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In this study, the role of the amphiregulin precursor (pro-AR) cytoplasmic domain in the basolateral sorting and cell-surface processing of pro-AR in polarized epithelial cells has been investigated using Madin-Darby canine kidney cells stably expressing various human pro-AR forms. Our results demonstrate that newly synthesized wild-type pro-AR (50 kDa) is delivered directly to the basolateral membrane domain with >95% efficiency, where it is sequentially cleaved within the ectodomain to release several soluble amphiregulin (AR) forms. Analyses of a pro-AR cytoplasmic domain truncation mutant (ARTL27) and two pro-AR secretory mutants (ARsec184 and ARsec190) indicated that the pro-AR cytoplasmic domain is not required for efficient delivery to the plasma membrane, but does contain essential basolateral sorting information. We show that the pro-AR cytoplasmic domain truncation mutant (ARTL27) is not sorted in polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney cells, with approximately 65% of the newly synthesized protein delivered to the apical cell surface. Under base-line conditions, ARTL27 was preferentially cleaved from the basolateral surface with 4-fold greater efficiency compared with cleavage from the apical membrane domain. However, ARTL27 ectodomain cleavage could be stimulated equivalently from either membrane domain by a variety of different stimuli. The metalloprotease inhibitor BB-94 could inhibit both base-line and stimulus-induced ectodomain cleavage of wild-type pro-AR and ARTL27. These results indicate that the pro-AR cytoplasmic domain is required for basolateral sorting, but is not essential for ectodomain processing. Preferential constitutive cleavage of ARTL27 from the basolateral cell surface also suggests that the metalloprotease activity involved in base-line and stimulus-induced ARTL27 ectodomain cleavage may be regulated differently in the apical and basolateral membrane domains of polarized epithelial cells.
Crk-associated substrate (p130(Cas), Cas) is a docking protein first recognized as having elevated phosphotyrosine content in mammalian cells transformed by v-Src and v-Crk oncoproteins. Subsequent studies have implicated Cas in the control of normal cell behavior through its roles in integrin-mediated signal transduction and organization of the actin cytoskeleton at sites of cell adhesion. In this study, we sought to gain new insight into normal Cas function by identifying previously unrecognized interacting proteins. A yeast two-hybrid screen using the C-terminal region of Cas as a bait identified the Src homology 3 (SH3) domain of the mouse "nephrocystin" protein-orthologous to a human protein whose loss of function leads to the cystic kidney disease familial juvenile nephronophthisis. The putative full-length mouse and partial canine nephrocystin sequences were deduced from cDNA clones. Additional studies using epitope-tagged mouse nephrocystin indicated that nephrocystin and Cas can interact in mammalian cells and revealed that both proteins prominently localize at or near sites of cell-cell contact in polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cells. Our findings provide novel insight into the normal cellular activities regulated by both Cas and nephrocystin, and raise the possibility that these proteins have a related function in polarized epithelial cells.
Copyright 2000 Academic Press.
Postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95/SAP-90) is a palmitoylated peripheral membrane protein that scaffolds ion channels at excitatory synapses. To elucidate mechanisms for postsynaptic ion channel clustering, we analyzed the cellular trafficking of PSD-95. We find that PSD-95 transiently associates with a perinuclear membranous compartment and traffics with vesiculotubular structures, which migrate in a microtubule-dependent manner. Trafficking of PSD-95 with these vesiculotubular structures requires dual palmitoylation, which is specified by five consecutive hydrophobic residues at the NH(2) terminus. Mutations that disrupt dual palmitoylation of PSD-95 block both ion channel clustering by PSD-95 and its synaptic targeting. Replacing the palmitoylated NH(2) terminus of PSD-95 with alternative palmitoylation motifs at either the NH(2) or COOH termini restores ion channel clustering also induces postsynaptic targeting, respectively. In brain, we find that PSD-95 occurs not only at PSDs but also in association with intracellular smooth tubular structures in dendrites and spines. These data imply that PSD-95 is an itinerant vesicular protein; initial targeting of PSD-95 to an intracellular membrane compartment may participate in postsynaptic ion channel clustering by PSD-95.
Mammalian lefty and zebrafish antivin, highly related to lefty, are shown to be expressed asymmetrically and involved in the specification of the left body side of early embryos. We isolated a chick homologue of the antivin/lefty1 cDNA and studied its expression pattern during early chick development. We found that antivin/lefty1 is expressed asymmetrically on the left side of the prospective floorplate, notochord and lateral plate mesoderm of the chick embryo.
We recently showed that substrate contact sites in living fibroblasts are specifically targeted by microtubules (Kaverina, I., K. Rottner, and J.V. Small. 1998. J. Cell Biol. 142:181-190). Evidence is now provided that microtubule contact targeting plays a role in the modulation of substrate contact dynamics. The results are derived from spreading and polarized goldfish fibroblasts in which microtubules and contact sites were simultaneously visualized using proteins conjugated with Cy-3, rhodamine, or green fluorescent protein. For cells allowed to spread in the presence of nocodazole the turnover of contacts was retarded, as compared with controls and adhesions that were retained under the cell body were dissociated after microtubule reassembly. In polarized cells, small focal complexes were found at the protruding cell front and larger adhesions, corresponding to focal adhesions, at the retracting flanks and rear. At retracting edges, multiple microtubule contact targeting preceded contact release and cell edge retraction. The same effect could be observed in spread cells, in which microtubules were allowed to reassemble after local disassembly by the application of nocodazole to one cell edge. At the protruding front of polarized cells, focal complexes were also targeted and as a result remained either unchanged in size or, more rarely, were disassembled. Conversely, when contact targeting at the cell front was prevented by freezing microtubule growth with 20 nM taxol and protrusion stimulated by the injection of constitutively active Rac, peripheral focal complexes became abnormally enlarged. We further found that the local application of inhibitors of myosin contractility to cell edges bearing focal adhesions induced the same contact dissociation and edge retraction as observed after microtubule targeting. Our data are consistent with a mechanism whereby microtubules deliver localized doses of relaxing signals to contact sites to retard or reverse their development. We propose that it is via this route that microtubules exert their well-established control on cell polarity.
