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Rats with puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN) nephrosis were given either angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI), angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist (Ang IIRA), or no treatment for four weeks and were then monitored for an additional 12 weeks. In untreated PAN rats, proteinuria reached a maximum at two weeks (271 +/- 38 mg/day). Proteinuria in this early phase was markedly attenuated by ACEI (96 +/- 35 mg/day, P < 0.01), but unaffected by Ang IIRA (306 +/- 34 mg/day). Acute administration of a bradykinin antagonist substantially dampened the antiproteinuric effect of ACEI in PAN rats, resulting in an average increase in proteinuria of 41 +/- 14% in ACEI-treated rats (P < 0.05, ACEI vs. ACEI+bradykinin antagonist). Acute phase therapy for four weeks with ACEI or Ang IIRA did not attenuate subsequent glomerulosclerosis. Separate groups of PAN rats with similar degree of glomerulosclerosis, assessed at 16 weeks after PAN by renal biopsy, were then treated as follows: ACEI [50 mg/liter drinking water (DW), or 200 mg/liter DW], Ang IIRA (20 mg/liter DW, or 80 mg/liter DW) or no treatment, starting after renal biopsy. Whereas glomerulosclerosis increased from biopsy to autopsy at 28 weeks with emergence of low grade proteinuria in untreated PAN rats, proteinuria was absent and glomerulosclerosis was ameliorated or reversed in ACEI and Ang IIRA groups. The results indicate that the early phase proteinuria of PAN nephropathy is independent of Ang II, and that the antiproteinuric effect of ACEI is, at least in part, channeled through activation of bradykinin, whereas the subsequent progression of glomerulosclerosis is caused by a mechanism involving endogenous Ang II actions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
We examined the effect of respiratory tract infection with Sendai virus on the responsiveness of airway blood flow to substance P (SP) in rats. Pathogen-free rats were inoculated with either Sendai virus suspension or sterile viral growth medium into each nostril. Five days later, we measured airway and esophageal blood flows before and immediately after injection of SP or histamine into the left ventricle of rats in both groups using a modification of the reference-sample microsphere technique. Viral infection potentiated the increase in airway blood flow evoked by SP but not by histamine. We also examined the effect of neutral endopeptidase (NEP) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) on the SP-induced increase in airway blood flow. Both phosphoramidon (NEP inhibitor) and captopril (ACE inhibitor) potentiated the increase in airway blood flow produced by SP in pathogen-free rats. In the presence of both peptidase inhibitors, a submaximal dose of SP increased blood flow to a similar level in infected and pathogen-free rats. Thus decreased activity of both ACE and NEP may be involved in the exaggerated increase in airway blood flow evoked by SP in virus-infected rats.
During the past decade, experimental and clinical evidence has indicated an important role for the renin-angiotensin system in the progressive destruction of nephrons in a wide variety of chronic renal diseases. Studies have indicated that in the subtotally nephrectomized rat model of progressive glomerulosclerosis, in experimental diabetes mellitus, in the chronic phase of puromycin aminonucleoside-induced nephrotic syndrome and in Heymann's nephritis, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors dramatically preserve both nephron structure and function. Clinical studies have similarly noted that chronic administration of ACE inhibitors inhibits progression of renal failure in type I diabetes and type II diabetes as well as primary glomerulopathies, sickle cell nephropathy, systemic lupus erythematosis, chronic pyelonephritis and adult polycystic kidney disease. Current evidence suggests that the beneficial effect of ACE inhibitors is primarily due to inhibition of angiotensin II production, and there is strong suggestive evidence for increases in local intrarenal activation of the renin-angiotensin system in these conditions. In obstructive uropathy, activation of the renin-angiotensin system has also been shown to be an important aspect of the early functional changes and may be of importance in the subsequent generation of interstitial fibrosis. In the obstructed kidney, renin and angiotensinogen production increase and type I angiotensin receptors decrease. Inhibitors of angiotensin II production and angiotensin II action partially reverse the vasoconstriction and the reduced renal blood flow, and abolish the changes in expression of AT1 MRNA induced by obstruction. Studies suggest that the angiotensin-mediated increases in tubulointerstitial fibrosis may be mediated by increased production of transforming growth factor-beta.
