The publication data currently available has been vetted by Vanderbilt faculty, staff, administrators and trainees. The data itself is retrieved directly from NCBI's PubMed and is automatically updated on a weekly basis to ensure accuracy and completeness.
If you have any questions or comments, please contact us.
Transgenic mice overexpressing the pim-1 oncogene in their lymphoid compartments are predisposed to T-cell lymphomagenesis but only to the extent that approximately 10% of the transgenic mice develop lymphomas within 34 weeks after birth. Recently, we have shown that lymphomagenesis in pim-1 transgenic mice can be accelerated by infecting pim-1 transgenic mice with murine leukemia viruses or by treating the mice with a relatively low dose of 60 mg of the carcinogen N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) per kg of body weight. Here we describe the incidence of tumors as a function of the dose of ENU. Either 200, 15, 4, 1, or 0.1 mg/kg ENU was injected into transgenic and control mice and the tumor incidence was monitored. T-cell lymphomas developed in 100 and 70% of the pim-1 transgenic mice treated with 200 and 15 mg/kg ENU, respectively. Approximately 20% of the Emu-pim-1 transgenic mice developed lymphomas after treatment with either 4, 1, or 0.1 mg/kg ENU. The nontransgenic mice developed lymphomas only after injection with 200 mg/kg (45%). The data show that Emu-pim-1 transgenic mice are approximately 25-fold more susceptible to ENU-induced lymphomagenesis than control mice. In most tumors the expression of c-myc was strongly elevated, probably as a direct or indirect effect of ENU. Analysis of the lymphomas for ras mutations revealed that approximately 10% of the lymphomas bear a ras mutation. The data indicate that at least some of these mutations are not the direct result of alkylation by ENU but rather represent spontaneous mutations that occurred later in the tumorigenic process.
We have used the 1.1 kilobases of the 5' upstream region of the platelet factor four (PF4) gene coupled to the prokaryotic beta-galactosidase gene to generate two lines of transgenic mice that express this construct. Studies of blood, bone marrow, spleen, and thymus reveal that platelets are the only circulating blood cells and megakaryocytes are the only hematopoietic precursor cells that possess the prokaryotic enzyme. The lack of transgene expression in brain, heart, intestine, kidney, liver, lung, and skeletal muscle was established by in situ staining of tissue sections as well as kinetic assay of tissue homogenates. These data suggest that this domain of the PF4 promoter contains most, if not all, of the tissue-specific region of the gene. Unexpectedly, the adrenal gland exhibits approximately 2% of the levels of beta-galactosidase possessed by megakaryocytes and the distribution of the prokaryotic enzyme corresponds to the location of mineralocorticoid-secreting cells. This result implies that either the PF4 gene is transcribed at low levels in specialized adrenal cells or that these specialized endocrine cells possess trans-acting factors similar to those that control the megakaryocyte promoter. The selective high-level expression of transgenes linked to the PF4 promoter should allow us to augment or suppress the in vivo levels of critical components in megakaryocytes and platelets and subsequently ascertain the effects of these modifications.
We have shown that elevated plasma D-glucose levels in experimentally-induced diabetic nude athymic rats can be reduced by intraperitoneal transplantation of microcarrier-attached insulin producing beta cells from the mouse pancreatic beta cell line, beta TC-1. The reduction in the level of hyperglycemia was observed as early as two days following cell transplantation and was associated with a concomitant increase in plasma insulin levels. beta TC-1 cell transplanted diabetic rats had plasma D-glucose levels similar to those found in non-diabetic control animals and remained normoglycemic throughout the 39 day experimental period. The beta TC-1 cell transplanted diabetic rats also had near normalization of body weight, food and water intake and of urine output when compared to control diabetic and non-diabetic rats. Similarly, they exhibited improved blood glucose clearance following intravenous D-glucose administration. These results suggest that beta TC-1 cells regulate D-glucose homeostasis following transplantation into diabetic rat recipients in a manner similar to that of endogenous pancreatic beta cells.
The cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) gene is expressed in multiple tissues and is regulated in a complex tissue-specific manner. To map the cis-acting DNA elements that direct this tissue-specific expression, we made transgenic mice containing truncated PEPCK-human growth hormone (hGH) fusion genes. The transgenes contained PEPCK promoter fragments with 5' endpoints at -2088, -888, -600, -402, and -207 bp, while the 3' endpoint was at +69 bp. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the -2088 transgene was expressed in the correct cell types (hepatocytes, proximal tubular epithelium of the kidney, villar epithelium of the small intestine, epithelium of the colon, smooth muscle of the vagina and lungs, ductal epithelium of the sublingual gland, and white and brown adipocytes). Solution hybridization of hGH mRNA expressed from the transgenes indicated that white and brown fat-specific elements are located distally (-2088 to -888 bp) and that liver-, gut-, and kidney-specific elements are located proximally (-600 to +69 bp). However, elements outside of the region tested are necessary for the correct developmental pattern and level of PEPCK expression in kidney. Both the -2088 and -402 transgenes responded in a tissue-specific manner to dietary stimuli, and the -2088 transgene responded to glucocorticoid stimuli. Thus, different tissues utilize distinct cell-specific cis-acting elements to direct and regulate the PEPCK gene.
The transporter associated with the antigen processing 1 (TAP1) gene encodes a subunit for a transporter, presumed to be involved in the delivery of peptides across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane to class I molecules. We have generated mice with a disrupted TAP1 gene using embryonic stem cell technology. TAP1-deficient mice are defective in the stable assembly and intracellular transport of class I molecules and consequently show severely reduced levels of surface class I molecules. These properties are strikingly similar to those described for the TAP2 mutant cell line RMA-S. Cells from the TAP1-deficient mice are unable to present cytosolic antigens to class I-restricted cytotoxic T cells. As predicted from the near absence of class I surface expression, TAP1-deficient mice lack CD4-8+ T cells.
A polyclonal antibody, alpha Hox 2.1a, has been generated and used to immunolocalize Hox 2.1 protein in mouse embryos. Protein is present in nuclei of all tissues previously shown to express Hox 2.1 RNA. In addition, protein is seen in somites and proximal regions of the limb buds, tissues in which Hox 2.1 RNA expression was not clearly detected previously by in situ hybridization. At the 7 somite stage, protein is detectable in the neural tube up to the level of somite 1, but later retracts to a more posterior position. Immunoblot, in vitro translation, and immunoprecipitation experiments were carried out to characterize the Hox 2.1 protein. The results show that the Hox 2.1 gene produces at least two related phosphorylated proteins present in different proportions in different tissues.
Transforming growth factor alpha and beta 1 (TGF alpha and TGF beta 1) are representative members of two distinct and expanding families of polypeptide growth factors. TGF alpha is an epithelial cell mitogen, whereas TGF beta 1 inhibits epithelial cell growth; the role of these factors in contributing to the transformed phenotype is uncertain. Steady state mRNA expression for these growth factors and their receptors in a panel of human colon cancers and adjacent normal mucosa is presented. Based in part on results from transgenic mice in which TGF alpha is selectively overproduced in the mammary gland, a possible role for TGF alpha as a tumor promoter in the process of transformation is discussed.
Eight lines of transgenic mice expressing a mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) human transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF alpha) fusion gene were established. Three lines with distinctive phenotypes are presented. All have proliferative changes of the mammary gland. One line has sebaceous gland hyperplasia of the skin. Five histologic patterns of mammary gland hyperplasia based on two of these lines were identified: cystic hyperplasia, solid hyperplasia, dysplasia, adenoma, and adenocarcinoma. Human TGF alpha mRNA and protein were produced in all patterns but appeared reduced in solid hyperplasia, dysplasia, and adenocarcinoma. TGF alpha immunoreactivity in the mammary tissue, cystic fluid, and serum did not show significant differences; hyperplasia developed in 65% of multiparous mice and 45% of virgin mice by 12 months of age. Adenocarcinoma developed in 40% of multiparous mice and 30% of virgin mice by 16 months of age. These transgenic lines may provide useful models of mammary and sebaceous gland hyperplasia analogous to human disease.
We describe transgenic mouse lines that express lacZ under the control of the Hox 3.3 Promoter II. The correct anterior boundary can be fixed by 3.6 kb of promoter DNA (plus 1.6 kb of 5' transcribed sequences), both in tissues of ectodermal and mesodermal origin. The posterior border, however, is not respected, and lacZ expression continues into the tail region. One line has particularly strong graded expression in the anterior proximal limb bud. Other lines, containing a shorter promoter fragment (0.6 kb), have ectopic expression in the head region, including one line that has expression in the anterior half of the retina. Such mouse lines make it possible to molecularly distinguish cells in regions of the embryo that look otherwise identical and may be useful in studying the establishment of molecular differences in the mouse embryo.