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Joule for joule, dietary fat may promote obesity more than protein or carbohydrate. In this study we determined whether the addition of 50 g dietary fat to a standard breakfast would increase energy expenditure or fat oxidation during the immediate 6-h postprandial period or over the ensuing 18 h. We also determined whether subjects with a high level of aerobic physical fitness would show a greater increase in fat oxidation after the ingestion of the extra fat than would less fit subjects. Adding fat did not increase fat oxidation or energy expenditure either during the immediate 6-h postprandial period or over the following 18 h. This was true regardless of the subject's fitness level. Acutely, dietary fat ingested in excess of its usual rate of oxidation appears to be stored in the body. Being physically fit does not appear to provide an advantage in avoiding short-term storage of excess dietary fat.
To study the influence of diet composition on regulation of body weight, we fed 21 weight-stable subjects (11 lean, 10 obese) high-carbohydrate (HC) and high-fat (HF) diets for 1 wk each. Although diet composition was fixed, total energy intake was unrestricted. Subjects had a higher energy intake on the HF (11,039 +/- 2700 kJ/d) than on the HC (10,672 +/- 2617 kJ/d) diet (P less than 0.05), but energy expenditure was not different between diets. On day 7 of the HC diet, carbohydrate (CHO) oxidation was significantly related to CHO intake with the slope of the regression line 0.99, suggesting that overall CHO balance was near zero. However, the slope of the regression line was greater for obese than for lean subjects. On day 7 of the HF diet, fat oxidation was significantly related to fat intake but the slope of the line was 0.50, suggesting that overall fat balance was positive. However, this relationship was due entirely to lean subjects, with obese subjects showing no relationship between fat intake and oxidation.
Modification of dietary fatty acid (FA) has been shown to affect the incidence of hypertension and coronary artery disease. We studied whether these effects involve changes in the receptor characteristics of vasoactive substance. Characteristics of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) receptors were examined in glomeruli isolated from rats fed a diet containing 5% in weight omega 6, 5% omega 3, 20% omega 6, 20% omega 3 polyunsaturated FA or 20% saturated FA (SFA) for greater than 4 weeks. The FA composition of phospholipids in isolated glomeruli showed an elevation in 20:4 omega 6 (arachidonic acid, AA) in 5% omega 6, 20% omega 6 and 20% SFA, and elevations in 20:5 omega 3 (eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA) in 5% omega 3 and 20% omega 3 groups. The radioligand binding study revealed: (1) in 20% FA group, receptor density (Ro, fmol/mg prot) of ANP was significantly decreased compared to 5% group (262 +/- 13, n = 8 to 120 +/- 13, n = 12) without changes in equilibrium dissociation constant (KD), (2) among high FA (20%) groups, type of FA was essential for determining Ro; higher omega 6 was associated with a lower ANP Ro (177 +/- 11 vs. 103 +/- 3 fmol/mg prot, P less than 0.05) and KD (0.43 +/- .04 vs. 0.27 +/- .02 nM, P less than 0.05). To examine whether the alteration in receptor characteristics is mediated by FA, effects of FA were examined in vitro. In cultured mesangial cells, AA, but not EPA, decreased Ro of ANP receptors (48.7 +/- 4.8% of control, P less than 0.05) without affecting KD.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Young postweaning pigs were fed a high fat diet containing beef tallow (saturated fat) or corn oil (unsaturated fat). Adipose tissue was used to measure adipocyte size and number of cells per gram of tissue, ligand binding by beta-adrenergic receptors and lipolytic and palmitate esterification rates. Pigs fed the saturated fat diet had more saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids and less polyunsaturated fatty acid in the crude membrane fraction. Adipocytes were larger in pigs fed the saturated fat diet. There was no difference in the binding affinities of the receptors; more binding sites were expressed on a protein or cell basis and fewer sites were expressed per unit surface area in adipocyte ghosts isolated from pigs fed the saturated fat diet. Fatty acid esterification was greater in pigs fed saturated fat diets. Isoproterenol inhibition was marginal in both groups but tended to be greater in pigs fed saturated fat diets. The beta-adrenergic receptor-mediated lipolytic rates were not different; only the theophylline-stimulated rates tended to be greater in the saturated fat-fed group. Thus, a large increase in saturated fatty acid concentration of porcine adipose tissue membranes caused an increase in beta-adrenergic receptor number without any change in receptor affinity. These receptor changes were at best only marginally reflected in beta-adrenergic agonist-mediated functions.