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The metabolism of the Xenopus laevis egg provides a cell survival signal. We found previously that increased carbon flux from glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) through the pentose phosphate pathway in egg extracts maintains NADPH levels and calcium/calmodulin regulated protein kinase II (CaMKII) activity to phosphorylate caspase 2 and suppress cell death pathways. Here we show that the addition of G6P to oocyte extracts inhibits the dephosphorylation/inactivation of CaMKII bound to caspase 2 by protein phosphatase 1. Thus, G6P sustains the phosphorylation of caspase 2 by CaMKII at Ser-135, preventing the induction of caspase 2-mediated apoptotic pathways. These findings expand our understanding of oocyte biology and clarify mechanisms underlying the metabolic regulation of CaMKII and apoptosis. Furthermore, these findings suggest novel approaches to disrupt the suppressive effects of the abnormal metabolism on cell death pathways.
Distinct physiological stimuli are required for bidirectional synaptic plasticity in striatum and hippocampus, but differences in the underlying signaling mechanisms are poorly understood. We have begun to compare levels and interactions of key excitatory synaptic proteins in whole extracts and subcellular fractions isolated from micro-dissected striatum and hippocampus. Levels of multiple glutamate receptor subunits, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), a highly abundant serine/threonine kinase, and spinophilin, a F-actin and protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) binding protein, were significantly lower in striatal extracts, as well as in synaptic and/or extrasynaptic fractions, compared with similar hippocampal extracts/fractions. However, CaMKII interactions with spinophilin were more robust in striatum compared with hippocampus, and this enhanced association was restricted to the extrasynaptic fraction. NMDAR GluN2B subunits associate with both spinophilin and CaMKII, but spinophilin-GluN2B complexes were enriched in extrasynaptic fractions whereas CaMKII-GluN2B complexes were enriched in synaptic fractions. Notably, the association of GluN2B with both CaMKII and spinophilin was more robust in striatal extrasynaptic fractions compared with hippocampal extrasynaptic fractions. Selective differences in the assembly of synaptic and extrasynaptic signaling complexes may contribute to differential physiological regulation of excitatory transmission in striatum and hippocampus.
© 2012 International Society for Neurochemistry.
Mechanisms underlying age-dependent changes of dendritic spines on striatal medium spiny neurons are poorly understood. Spinophilin is an F-actin- and protein phosphatase 1 (PP1)-binding protein that targets PP1 to multiple downstream effectors to modulate dendritic spine morphology and function. We found that calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) directly and indirectly associates with N- and C-terminal domains of spinophilin, but F-actin can displace CaMKII from the N-terminal domain. Spinophilin co-localizes PP1 with CaMKII on the F-actin cytoskeleton in heterologous cells, and spinophilin co-localizes with synaptic CaMKII in neuronal cultures. Thr286 autophosphorylation enhances the binding of CaMKII to spinophilin in vitro and in vivo. Although there is no change in total levels of Thr286 autophosphorylation, maturation from postnatal day 21 into adulthood robustly enhances the levels of CaMKII that co-immunoprecipitate with spinophilin from mouse striatal extracts. Moreover, N- and C-terminal domain fragments of spinophilin bind more CaMKII from adult vs. postnatal day 21 striatal lysates. Total levels of other proteins that interact with C-terminal domains of spinophilin decrease during maturation, perhaps reducing competition for CaMKII binding to the C-terminal domain. In contrast, total levels of α-internexin and binding of α-internexin to the spinophilin N-terminal domain increases with maturation, perhaps bridging an indirect interaction with CaMKII. Moreover, there is an increase in the levels of myosin Va, α-internexin, spinophilin, and PP1 in striatal CaMKII immune complexes isolated from adult and aged mice compared to those from postnatal day 21. These changes in spinophilin/CaMKII interactomes may contribute to changes in striatal dendritic spine density, morphology, and function during normal postnatal maturation and aging.
