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We have shown previously that periodate oxidation of collagen carbohydrate does not affect its ability to aggregate platelets. We now describe an additional characterization of periodate-modified collagen which demonstrates that collagen devoid of intact carbohydrate is fully capable of fibril formation, and we confirm its capacity to initiate platelet aggregation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the platelet aggregating abilities of Types I, II, and III fibrillar collagen are quite similar despite differences in carbohydrate content and amino acid sequence. We also demonstrate that monomeric, pepsin-solubilized Type I human collagen is ineffective inhibiting aggregation by performed fibrils derived from the same molecule, thus establishing that the affinity of platelets for collagen depends upon prior polymerization of collagen. We interpret these and other findings to demonstrate that the hydroxylysyl glycoside regions of collagen are not highly specific sites involved in platelet-collagen interactions leading to "physiological" aggregation, and that the possibility must be considered that multiple interactions involving collagen sites of comparatively low structural specificity may be the initiating events in release of platelet ADP and the ensuing aggregation.
Glucagon causes a rapid activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase in rat liver parenchymal cells which correlates well with the accumulation of cAMP. Full activation of phosphorylase or inactivation of glycogen synthase is achieved with half-maximal or less activation of protein kinase. Epinephrine stimulates glycogen breakdown in these cells mainly by mechanisms involving alpha-adrenergic receptors and not beta-receptors. Activition of alpha-receptors results in rapid activation of phosphorylase and inactivation of glycogen synthase without accumulation of cAMP or activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Activation of beta-receptors causes a transient rise in cAMP and a short-lived activation of protein kinase with correspondingly little stimulation of glycogenolysis.
Alteration of growth of dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced mammary tumors was caused by removal of estrogen (ovariectomy), or insulin (diabetes), or by inhibition of prolactin secretin (treatment with an ergoline derivative). The levels of cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cGMP were measured in carcinomas classified as growing, static, and regressing. The amount of cAMP, expressed as pmoles/mg tumor weight or pmoles/mg protein, was lowest in growing tumors, intermediate in static tumors, and highest in those regressing. No correlation was seen between tumor growth and cGMP levels. Cyclophosphamide-induced tumor stasis did not elevate cAMP levels. The data suggest a role of cAMP in arrest of hormone-induced tumor growth.
Membrane glycoproteins have been studied in the normal lactating mammary gland and R3230 AC mammary tumor of the rat. Plasma membrane-enriched fractions were obtained from these tissues by discontinuous sucrose gradient centrifugation of a microsomal preparation from the tissue homogenates. The lightest membrane fractions (F-1 and F-2) have the greatest enrichment of plasma membrane markers, with a 14- to 20-fold purification of 5'-nucleotidase and Na+-K+ -adenosine triphosphatase over the homogenate values in both tumor and normal tissues for F-1. Electron microscopy shows smooth membrane vesicles for these fractions. Polypeptide analysis by acrylamide gel electrophoresis shows essentially the same patterns for F-1 and F-2 and only relatively minor differences between membrane components of tumor and normal tissues. Glycoprotein analysis of the polyacrylamide gels by periodate-Schiff staining indicates more dramatic differences. Membrane Fraction F-1 from normal tissue contains two major glycoproteins, GP-II and GP-III, while Fractions F-2 and F-3 contain an additional glycoprotein, GP-I, with a higher apparent molecular weight. In the tumor, the component corresponding to GP-III is decreased or absent and a new component GP-IV is seen at a lower apparent molecular weight.
The enzymatic oxidation of E-3,4-bis-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-hex-3-ene (diethylstilbestrol) by either mushroom tyrosinase or rat liver microsomes in the presence of NADPH and air yields a catechol. Upon further oxidation of both compounds with periodate and condensation of the resulting o-quinones with o-phenylenediamine, phenazines are produced. The phenazines derived from the products of both the plant and animal enzyme systems are identical to the product obtained by oxidation of diethylstilbestrol with potassium nitrosodisulfonate and condensation of the o-quinone produced with o-phenylenediamine. High and low resolution mass spectra of the phenazine are consistent with its derivation from a catechol having two fewer hydrogens than diethylstilbestrol.
Studies were conducted on purified sarcoplasmic reticulum isolated from myotonic goats, an animal model of heritable myotonia. When compared to sarcoplasmic reticulum from normal goats, fragmented sarcoplasmic reticulum from the myotonic goat had (1) increased levels of calcium, (2) increased rates of calcium uptake and efflux, (3) an increased sialic acid content, and (4) an increased content of saturated fatty acids. These differences support the concept of a structural and functional defect as a basis for the abnormal contraction-relaxation characteristics of myotonia.
Histone acetate is hydrolyzed rapidly in logarithmically dividing hepatoma tissue culture cells (Jackson, V., Shires, A., Chalkley, R. and Granner, D.K. (1975) J. Biol. Chem. 250, 4856--4863). The phenomenon has been analyzed further in hepatoma tissue culture cells at various stages of the cell cycle, in stationary phase, and in the presence of actinomycin D. We also investigated the phenomenon in Tetrahymena pyriformis macronuclei, bovine thymocytes, and human foreskin fibroblasts. The data suggest that this highly metabolically active histone acetylation while altered in mitotic cells, is independent of the overall rate of cell division, and is only slightly sensitive to actinomycin D. Finally, we conclude that the same general phenomenon is found in both cancerous and normal cells and is apparently common to cells from various stages of the evolutionary scale.