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Experiments have been performed on the "breathing" of micron-size hygroscopic aerosols in and out of a four-generation model of the bronchial tree. Comparison of the experimental results on aerosol growth in the model with the classical theory for dilute aqueous solutions of nonpolar salts shows a) that the theory is applicable to conditions in the airways, b) that to a high degree of approximation the process represents deposition followed by growth, and c) that there is a significant amount of trapping of particles near their equilibrium size in the deeper model tubes. These experiments are the first to verify that the classical particle growth theory is applicable to the particle sizes and environmental conditions present in the human airways during hygroscopic aerosol therapy. This theory will be useful in designing an optimal hygroscopic aerosol delivery system, but several questions including the method of generation and the effect of drug solutions on particle equilibriums remain to be answered.
Increased bronchial sensitivity to inhaled histamine in asthma is well known. The mechanism of this increased bronchial sensitivity is not known nor has it been demonstrated that isolated cells respond abnormally to histamine. Polymorpho-nuclear leukocytes (PMNs) provide a homogeneous cell population to study agonist response. Release of granulocyte lysosomal enzymes is inhibited by agonists increasing the PMN cyclic AMP concentration. The release of the lysosomal enzyme beta glucuronidase by serum-activated particles of zymosan was similar in PMNs isolated from normal and asthma subjects. Histamine (100-0.01 muM) inhibited enzyme release. Except at the maximal concentration of histamine (100 muM), the response to histamine was decreased in asthma. The inhibition of enzyme release paralleled an increase in intracellular PMN cyclic AMP. In asthma, the cyclic AMP response to histamine was reduced. The H2 antihistamine metiamide blocked histamine inhibition of lysosomal enzyme release and the increase in cyclic AMP. The effect was maximal at concentrations equimolar to those of histamine. The H1 antihistamine chlorpheniramine had no effect on histamine inhibition of granulocyte lysosomal enzyme release. A decrease in the inhibition of the release of the inflammatory lysosomal enzymes from granulocytes in asthma may contribute to an enhanced bronchial inflammatory reaction.