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NF-κB is a reduction-oxidation-sensitive transcription factor that plays a key role in regulating the immune response. In these studies, we intended to investigate the role of mitochondrial-derived reactive oxygen species in regulating NF-κB activation by studying transgenic mice that overexpress mitochondrial-targeted human catalase (mCAT). We treated wild-type (WT) and mCAT mice with intratracheal instillation of LPS and found that mCAT mice had exaggerated NF-κB activation in the lungs, increased neutrophilic alveolitis, and greater lung inflammation/injury compared with WT mice. Additional studies using bone marrow chimeras revealed that this hyperinflammatory phenotype was mediated by immune/inflammatory cells. Mechanistic studies using bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) showed that LPS treatment induced a sustained increase in NF-κB activation and expression of NF-κB-dependent inflammatory mediators in mCAT BMDMs compared with WT BMDMs. Further investigations showed that cytoplasmic, but not mitochondrial, hydrogen peroxide levels were reduced in LPS-treated mCAT BMDMs. However, mCAT macrophages exhibited increased glycolytic and oxidative metabolism, coupled with increased ATP production and an increased intracellular NADH/NAD ratio compared with BMDMs from WT mice. Treatment of BMDMs with lactate increased the intracellular NADH/NAD ratio and upregulated NF-κB activation after LPS treatment, whereas treatment with a potent inhibitor of the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (UK5099) decreased the NADH/NAD ratio and reduced NF-κB activation. Taken together, these findings point to an increased availability of reducing equivalents in the form of NADH as an important mechanism by which metabolic activity modulates inflammatory signaling through the NF-κB pathway.
Copyright © 2020 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
The B cell CLL/lymphoma-2 (BCL-2) family of proteins control the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis, also known as intrinsic apoptosis. Direct binding between members of the BCL-2 family regulates mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) after an apoptotic insult. The ability of the cell to sense stress and translate it into a death signal has been a major theme of research for nearly three decades; however, other mechanisms by which the BCL-2 family coordinates cellular homeostasis beyond its role in initiating apoptosis are emerging. One developing area of research is understanding how the BCL-2 family of proteins regulate development using pluripotent stem cells as a model system. Understanding BCL-2 family-mediated regulation of mitochondrial homeostasis in cell death and beyond would uncover new facets of stem cell maintenance and differentiation potential.
© 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
A sustained increase in intracellular Ca concentration (referred to hereafter as excitotoxicity), brought on by chronic metabolic stress, may contribute to pancreatic β-cell failure. To determine the additive effects of excitotoxicity and overnutrition on β-cell function and gene expression, we analyzed the impact of a high-fat diet (HFD) on knockout mice. Excitotoxicity caused β-cells to be more susceptible to HFD-induced impairment of glucose homeostasis, and these effects were mitigated by verapamil, a Ca channel blocker. Excitotoxicity, overnutrition, and the combination of both stresses caused similar but distinct alterations in the β-cell transcriptome, including additive increases in genes associated with mitochondrial energy metabolism, fatty acid β-oxidation, and mitochondrial biogenesis and their key regulator Overnutrition worsened excitotoxicity-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, increasing metabolic inflexibility and mitochondrial damage. In addition, excitotoxicity and overnutrition, individually and together, impaired both β-cell function and identity by reducing expression of genes important for insulin secretion, cell polarity, cell junction, cilia, cytoskeleton, vesicular trafficking, and regulation of β-cell epigenetic and transcriptional program. Sex had an impact on all β-cell responses, with male animals exhibiting greater metabolic stress-induced impairments than females. Together, these findings indicate that a sustained increase in intracellular Ca, by altering mitochondrial function and impairing β-cell identity, augments overnutrition-induced β-cell failure.
© 2020 by the American Diabetes Association.