Sustained nigrostriatal dopamine depletion increases the serine/threonine phosphorylation of multiple striatal proteins that play a role in corticostriatal synaptic plasticity, including Thr(286) phosphorylation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIalpha (CaMKIIalpha). Mechanisms underlying these changes are unclear, but protein phosphatases play a critical role in the acute modulation of striatal protein phosphorylation. Here we show that dopamine depletion for periods ranging from 3 weeks to 10 months significantly reduces the total activity of protein phosphatase (PP) 1, but not of PP2A, in whole lysates of rat striatum, as measured using multiple substrates, including Thr(286)-autophosphorylated CaMKIIalpha. Striatal PP1 activity is partially inhibited by a fragment of the PP1-binding protein neurabin-I, Nb-(146-493), because of the selective inhibition of the PP1gamma(1) isoform. The fraction of PP1 activity that is insensitive to Nb-(146-493) was unaffected by dopamine depletion, demonstrating that dopamine depletion specifically reduces the activity of PP1 isoforms that are sensitive to Nb-(146-493) (i.e. PP1gamma(1)). However, total striatal levels of PP1gamma(1) or any other PP1 isoform were unaffected by dopamine depletion, and our previous studies showed that total levels of the PP1 regulatory/targeting proteins DARPP-32, spinophilin, and neurabin were also unchanged. Rather, co-immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that dopamine depletion increases the association of PP1gamma(1) with spinophilin in striatal extracts. In combination, these data demonstrate that striatal dopamine depletion inhibits a specific synaptic phosphatase by increasing PP1gamma(1) interaction with spinophilin, perhaps contributing to hyperphosphorylation of synaptic proteins and disruptions of synaptic plasticity and/or dendritic morphology.
The essential contribution of the antidepressant-sensitive serotonin (5-HT) transporter SERT (which is encoded by the SLC6A4 gene) to platelet 5-HT stores suggests an important role of this transporter in platelet function. Here, using SERT-deficient mice, we have established a role for constitutive SERT expression in efficient ADP- and thrombin-triggered platelet aggregation. Additionally, using pharmacological blockers of SERT and the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT), we have identified a role for ongoing 5-HT release and SERT activity in efficient human platelet aggregation. We have also demonstrated that fibrinogen, an activator of integrin alphaIIbbeta3, enhances SERT activity in human platelets and that integrin alphaIIbbeta3 interacts directly with the C terminus of SERT. Consistent with these findings, knockout mice lacking integrin beta3 displayed diminished platelet SERT activity. Conversely, HEK293 cells engineered to express human SERT and an activated form of integrin beta3 exhibited enhanced SERT function that coincided with elevated SERT surface expression. Our results support an unsuspected role of alphaIIbbeta3/SERT associations as well as alphaIIbbeta3 activation in control of SERT activity in vivo that may have broad implications for hyperserotonemia, cardiovascular disorders, and autism.
Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) catalytic subunits dephosphorylate specific substrates in discrete subcellular compartments to modulate many cellular processes. Canonical PP1-binding motifs (R/K-V/I-X-F) in a family of proteins mediate subcellular targeting, and the amino acids that form the binding pocket for the canonical motif are identical in all PP1 isoforms. However, PP1gamma1 but not PP1beta is selectively localized to F-actin-rich dendritic spines in neurons. Although the F-actin-binding proteins neurabin I and spinophilin (neurabin II) also bind PP1, their role in PP1 isoform selective targeting in intact cells is poorly understood. We show here that spinophilin selectively targets PP1gamma1, but not PP1beta, to F-actin-rich cortical regions of intact cells. Mutation of a PP1gamma1 selectivity determinant (N(464)EDYDRR(470) in spinophilin: conserved as residues 473-479 in neurabin) to VKDYDTW severely attenuated PP1gamma1 interactions with neurabins in vitro and in cells and disrupted PP1gamma1 targeting to F-actin. This domain is not involved in the weaker interactions of neurabins with PP1beta. In contrast, mutation of the canonical PP1-binding motif attenuated interactions of neurabins with both isoforms. Thus, selective targeting of PP1gamma1 to F-actin by neurabins in intact cells requires both the canonical PP1-binding motif and an auxiliary PP1gamma1-selectivity determinant.
