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In linkage analysis, when the lod score is maximized over multiple genetic models, standard asymptotic approximation of the significance level does not apply. Monte Carlo methods can be used to estimate the p value, but procedures currently used are extremely inefficient. We propose a Monte Carlo procedure based on the concept of importance sampling, which can be thousands of times more efficient than current procedures. With a reasonable amount of computing time, extremely accurate estimates of the p values can be obtained. Both theoretical results and an example of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) are presented to illustrate the efficiency performance of our method. Relations between single-model and multimodel p values are explored. The new procedure is also used to investigate the performance of asymptotic approximations in a single model situation.
To determine whether insulin is essential for the augmented hepatic glucose uptake observed in the presence of intraportal glucose delivery, SRIF was used to induce acute insulin deficiency in 5 conscious dogs, and glucose was infused into the portal vein or a peripheral vein in two sequential, randomized periods. Insulin and C-peptide levels were below the limits of detection after SRIF infusion, and the load of glucose presented to the liver was approximately doubled and equivalent during the portal and peripheral periods. Net hepatic glucose output was 2.9 +/- 0.9 and 2.1 +/- 1.1 mumol.kg-1.min-1 during portal and peripheral glucose delivery, respectively. In an additional set of protocols, pancreatectomized dogs were used to investigate the effects of prolonged insulin deficiency (n = 5) and acute insulin replacement (n = 4) on the hepatic response to intraportal glucose delivery. In the prolonged insulin deficiency protocol, SRIF was used to lower glucagon and thereby reduce circulating glucose levels, and glucose was infused into the portal or peripheral circulations in two sequential, randomized periods. As with acute insulin deficiency, net hepatic glucose output was still evident and similar (3.6 +/- 1.1 and 4.2 +/- 1.3 mumol.kg-1.min-1) during portal and peripheral glucose delivery, respectively. When the pancreatectomized dogs were restudied using a similar protocol, but one in which insulin was replaced (4X-basal), and the glucose load to the liver was matched to that which occurred in the prolonged insulin deficiency protocol, net hepatic glucose uptake was 23.6 +/- 6.1 mumol.kg-1.min-1 during portal glucose delivery but only 10.3 +/- 3.5 mumol.kg-1.min-1 during peripheral glucose delivery. These results suggest that the induction of net hepatic glucose uptake and the augmented hepatic response to intraportal glucose delivery require the presence of insulin.
The foveal increment threshold spectral sensitivity function for a 500 msec raised cosine stimulus without spatial edges exhibits a sharp drop or "notch" in sensitivity that coincides with the wavelength of a long-wavelength adapting field. An appropriate name for this phenomenon is the "Sloan notch", after Louise Sloan, who first observed a notch in a foveal threshold spectrum. We have examined suprathreshold discriminability on both sides of the Sloan notch produced by a 6700 td, 578 nm adapting field. In a temporal two-alternative forced-choice paradigm, a suprathreshold 650 nm low-frequency "standard" stimulus was paired with low-frequency "test" stimuli, of wavelength between 600 and 670 nm and varied intensity; the observer's task was to identify the interval containing the standard. Discriminability of the test and standard typically dropped to chance for some particular test intensity, producing "indiscriminability action spectra", up to 0.7 log units above threshold. Truncated spectra (between about 530 and 560 nm) were also obtained from observers on the middle wavelength side of the Sloan notch, for a 550 nm standard. The indiscriminability action spectra of each observer were identical, up to scaling, with the observer's threshold action spectrum. Analysis of the action spectra shows that the indiscriminable stimuli are rendered equivalent at the input to a neural pathway where L- and M-cone signals converge with opposite sign. We also investigated discriminability in the spectral region containing and immediately surrounding the Sloan notch. Suprathreshold stimuli in the spectral region near the notch produce percepts that are always discriminable from 650 and 550 nm standards (and from one another), and thus we conclude that in this spectral region, perception is mediated in part by a pathway distinct from that which signals the standards. The action spectrum of this latter pathway was estimated with a variant of the discrimination procedure, and found similar to V lambda over the spectral region 575-610 nm.
Experiments have been performed on the "breathing" of micron-size hygroscopic aerosols in and out of a four-generation model of the bronchial tree. Comparison of the experimental results on aerosol growth in the model with the classical theory for dilute aqueous solutions of nonpolar salts shows a) that the theory is applicable to conditions in the airways, b) that to a high degree of approximation the process represents deposition followed by growth, and c) that there is a significant amount of trapping of particles near their equilibrium size in the deeper model tubes. These experiments are the first to verify that the classical particle growth theory is applicable to the particle sizes and environmental conditions present in the human airways during hygroscopic aerosol therapy. This theory will be useful in designing an optimal hygroscopic aerosol delivery system, but several questions including the method of generation and the effect of drug solutions on particle equilibriums remain to be answered.