--12-week old). Glutamine uptake by the plasma membranes of the liver represented transport into an osmotically sensitive space in all age groups. Inwardly directed Na+ gradient resulted in an "overshoot" phenomenon compared to K+ gradient. The magnitude of the overshoot was greater in suckling rats plasma membranes compared to adult membranes. Glutamine uptake under Na+ gradient was electrogenic and maximal at pH 7.5, whereas uptake under K+ gradient was electroneutral. Glutamine uptake with various concentrations of glutamine under Na+ gradient was saturable in all age groups with a Vmax of 1.5 +/- 0.1, 0.7 +/- 0.1 and 0.5 +/- 0.06 nmoles/mg protein/10 seconds in suckling, weanling and adult rats, respectively (P < 0.01). Km values were 0.6 +/- 0.1, 0.5 +/- 0.1 and 0.5 +/- 0.1 mM respectively. Vmax for Na(+)-independent glutamine uptake were 0.6 +/- 0.1, 0.55 +/- 0.07 and 0.54 +/- 0.06 nmoles/mg protein with Km values of 0.54 +/- 0.2, 0. +/- 0.1 and 0.5 +/- 0.2 mM, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
We have tested the action of three agents microinjected into the ventral nerve photoreceptor of Limulus on the electrical response to dim light. 1. A monoclonal antibody (mAb 4A) against the G alpha subunit of frog transducin reduces the size of the receptor current to 60%, suggesting an interaction with G alpha in the Limulus photoreceptor. 2. Injection of Clostridium botulinum ADP-ribosyltransferase C3 reduces the size to 46%; latency is not affected. The results imply that small GTP-binding proteins play a functional role in photoreception of invertebrates. 3. Injection of GDP-beta-S reduces dose-dependently the size of the receptor current to 15% and prolongs the latency to 200%, presumably by reducing number and rate of G-protein activations.
The effects of intracellular application of two novel Ca2+ releasing agents have been studied in cultured rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurones by monitoring Ca(2+)-dependent currents as a physiological index of raised free cytosolic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i). A protein based sperm factor (SF) extracted from mammalian sperm, has been found to trigger Ca2+ oscillations and to sensitize unfertilized mammalian eggs to calcium induced calcium release (CICR). In this study intracellular application of SF activated Ca(2+)-dependent currents in approximately two-thirds of DRG neurones. The SF induced activity was abolished by heat treatment, attenuated by increasing the intracellular Ca2+ buffering capacity of the cells and persisted when extracellular Ca2+ was replaced by Ba2+. In addition, activity could be triggered or potentiated by loading the cells with Ca2+ by activating a series of voltage-gated Ca2+ currents. Ca(2+)-activated inward current activity was also generated by intracellular application of cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR), a metabolite of NAD+, which causes Ca2+ release in sea urchin eggs. This activity could also be enhanced by loading the cells with Ca2+. The cADPR induced activity, but not the SF induced activity, was abolished by depleting the caffeine sensitive Ca2+ store. Ruthenium red markedly attenuated SF induced activity but had little action on cADPR induced activity or caffeine induced activity. Our results indicate that both SF and cADPR release intracellular Ca2+ pools in DRG neurones and that they appear to act on subtly distinct stores or distinct intracellular Ca2+ release mechanisms, possibly by modulating CICR.