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Plasma atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) concentrations were monitored in two experimental models of protection from cisplatin nephrotoxicity. Sprague-Dawley rats made diabetic with streptozotocin (65 mg/kg) were protected from cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity when compared to control rats as indicated by reduced plasma creatinine (0.49 +/- 0.02 vs. 0.9 +/- 0.06 mg/dl; P less than .001) and blood urea nitrogen concentrations (18.51 +/- 1.4 vs. 43.08 +/- 2.1 mg/dl; P less than .001). Plasma ANP was also increased with experimental diabetes (76.5 +/- 8.98 fmol/ml) vs. normoglycemic controls (43.8 +/- 8.9 fmol/ml; P less than .02). When diabetic rats were treated with insulin, the renal protection observed with the diabetic state was reversed (creatinine, 0.70 +/- .05 mg/dl); plasma ANP concentrations were also reduced (52.2 +/- 15.2 fmol/ml). Renal platinum concentrations were significantly lower in the diabetic group and the reversal of diabetic-induced renal protection with insulin was associated with increased renal platinum concentrations. In rats given a single i.p. dose of cisplatin (5 mg/kg), a reduction in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity was observed when 5% NaCl was the vehicle of choice compared to that seen in rats given the same dose of drug in 0.9% saline (creatinine, 0.43 +/- 0.07 with 5% NaCl vs. 0.63 +/- 0.03 with 0.09% NaCl). NaCl (5%) administration also resulted in increased plasma ANP concentrations when compared to rats receiving equivalent volumes of 0.9% NaCl (88.4 +/- 6.2 vs. 50.5 +/- 5.6 fmol/ml, respectively). These data suggest that increased endogenous ANP may be a mechanism of renal protection common to both experimental diabetes and hypertonic saline administration. Chronically increased ANP may prevent renal accumulation of platinum in the kidney.
Etoposide is a highly schedule-dependent agent. We previously reported that a 21-day schedule of oral etoposide had good activity in small cell lung cancer (SCLC). The current phase II study was designed to test the combination of 21-day oral etoposide with cisplatin in hopes of capitalizing on etoposide's schedule dependency. Sixteen extensive stage SCLC patients were treated with cisplatin 100 mg/m2 day 1 plus 21 days of low-dose oral etoposide 50 mg/m2/day. Chemotherapy was repeated every 28 days for 4 cycles. Blood counts were monitored weekly, and etoposide was discontinued if the leukocyte or platelet count dropped below 2.0 x 10(9)/l or 75 x 10(9)/l, respectively. Fifteen of 16 patients were evaluable for response; 13 achieved either a complete (13%) or partial response (73%), for an overall response rate of 86% (95% confidence interval, 62-93%). Median response duration was approximately 7 months; median survival was not reached. Thirteen patients (81%) received all the planned cycles of chemotherapy. In cycle 1 of chemotherapy, the median leukocyte nadir was 2.8 x 10(9)/l (range, 0.1-6.3 x 10(9)/l; median platelet nadir was 180 x 10(9)/l (range, 51-397 x 10(9)/l). Life-threatening leukopenia (less than 1.0 x 10(9)/l) was unusual (2 of 58 cycles). There was 1 treatment-related death. One patient developed mild renal insufficiency that resolved after therapy. Nonhematologic toxicities were uncommon, but alopecia occurred in all patients. These data do not suggest that a major survival benefit will be derived for patients with extensive stage SCLC by increasing the duration of etoposide administration when used in combination with cisplatin. A randomized study is needed to determine if this long-term schedule of etoposide plus cisplatin is superior to the standard schedule of etoposide plus cisplatin.
Etoposide is a schedule-dependent agent with greater activity against small cell lung cancer (SCLC) when a given dose is administered over several days compared with a 1-day administration of the same dose. In an attempt to capitalize on the schedule dependency of etoposide, 22 previously untreated extensive-stage SCLC patients were given cisplatin (100 mg/m2 on day 1) plus 21 days of low-dose, oral etoposide (50 mg/m2/d). Chemotherapy was repeated every 28 days for four cycles. Complete blood counts were monitored weekly, and etoposide was discontinued if either the leukocyte or platelet count dropped below 2000/microliters or 75,000/microliters, respectively. All 22 patients were evaluable for response; 18 had either a complete (9%) or partial response (73%), an overall response rate of 82% (95% confidence interval, 62% to 93%). The median response duration was 7 months, and the median survival was 9.9 months (range, 1 to 17+ months). Sixteen (73%) patients received all planned cycles of etoposide. In Cycle 1 of chemotherapy, the median leukocyte nadir was 2700/microliters (range, 100 to 6300/microliters), and median platelet nadir was 180,000/microliters (range, 51,000 to 397,000/microliters). Life-threatening leukopenia (less than 1000/microliters) was rare (3 of 74 cycles). There were three treatment-related deaths, only one of which was associated with neutropenia. One patient had mild renal insufficiency that resolved after discontinuation of therapy. Alopecia was observed in all patients, but other nonhematologic toxicities were uncommon. A randomized study is necessary to determine if this schedule of cisplatin and etoposide administration is superior to more standard methods. However, these data do not indicate a major survival benefit will be derived from increasing the duration of etoposide administration when used in combination with cisplatin given every 28 days.