We studied the effect of three antihypertensive drugs on the growth of glomeruli in four- to five-week-old Munich-Wistar rats (N = 24), which were undergoing rapid maturation processes. Young rats were given an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI, enalapril, 50 mg/liter drinking water), verapamil (50 mg/liter) or hydralazine (80 mg/liter) or no treatment for six weeks. Body weight increased comparably in the treatment groups and age-matched controls, reaching on average 197 +/- 11, 214 +/- 12 and 198 +/- 3 g in ACEI-, verapamil- and hydralazine-treated rats, respectively, versus 218 +/- 6 g in control rats. Glomerular hemodynamic patterns, including glomerular capillary pressure, measured in maturing rats after one and six weeks of ACEI treatment were unaffected by ACEI. Mean planar area of glomeruli (PAmean) achieved was smaller than control in ACEI rats (6.60 +/- 0.20 x 10(-3) mm2 vs. 5.37 +/- 0.22, respectively, P less than 0.005), but not in rats treated with other antihypertensive drugs. Furthermore, the maturational PAmean increase in rats given ACEI for six weeks was, on average, only half of that achieved by age-matched controls not given ACEI, in contrast to normal maturational growth with hydralazine or verapamil (29% increase in PAmean from normal baseline in ACEI vs. 52%, 53% and 59% increases in verapamil, hydralazine and control, respectively). In contrast, comparable PAmean values were found in adults with (7.08 +/- 0.22 x 10(-3)mm2, N = 6) and without (6.98 +/- 0.33 x 10(-3)mm2, N = 6) ACEI treatment given for six weeks. Therefore, ACEI, but not verapamil and hydralazine, causes growth retardation in maturing glomeruli.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
The relationship between tubulointerstitial nephritis and proteinuria was characterized in experimental nephrosis in rats. In one group, proteinuria induced by aminonucleoside of puromycin (PAN) was reduced by using an 8% protein diet and adding the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor enalapril to the drinking water. Two control groups were injected with saline and PAN, respectively, and fed a 27% protein diet. The first group had significantly reduced albuminuria and a definite attenuation of tubular cell injury. There was a strong positive correlation between the number of interstitial macrophages and albuminuria. The beneficial effect was reproduced by dietary-protein restriction alone, whereas ACE inhibition alone had an insignificant effect on the degree of proteinuria. Depletion of circulating T lymphocytes in one group of nephrotic rats eliminated interstitial lymphocytes but did not affect interstitial macrophage influx. Inhibition of the in situ proliferation of resident interstitial macrophages by unilateral kidney irradiation failed to change the intensity of the macrophage infiltration. Treatment of rats with sodium maleate produced proximal tubular cell toxicity but interstitial inflammation did not develop, suggesting that the latter is not a nonspecific response to tubular injury. These studies demonstrate a strong relationship between tubulointerstitial nephritis and the severity of proteinuria in experimental nephrosis.
Previous studies in experimental models of progressive renal failure have shown that the capacity of antihypertensive drugs to protect glomeruli from sclerosis is often unpredictable from their effect on systemic blood pressure. The present study was undertaken to ascertain whether this systemic blood pressure-independent structure-preserving effect of antihypertensives, particularly angiotensin II converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI), is confined to the glomerulus or not, as well as whether this effect is mediated via angiotensin II (Ang II). The following experimental drug regimens were used in the rat model of subtotal nephrectomy (sNPX): so-called triple therapy [TRX; a combination of reserpine 5 mg/liter drinking water (DW), hydralazine 80 mg/liter DW and hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg/liter DW], or ACEI (either captopril, CPL, 600 mg/liter DW, enalapril, ENL, 400 mg/liter DW or lisinopril, LSL, 200 mg/liter DW), or a novel Ang II receptor antagonist (Ang IIR, L-158,809, 20 mg/liter DW). These dosages were identified in pilot studies to be the minimum required to control systemic blood pressure in the early phase up to 12 weeks. In addition, a separate group was treated with a higher dose of L-158,809 (80 mg/liter DW) with equipotent systemic pressor effect. Treatment was initiated eight weeks after subtotal nephrectomy following renal biopsy, and animals were sacrificed at 16 weeks. In ACEI treated rats, carotid arterial wall thickening (WT), defined as ratio of media thickening to radius of outer vessel wall, was similar to normal age-matched control (0.073 in all ACEI treated rats, vs. 0.074 in normal control) and significantly less than with TRX (ratio 0.118) or untreated sNPX (0.130). Even more remarkably, coronary arteriole WT in ACEI-treated rats averaged 0.139, a value less than one half and one third of TRX (0.298) and untreated sNPX control (0.388), respectively. Similar results were obtained for mesenteric artery WT. These findings were closely paralleled by changes of glomerular sclerosis. In untreated sNPX control rats, glomerular sclerosis increased from biopsy to autopsy specimens by an average of 458%. Although TRX dampened the degree of increase in sclerosis to on average 212%, this protective effect was far less than that achieved by ACEI. In the latter, sclerosis increased on average only 65% from biopsy to autopsy. Although all ACEIs were more effective than TRX, captopril and lisinopril groups showed greatest benefit at these doses. Ang IIR also protected renal and extrarenal structures with 34% increase of sclerosis index in low dose and WT 0.088, 0.117 and 0.112, respectively in carotid, mesenteric and coronary arteries.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
OBJECTIVE - Case reports of suspected adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with prenatal exposure to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, particularly oligohydramnios, prolonged neonatal anuria, and defects of ossification of the skull dome, prompted us to examine pregnancy outcome in a large cohort of pregnant women for whom complete drug exposure information was known.
METHODS - We studied the prescribed drug exposure histories and pregnancy outcomes of all women aged 15-44 years enrolled in Tennessee Medicaid who delivered a live-born or stillborn infant between January 1, 1983 and December 31, 1988.
RESULTS - Of the 106,813 women enrolled in Tennessee Medicaid who delivered either a live-born or stillborn infant during the study period, 19 were exposed to an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor during pregnancy. All 19 women delivered live infants. Among the 19 newborns, one preterm infant had prolonged anuria necessitating dialysis and a second preterm infant had microcephaly and a large occipital encephalocele.
CONCLUSIONS - These outcomes represent a systematic follow-up of all angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-exposed pregnancies. Despite the small number of exposures, there were two outcomes previously linked to prenatal use of these drugs, suggesting that the absolute risk may be high. In light of these findings and the case reports of others, it is prudent to avoid the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in pregnancy.