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Results: 131 to 136 of 136

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Infant breastfeeding and the risk of childhood lymphoma and leukaemia.
Shu XO, Clemens J, Zheng W, Ying DM, Ji BT, Jin F
(1995) Int J Epidemiol 24: 27-32
MeSH Terms: Acute Disease, Adolescent, Age Factors, Analysis of Variance, Birth Weight, Breast Feeding, Case-Control Studies, Child, Child, Preschool, China, Confounding Factors, Epidemiologic, Data Interpretation, Statistical, Female, Hodgkin Disease, Humans, Infant, Infant, Newborn, Leukemia, Lymphoma, Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin, Male, Maternal Age, Odds Ratio, Risk Factors, Sex Factors, Socioeconomic Factors, Time Factors
Show Abstract · Added December 10, 2013
BACKGROUND - A protective effect of breastfeeding on childhood lymphoma has been indicated but supportive evidence is limited.
METHOD - Data from a population-based case-control study of childhood cancer in Shanghai, including 82 lymphoma cases and 159 acute leukaemia cases and their age- and sex-matched community controls, were analysed.
RESULTS - After adjustment for potentially confounding variables, a slight, although non-significant, reduction in risk of lymphoma was observed among children who were breastfed as infants versus those who were not (odds ratio [OR] = 0.69; 95% CI: 0.3-1.7). The reduction was somewhat greater for children who had been breastfed longer and appeared to pertain primarily to Hodgkin's disease and to cases diagnosed before the age of 6 years. As expected, there was no reduction in risk of acute leukaemia associated with breastfeeding.
CONCLUSIONS - Although providing neither strong support for nor refuting the study hypothesis, these data suggest that if breastfeeding does reduce the risk of lymphoma, its protective effect among Chinese children is likely modest in magnitude and concentrated in certain subgroups defined by length of breastfeeding, age at diagnosis and histological subtype of cancer.
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27 MeSH Terms
The covariance decomposition of the probability score and its use in evaluating prognostic estimates. SUPPORT Investigators.
Arkes HR, Dawson NV, Speroff T, Harrell FE, Alzola C, Phillips R, Desbiens N, Oye RK, Knaus W, Connors AF
(1995) Med Decis Making 15: 120-31
MeSH Terms: Bias, Data Interpretation, Statistical, Decision Making, Discriminant Analysis, Humans, Judgment, Patients, Physicians, Probability, Prognosis, Sensitivity and Specificity, Survival Analysis
Show Abstract · Added February 28, 2014
The probability score (PS) or Brier score has been used in a large number of studies in which physician judgment performance was assessed. However, the covariance decomposition of the PS has not previously been used to evaluate medical judgment. The authors introduce the technique and demonstrate it by analyzing prognostic estimates of three groups: physicians, their patients, and the patients' decision-making surrogates. The major components of the covariance decomposition--bias, slope, and scatter--are displayed in covariance graphs for each of the three groups. The decomposition reveals that whereas the physicians have the best overall estimation performance, their bias and their scatter are not always superior to those of the other two groups. This is primarily due to two factors. First, the physicians' prognostic estimates are pessimistic. Second, the patients place the large majority of their estimates in the most optimistic category, thereby achieving low scatter. The authors suggest that the calculational simplicity of this decomposition, its informativeness, and the intuitive nature of its components make it a useful tool with which to analyze medical judgment.
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12 MeSH Terms
Measurement of rotational dynamics by the simultaneous nonlinear analysis of optical and EPR data.
