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The reaction of malondialdehyde (MDA) with cytosine nucleosides was investigated, and the structures of 1:1 and 3:1 MDA-cytosine adducts were identified. Ultraviolet and NMR spectroscopy indicates the structure of the 1:1 adduct is N4-(3-oxo-1-trans-propenyl)cytosine (M1C) and the structure of the 3:1 adduct is 6-(5*,7*-diformyl-2*H-3*,6*-dihydro-2*,6*-methano-1*,3*-oxazoci n-3*yl)-2- oxopyrimidine (M3C). Both adducts are analogous to previously identified MDA-adenine adducts. The time courses of adduct formation in the reaction of MDA with deoxycytidine at different pH's and using different sources of MDA were determined. M3C-deoxyribose is the major product at acidic pH whereas M1C-deoxyribose appears to be the sole adduct formed at neutral pH. These results suggest that adducts formed between nucleic acid bases and oligomers of MDA may not play a major role in MDA mutagenesis.
The ability of cigarette smoke condensate to induce a genotoxic response has been measured in liver microsomal and reconstituted monooxygenase systems containing rat and human cytochrome P-450 (P-450) enzymes, as determined by umu gene expression in Salmonella typhimurium TA1535/pSK1002. The reactivities of amino-alpha-carboline and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), two compounds known to be present at considerable levels in cigarette smoke condensate, were also determined and compared with regard to genotoxicity. Amino-alpha-carboline and PhIP are activated principally by P-450 1A2 enzymes in human and rat liver microsomes: (a) activation of both compounds was catalyzed efficiently by liver microsomes prepared from rats treated with 5,6-benzoflavone, isosafrole, or the commercial polychlorinated biphenyl mixture Aroclor 1254, and the activities could be considerably inhibited by antibodies raised against P-450 1A1 or 1A2; (b) the rates of activation of these compounds were correlated with the amount of human P-450 1A2 and of phenacetin O-deethylation activity in different human liver microsomal preparations, and these activities were inhibited by anti-P-450 1A2; (c) reconstituted enzyme systems containing P-450 1A enzymes isolated from rats and humans showed the highest rates of activation of amino-alpha-carboline and PhIP. In rat liver microsomes PhIP may also be activated by P-450 3A enzymes; activity was induced in rats treated with pregnenolone 16 alpha-carbonitrile and was inhibited by anti-human P-450 3A4. However, in humans the contribution of P-450 3A enzymes could be excluded as judged by the very low effects of anti-P-450 3A4 on the microsomal activities and poor correlation with P-450 3A4-catalyzed activities in various liver samples. Cigarette smoke condensate strongly inhibited the activation of several potent procarcinogens by human liver microsomes, particularly the reactions catalyzed by P-450 1A2, but was not so inhibitory of the activation reactions catalyzed by P-450 3A4 and of P-450 2D6-catalyzed bufuralol 1'-hydroxylation. Genotoxic components of the cigarette smoke condensate were extracted by using copper phthalocyanine cellulose (blue cotton). Genotoxicity of this extract was observed only after activation by P-450, and the inhibition of P-450 1A2 activities by these extracts was slight.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
Aflatoxin Q1 8,9-oxide was synthesized and found to yield lower levels of N7-guanyl adducts than obtained from aflatoxin B1 8,9-oxide when mixed with calf thymus DNA or Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 cells. However, when S. typhimurium TA 98 was treated with the (analogous) epoxides of aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin G1, aflatoxin Q1, or sterigmatocystin, the ratios of revertants to N7-guanyl DNA adducts were similar. Aflatoxin Q1 and aflatoxin B1 8,9-oxide (trapped here as the glutathione conjugate) are the major oxidative products formed from aflatoxin B1 at all substrate concentrations in human liver microsomes, and cytochrome P-450 (P-450) 3A4 appears to be the dominant enzyme involved in both oxidations, as judged by studies involving correlation of activities in different liver samples, chemical inhibition, immunoinhibition, and reconstitution with purified hepatic and yeast recombinant P-450 3A4. Aflatoxin Q1 is not appreciably oxidized in human liver microsomes and is not very genotoxic. The postulated formation of both aflatoxin Q1 and aflatoxin 8,9-oxide from aflatoxin B1 can be rationalized by a model in which P-450 3A4 binds the substrate in either of two different configurations. This is further demonstrated by the dichotomous effect of 7,8-benzoflavone--this flavone stimulates 8,9-epoxidation while inhibiting the 3 alpha-hydroxylation reaction to form aflatoxin Q1. Thus, the 3 alpha-hydroxylation of aflatoxin B1 to aflatoxin Q1 is viewed as a potentially significant detoxication pathway.
An important aspect of bacterial mutagenesis by several difunctional carbonyl compounds appears to be the induction of the SOS system. We tested the ability of a series of carbonyl compounds to induce expression of the SOS-regulated umu operon in Salmonella typhimurium TA1535/pSK1002. SOS-inducing potencies varied widely among the carbonyl compounds tested. 4-Hydroxynonenal, a product of lipid peroxidation, was the most potent SOS-inducer, with maximal induction observed at concentrations of 0.1-1 microM. Acrolein, crotonaldehyde and methacrolein induced little increase over background umu expression. Malondialdehyde, another product of lipid peroxidation, was a very weak SOS-inducer with a maximal response induced at a concentration of 28 mM. Substitution at the alpha-position of malondialdehyde, which abolishes frameshift mutagenicity, did not abolish SOS-inducing activity. Substitution of the hydroxyl group of malondialdehyde and alpha-methyl-malondialdehyde by a better leaving group (benzoyloxy) resulted in an approximately 250-fold higher SOS-inducing potency. Comparison of the present results to literature reports on bacterial mutagenicity indicates a poor correlation of the two properties between different classes of difunctional carbonyl compounds and even within the same class of difunctional carbonyl compounds.
Pseudomonas MS can grow on methylamine and a number of other compounds containing C1 units as a sole source of carbon and energy. Assimilation of carbon into cell material occurs via the "serine pathway" since enzymes of this pathway are induced after growth on methylamine, but not malate or acetate. A mutant has been isolated which is unable to grow on methylamine or any other related substrate providing C1 units. This mutant is also unable to grow on acetate. Measurment of enzyme activities in cell-free extracts of wild-type cells showed that growth on methylamine caused induction of isocitrate lyase, a key enzyme in the glyoxylate cycle. The mutant organism lacks malate lyase, a key enzyme of the serine pathway, and isocitrate lyase as well. These results suggest that utilization of C1 units by Pseudomonas MS results in the net accumulation of acetate which is then assimilated into cell material via the glyoxylate cycle.