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Patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are at higher risk for adverse drug reactions from trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) than the HIV-negative population. Studying the HIV-positive population the authors aimed to validate the predictive and diagnostic value of the lymphocyte toxicity assay (LTA) for adverse drug reactions. Patient lymphocytes were analyzed for toxicity to SMX and TMP. Of 35 enrolled HIV patients, 18 had TMP-SMX hypersensitivity syndrome reaction (HSR); 10 tolerated the drug; and 5 had never received the drug. When cases with HSR were compared with controls that tolerated the drugs, cytotoxicity was higher for cases: 29.5% +/- 10.1% versus 19.3% +/- 11.2% for SMX (P < 0.022) and 25.0% +/- 11.9% versus 16.3% +/- 11.0% for TMP (P < 0.04). The authors' proposed threshold value for assigning positive results for TMP and SMX hypersensitivities was 22.5%. The LTA has a strong potential for use as a diagnostic tool to assess TMP-SMX hypersensitivity in HIV-infected individuals. Larger patient populations, as well as in vitro studies are needed to further address the reasons for elevated results in immunocompromised patients and to validate the usefulness of the test.
OBJECTIVE - To report a patient with efavirenz-induced hypersensitivity syndrome reaction who was successfully desensitized to efavirenz.
CASE SUMMARY - A 37-year-old HIV-positive white man was placed on efavirenz, amprenavir, stavudine, lamivudine, and didanosine due to virologic failure with a previous regimen. Eight days into treatment, the patient developed a generalized rash and all medication was discontinued. Two weeks later, he was started on efavirenz, stavudine, didanosine, lamivudine, and lopinavir. The next morning, he awoke with red, itchy skin. All of the medications were discontinued. At the HIV Drug Safety Clinic, the patient was successfully restarted on amprenavir, stavudine, didanosine, lamivudine, and lopinavir. A 14-day desensitization to efavirenz was also undertaken; on day 12 of the desensitization, he once again developed a rash. He was treated symptomatically, and the desensitization protocol was extended. Sixteen months following the successful desensitization, he is tolerating full-dose efavirenz in combination with the other antiretroviral agents.
DISCUSSION - The incidence of efavirenz-induced hypersensitivity ranges between 10% and 34%. Generally, an erythematous, maculopapular rash with or without fever develops 1-3 weeks after the initiation of therapy. In many patients without systemic manifestations, an attempt should be made to continue therapy and treat the rash symptomatically. If this fails, desensitization with the implicated drug can be tried.
CONCLUSIONS - A history of antiretroviral-induced hypersensitivity reactions often limits the choices of medications that can be used in subsequent treatment regimens. Desensitization may allow for the continued use of previously restricted medications.
Although surfactant apoproteins are known to be mediators of innate responses, their relationship to adaptive responses has not been examined extensively. We investigated possible links between surfactant apoproteins and responses to allergens by studying alterations in surfactant apoproteins A, B, and D in a murine model of allergic pulmonary inflammation. Three murine strains (BALB/c, C57BL/6, and 129J) demonstrated increased immunostaining of surfactant apoproteins A and D in nonciliated epithelial cells of noncartilaginous airways after aerosolized challenge. In contrast, surfactant apoprotein B immunostaining was unchanged. Immunoblotting demonstrated increased surfactant A in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid after allergen sensitization and challenge. Surfactant apoprotein A and D induction required T and/or B lymphocyte responses to allergen, since the induction was absent in recombinase-activating gene-deficient mice, which lack functional lymphocytes. We conclude that increased immunoreactivity of two collectins, surfactant apoproteins A and D, occurs within the response to allergen. Our findings support a model in which surfactant apoproteins A and D are important to both innate immunity and adaptive immune responses to allergens.
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways which may involve an oxidant injury to the lung. Assessment of oxidant stress is difficult in vivo, but measurement of F2-isoprostanes (F2-IsoPs), free radical-catalysed products of arachidonic acid, appears to offer a reliable approach for quantitative measurement of oxidative stress status in vivo. We have recently developed a mass spectrometric assay for 2,3-dinor-5,6-dihydro-15-F2t-IsoP (15-F2t-IsoP-M), the major urinary metabolite of the F2-IsoP, 15-F2t-IsoP (8-iso-PGF2a). Measurement of the urinary excretion of this metabolite offers a reliable index of oxidative stress status in vivo that has advantages over measuring unmetabolized F2-IsoPs in urine and plasma. To assess the occurrence of oxidative stress in patients with atopic asthma following allergen exposure in vivo by measuring the urinary excretion of 15-F2t-IsoP-M. Analysis of 15-F2t-IsoP-M by GC-NICI-MS in nine mild atopic asthmatics following inhaled allergen provocation and four asthmatic subjects after inhaled challenge with methacholine. Urinary excretion of 15-F2t-IsoP-M increased at 2 h after allergen challenge and remained significantly elevated in all urine collections during the subsequent 8-h period of the study compared to the baseline value (ANOVA, and Student-Newman-Keuls multiple comparisons test). No increase in the urinary excretion of 15-F2t-IsoP-M occurred after inhalation of methacholine. Allergen challenge causes an oxidant injury in human atopic asthmatics. 15-F2t-IsoP-M is a valuable marker of oxidant stress in vivo.