Hustedt EJ, Cobb CE, Beth AH, Beechem JM
(1993) Biophys J 64: 614-21
MeSH Terms: Biophysical Phenomena, Biophysics, Data Interpretation, Statistical, Diffusion, Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy, Eosine Yellowish-(YS), Fluorescence Polarization, Fluorescent Dyes, Models, Chemical, Motion, Proteins, Rotation, Serum Albumin, Bovine, Spin Labels
Show Abstract · Added January 20, 2015
In the preceding companion article in this issue, an optical dye and a nitroxide radical were combined in a new dual function probe, 5-SLE. In this report, it is demonstrated that time-resolved optical anisotropy and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) data can be combined in a single analysis to measure rotational dynamics. Rigid-limit and rotational diffusion models for simulating nitroxide EPR data have been incorporated into a general non-linear least-squares procedure based on the Marquardt-Levenberg algorithm. Simultaneous fits to simulated time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy and linear EPR data, together with simultaneous fits to experimental time-resolved phosphorescence anisotropy decays and saturation transfer EPR (ST-EPR) spectra of 5-SLE noncovalently bound to bovine serum albumin (BSA) have been performed. These results demonstrate that data from optical and EPR experiments can be combined and globally fit to a single dynamic model.
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14 MeSH Terms
Statistical methods in SUPPORT.
Harrell FE, Marcus SE, Layde PM, Broste SK, Cook EF, Wagner DP, Muhlbaier LH, Peck SL
(1990) J Clin Epidemiol 43 Suppl: 89S-98S
MeSH Terms: Confounding Factors, Epidemiologic, Data Interpretation, Statistical, Health Services Research, Humans, Models, Statistical, Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care, Probability, Quality Control, Reproducibility of Results, United States
Show Abstract · Added February 28, 2014
The analysis and interpretation of the data collected in SUPPORT provide great potential for understanding the relationships among treatment choices, patient and physician values and preferences, perceptions about the risks and benefits of treatments, institutional characteristics, and outcomes (as measured by quality of life, survival, and satisfaction). The complicated analyses required to elucidate these relationships will pose many technical challenges in dealing with longitudinal observational data collected from seriously ill patients at multiple sites. Major challenges include the handling of incomplete data, proper parameterization of treatment effects, strategies to avoid various potential biases, validating predictive models, and constructing endpoints that combine survival with quality of life. Within the structure of the SUPPORT study, mechanisms have been established to guide the analyses and to ensure their quality and validity.
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10 MeSH Terms
The unseen sample in cohort studies: estimation of its size and effect. Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study.
Hoover DR, Muñoz A, Carey V, Odaka N, Taylor JM, Chmiel JS, Armstrong J, Vermund SH
(1991) Stat Med 10: 1993-2003
MeSH Terms: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, Bias, Cohort Studies, Data Interpretation, Statistical, HIV Seropositivity, HIV-1, Homosexuality, Humans, Male, Multicenter Studies as Topic, United States
Show Abstract · Added March 5, 2014
Recruitment of disease-free subjects into cohort studies and measurement of their time from exposure/infection to disease selectively excludes individuals (the unseen sample) who had earlier exposure and who have shorter times to disease. The unseen and observed samples may differ in other characteristics in addition to incubation period and exposure/infection time. For data with known truncation times, we develop non-parametric maximum likelihood estimates of the size, exposure/infection dates and distribution of incubation time in the unseen sample. We provide procedures to estimate and compensate for the biasing effects due to exclusion of the unseen sample in descriptive and survival analysis. We give consistency properties of these estimates and assess variability using bootstrap methods. One can use imputation to derive the above estimates from data with unknown truncation times that have been estimated parametrically. Application is made to an AIDS cohort study of over 5000 homosexual men. Important estimates obtained from this application are the annual seroconversion rates from 1978 to 1983, not otherwise obtainable in this study population.
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11 MeSH Terms
Linkage analysis with adjustment for covariates: a method combining peeling with Gibbs sampling.
Kong A, Frigge M, Cox N, Wong WH
(1992) Cytogenet Cell Genet 59: 208-10
MeSH Terms: Data Interpretation, Statistical, Dysplastic Nevus Syndrome, Genetic Linkage, Humans, Mathematics, Sampling Studies, Skin Neoplasms
Added February 22, 2016
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7 MeSH Terms