Glucocorticoids paradoxically exert both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on the proliferation of cultured rat hepatocytes. We studied the effects of dexamethasone, a synthetic glucocorticoid, on the proliferation of cultured rat hepatocytes. The timing of growth factor addition modified the action of high-dose dexamethasone (10(-6) M) on DNA synthesis. When we added transforming growth factor-alpha at the time of plating, 10(-6) M dexamethasone weakly stimulated DNA synthesis by 26% relative to cells cultured in dexamethasone-free media. When we delayed growth factor addition until 24-48 h after plating, 10(-6) M dexamethasone inhibited DNA synthesis by 50%. Using immunological methods, we analyzed the expression and signaling patterns of the ErbB kinases in dexamethasone-treated cells. High-dose dexamethasone stabilized the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFr) and ErbB3, and it suppressed the de novo expression of ErbB2 that occurs during the third and fourth day of culture in 10(-8) M dexamethasone. High-dose dexamethasone by 72 h suppressed basal and EGF-associated phosphorylation of ERK and Akt. The reduction in ERK1/2 phosphorylation correlated with suppression of a culture-dependent increase in Son-of sevenless 1 (Sos1) and ERK1/2 expression. High-dose dexamethasone in hepatocytes stabilized or upregulated several inhibitory effectors of EGFr/ErbB2 and ERK, including receptor-associated late transducer (RALT) and MKP-1, respectively. Thus 10(-6) M dexamethasone exerts a time-dependent and redundant inhibitory effect on EGFr-mediated proliferative signaling in hepatocytes, targeting not only the ErbB proteins but also their various positive and negative effectors.
Protein kinase A (PKA) plays an important role in the regulation of lipid metabolism in adipocytes. The activity of PKA is known to be modulated by its specific location in the cell, a process mediated by A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). In order to examine the subcellular localization of PKA in this tissue we performed a search for AKAP proteins in adipocytes. We purified a 120 kDa protein which can bind both the regulatory subunit of PKA as well as the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1). This protein was found to be enriched in the lipid droplet fraction of primary adipocytes and was identified as D-AKAP1. This protein may play an important role in the regulation of PKA in adipocytes.
Oxidation of receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase-alpha (RPTPalpha) is emerging as an important yet poorly characterized regulatory mechanism for RPTPalpha signaling in cells. RPTPalpha has been shown to be reversibly oxidized and inhibited by reactive oxygen species. However, it is not known whether oxidative stress could regulate the phosphorylation of Tyr789, a critical tyrosine residue for RPTPalpha signaling that modulates the function of Grb2 and the activation of Src family kinases. In the present study, we have taken advantage of a phosphospecific antibody against Tyr789-phosphorylated RPTPalpha and characterized the phosphorylation of RPTPalpha Tyr789 in various cultured cells, including SYF cells lacking all three ubiquitously expressed members (Src, Yes, and Fyn) of Src family kinases. We have obtained substantial evidence indicating that the phosphorylation of RPTPalpha Tyr789 is regulated predominantly by an Src kinase inhibitor, protein phosphatase 1 (PP1)-sensitive but Src/Yes/Fyn-independent tyrosine kinase, in cells. We further reported a novel finding that, besides the inhibition of RPTPalpha's activity, H(2)O(2) at low to moderate concentrations (50-250 microM) markedly suppressed the phosphorylation of RPTPalpha Tyr789 and the association of RPTPalpha with Grb2 in cultured cells, which may result from inhibition of such a PP1-sensitive but Src/Yes/Fyn-independent tyrosine kinase. Because Tyr789 plays an important role in RPTPalpha signaling, our findings may provide new insights into the functional regulation of RPTPalpha by oxidative stress in cells.
The phosphorylation state of the glutamate receptor subtype 1 (GluR1) subunit of the AMPA receptor (AMPAR) plays a critical role in synaptic expression of the receptor, channel properties, and synaptic plasticity. Several Gs-coupled receptors that couple to protein kinase A (PKA) readily recruit phosphorylation of GluR1 at S845. Conversely, activation of the ionotropic glutamate NMDA receptor (NMDAR) readily recruits dephosphorylation of the same GluR1 site through Ca2+-mediated recruitment of phosphatase activity. In a physiological setting, receptor activation often overlaps and crosstalk between coactivation of multiple signaling cascades can result in differential regulation of a given substrate. After investigating the effect of coactivation of the NMDAR and the Gs-coupled beta-adrenergic receptor on GluR1 phosphorylation state, we have observed a novel signal that prevents PKA-mediated phosphorylation of GluR1 at serine site 845. This blockade of GluR1 phosphorylation is dependent on cellular depolarization recruited by either NMDAR or AMPAR activation, independent of Ca2+ and independent of calcineurin, protein phosphatase 1, and/or protein phosphatase 2A activity. Thus, in addition to the typical kinase-phosphatase rivalry mediating protein phosphorylation state, we have identified a novel form of phospho-protein regulation that occurs at GluR1 and may also occur at several other PKA substrates.