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) is implicated as an important proinflammatory cytokine in asthma. We evaluated mice deficient in TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) and TNFR2 [TNFR(-/-) mice] in a murine model of allergic inflammation and found that TNFR(-/-) mice had comparable or accentuated responses compared with wild-type [TNFR(+/+)] mice. The responses were consistent among multiple end points. Airway responsiveness after methacholine challenge and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid leukocyte and eosinophil numbers in TNFR(-/-) mice were equivalent or greater than those observed in TNFR(+/+) mice. Likewise, serum and BAL fluid IgE; lung interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, and IL-5 levels; and lung histological lesion scores were comparable or greater in TNFR(-/-) mice compared with those in TNFR(+/+) mice. TNFR(+/+) mice chronically treated with anti-murine TNF antibody had BAL fluid leukocyte numbers and lung lesion scores comparable to control antibody-treated mice. These results suggest that, by itself, TNF does not have a critical proinflammatory role in the development of allergic inflammation in this mouse model and that the production of other cytokines associated with allergic disease may compensate for the loss of TNF bioactivity in the TNFR(-/-) mouse.
OBJECTIVES - To test the hypothesis that childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is associated with allergic disorders.
METHODS - We compared the histories of selected allergic disorders (asthma, hay fever, food or drug allergies, eczema, and hives) of 1842 cases of ALL with those of 1986 individually matched controls. The histories of the allergic disorders among siblings of cases and controls were also compared.
RESULTS - The combined history of any one or more of the five allergic disorders evaluated was associated with a significant reduced risk of ALL (adjusted OR = 0.7, 95% CI 0.6-0.8), as were histories of four specific allergic disorders (asthma, hay fever, food or drug allergies, and eczema). The combined history of any one or more of the five allergic disorders among any of the siblings of the study subjects also revealed a significantly inverse association (adjusted OR = 0.9, 95% CI 0.8-1.0).
CONCLUSION - The results from this study, in agreement with most previous studies on adult cancer, suggest that allergic disorders may be associated with a reduced risk of childhood ALL.
Although anergy testing is commonly used to help interpret negative tuberculin skin test results, the validity of this approach has not been demonstrated. Specific issues include lack of a standardized protocol for antigen selection, number needed to reliably evaluate inability to respond, and uniform criteria for defining cutaneous reactivity, as well as regional variation in skin test reactivity. Tuberculin skin testing is used to screen for latent infection and to evaluate the need for isoniazid prophylaxis. The presence or absence of reactivity to control antigens does not affect this decision. The results of anergy testing also do not predict the risk for progression to active disease in either HIV-negative or HIV-positive patients. In HIV-negative patients with active tuberculosis, 10% to 20% have negative tuberculin test results, and 5% to 10% have a negative tuberculin result but have a positive reaction to another antigen. A negative tuberculin skin test result does not exclude either latent infection or active disease, even in the presence of a reaction to other antigens. Neither anergy testing nor tuberculin testing obviates the need for microbiologic evaluation when there is suspicion for active tuberculosis infection. Therefore, anergy testing is not useful in screening for asymptomatic tuberculous infection or for diagnosing active tuberculosis.
The cost-effectiveness of different approaches to antimicrobial prophylaxis for cardiovascular surgery patients labeled penicillin allergic was studied. A decision-analytic model was used to examine the cost-effectiveness of six strategies for antimicrobial prophylaxis in cardiovascular surgery patients at a tertiary care hospital. The strategies consisted of (1) giving vancomycin to all patients labeled penicillin allergic, (2) giving cefazolin to all patients labeled penicillin allergic, (3) giving vancomycin to all patients with a history suggesting an immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated reaction to penicillin and cefazolin to patients without such a history, (4) administering a penicillin skin test to patients with a history suggesting an IgE-mediated reaction to penicillin and giving vancomycin to patients with positive results and cefazolin to all others, (5) skin testing all patients labeled penicillin allergic and giving vancomycin to those with positive results and cefazolin to those with negative results, regardless of history, and (6) skin testing all patients and giving vancomycin to those with positive results or a history suggesting an IgE-mediated reaction to penicillin and cefazolin to all others. Giving cefazolin to all patients labeled penicillin allergic was the least expensive strategy but was associated with the highest rate of both anaphylactic and non-life-threatening serious reactions. Selective use of vancomycin in patients with a history suggesting an IgE-mediated reaction to penicillin was associated with an added cost and a slightly lower rate of anaphylaxis. Although skin-testing strategies may decrease both non-life-threatening and anaphylactic reactions, the incremental cost was high. When vancomycin was given to all patients labeled penicillin allergic, the incremental cost was very high. A decision-analytic model indicated that selective use of vancomycin is more cost-effective than indiscriminate use of vancomycin for surgical prophylaxis in cardiovascular surgery patients labeled penicillin allergic.