Cell crawling entails the co-ordinated creation and turnover of substrate contact sites that interface with the actin cytoskeleton. The initiation and maturation of contact sites involves signalling via the Rho family of small G proteins, whereas their turnover is under the additional influence of the microtubule cytoskeleton. By exerting relaxing effects on substrate contact assemblies in a site- and dose-specific manner, microtubules can promote both protrusion at the front and retraction at the rear, and thereby control cell polarity.
Colonic enterocytes, like many epithelial cells in vivo, are polarized with functionally distinct apical and basolateral membrane domains. The aims of this study were to characterize the endogenous epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like ligands expressed in two polarizing colon cancer cell lines, HCA-7 Colony 29 (HCA-7) and Caco-2, and to examine the effects of cell polarity on EGF receptor-mediated mitogenesis. HCA-7 and Caco-2 cells were grown on plastic, or as a polarized monolayer on Transwell filters. Cell proliferation was measured by 3H-thymidine incorporation and EGF receptor (EGFR) binding was assessed by Scatchard analysis. EGFR ligand expression was determined by Northern blot analysis, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, metabolic labelling and confocal microscopy. We found that amphiregulin (AR) was the most abundant EGFR ligand expressed in HCA-7 and Caco-2 cells. AR was localized to the basolateral surface and detected in basolateral-conditioned medium. Basolateral administration of neutralizing AR antibodies significantly reduced basal DNA replication. A single class of high-affinity EGFRs was detected in the basolateral compartment, whereas the apical compartment of polarized cells, and cells cultured on plastic, displayed two classes of receptor affinity. Basolateral administration of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) or an EGFR neutralizing antibody also resulted in a dose-dependent stimulation or attenuation, respectively, of DNA replication. However, no mitogenic response was observed when these agents were added to the apical compartment or to confluent cells cultured on plastic. We conclude that amphiregulin acts as an autocrine growth factor in HCA-7 and Caco-2 cells, and EGFR ligand-induced proliferation is influenced by cellular polarity.
Changes in cell shape, anchorage and motility are all associated with the dynamic reorganisation of the architectural arrays of actin filaments that make up the actin cytoskeleton. The relative expression of these functionally different actin filament arrays is intimately linked to the pattern of contacts that a cell develops with its extracellular substrate. Cell polarity is acquired by the development of an asymmetric pattern of substrate contacts, effected in a specific, site-directed manner by the delivery of adhesion-site modulators along microtubules.
Secretory immunoglobulin A (S-IgA) participates in the first noninflammatory line of defence of the respiratory tract. S-IgA consists of dimeric IgA (dIgA) produced by plasma cells and secretory component (SC) produced by epithelial cells. This study compared SC production by primary cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) and by respiratory epithelial cell lines. Among the cell lines, A549 did not produce detectable SC, 16HBE produced very low levels of SC, while CALU-3 produced significant levels of SC. HBEC produced SC in nonpolarized and polarized primary cultures, where it was secreted apically. Polarized HBEC transcytosed radiolabelled and cold dIgA, resulting in the presence of S-IgA in their apical media. SC production and IgA transcytosis by polarized HBEC were upregulated by interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) after 48 h. By reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, no SC messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) was detected in A549 and 16HBE, while SC mRNA in CALU-3 was comparable to that of HBEC incubated for 48 h with IFN-gamma. By immunocytochemistry, HBEC expressed SC immunostaining and its intensity increased after 48 h with IFN-gamma. It is concluded that human bronchial epithelial cells produce secretory component and transcytose dimeric immunoglobulin A in vitro. These processes were apically polarized and upregulated by interferon-gamma. Among the cell lines studied, only CALU-3 expressed secretory component-messenger ribonucleic acid and produced detectable secretory component.
Perception of hue is opponent, involving the antagonistic comparison of signals from different cone types. For blue versus yellow opponency, the antagonism is first evident at a ganglion cell with firing that increases to stimulation of short wavelength-sensitive (S) cones and decreases to stimulation of middle wavelength-sensitive (M) and long wavelength-sensitive (L) cones. This ganglion cell, termed blue-yellow (B-Y), has a distinctive morphology with dendrites in both ON and OFF strata of the inner plexiform layer (Dacey and Lee, 1994). Here we report the synaptic circuitry of the cell and its spatial density. Reconstructing neurons in macaque fovea from electron micrographs of serial sections, we identified six ganglion cells that branch in both strata and have similar circuitry. In the ON stratum each cell collects approximately 33 synapses from bipolar cells traced back exclusively to invaginating contacts from S cones, and in the OFF stratum each cell collects approximately 14 synapses from bipolar cells (types DB2 and DB3) traced to basal synapses from approximately 20 M and L cones. This circuitry predicts that spatially coincident blue-yellow opponency arises at the level of the cone output via expression of different glutamate receptors. S cone stimuli suppress glutamate release onto metabotropic receptors of the S cone bipolar cell dendrite, thereby opening cation channels, whereas M and L cone stimuli suppress glutamate release onto ionotropic glutamate receptors of DB2 and DB3 cell dendrites, thereby closing cation channels. Although the B-Y cell is relatively rare (3% of foveal ganglion cells), its spatial density equals that of the S cone; thus it could support psychophysical discrimination of a blue-yellow grating down to the spatial cutoff of the S cone mosaic.