Developmental biology has long benefited from studies of classic model organisms. These model systems have provided the fundamental understanding of general principles of development, as well as insight into genes and signaling pathways that control unique aspects of cell fate specification and tissue morphogenesis. Because human brain development cannot be studied in vivo, scientists have relied on these model systems to study basic principles underlying the development of this complex organ as many of these genes and signaling pathways play conserved roles in human development. However, recent studies have shown species-specific signatures in neurodevelopment such as the transcriptome of outer-radial glia, suggesting use of a human-derived model remains imperative. Over the past decade, human stem cell-derived brain organoids have emerged as a biologically relevant model system to study normal human brain development and neurological diseases. Here, we provide a historical perspective of this emerging model system, discuss current systems and limitations, and propose that new mechanistic insight into cell biology can be revealed using these three-dimensional brain structures.
The Na-K-Cl cotransporter-1 (NKCC1), by mediating the electroneutral transport of Na , K , and Cl plays an important role in cell volume regulation, epithelial transport, and the control of neuronal excitability. Recently, we reported the first known human mutation in SLC12A2, the gene encoding NKCC1. The 17-year old patient suffers from multiorgan failure. Laboratory tests conducted on muscle and liver biopsies of the patient showed abnormal increase in mitochondrial DNA copy number and increased glycogen levels, indicating the possibility that the transporter may play a role in energy metabolism. Here, we show that fibroblasts isolated from the patient demonstrate a significant increase in mitochondrial respiration, compared to fibroblasts isolated from healthy individuals. Similarly, Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells transfected with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-tagged mutant NKCC1 DNA demonstrated increased mitochondrial respiration when compared to MDCK cells expressing EGFP-tagged wild-type (WT) cotransporter. Direct inhibition of the cotransporter through addition of bumetanide did not change the rate of basal respiration, but led to increased maximal mitochondrial respiration. Fibroblasts extracted from NKCC1 and NKCC1 mice also demonstrated a significant elevation in mitochondrial respiration, compared to fibroblasts isolated from their WT littermates. Expression of the mutant protein was associated with an increase in hydrogen peroxide and peroxidase activity and a decrease in messenger RNA transcript levels for protein involved in the unfolded protein response. These data reveal that cells expressing the mutant cotransporter demonstrate increased mitochondrial respiration and behave like they are experiencing a state of starvation.
© 2020 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
OBJECTIVE - Several studies have found associations between a diagnosis or symptoms of major depressive disorder and markers of cellular aging and dysfunction. These investigations, however, are predominantly cross-sectional and focus on adults. In the present study, we used a prospective longitudinal design to test the cross-sectional association between depressive symptoms in adolescents and telomere length (TL) as well as mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNA-cn).
METHOD - A total of 121 adolescents (mean age = 11.38 years, SD = 1.03; 39% male adolescents and 61% female adolescents) were followed for approximately 2 years. At baseline and follow-up, participants provided saliva for DNA extraction, from which measures of TL and mtDNA-cn were obtained. Depressive symptoms were obtained via the Children's Depression Inventory.
RESULTS - There was no association between depressive symptoms and markers of cellular aging at baseline; however, depressive symptoms at baseline predicted higher rates of telomere erosion (β = -0.201, p = .016) and greater increases in mtDNA-cn (β = 0.190, p = .012) over the follow-up period. Markers of cellular aging at baseline did not predict subsequent changes in depressive symptoms. Furthermore, including the number of stressful life events did not alter these patterns of findings.
CONCLUSION - These results indicate that depressive symptoms precede changes in cellular aging and dysfunction, rather than the reverse.
Copyright © 2019 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
OBJECTIVES - Studies suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction underlies some forms of sepsis-induced organ failure. We sought to test the hypothesis that variations in mitochondrial DNA haplogroup affect susceptibility to sepsis-associated delirium, a common manifestation of acute brain dysfunction during sepsis.
DESIGN - Retrospective cohort study.
SETTING - Medical and surgical ICUs at a large tertiary care center.
PATIENTS - Caucasian and African American adults with sepsis.
MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS - We determined each patient's mitochondrial DNA haplogroup using single-nucleotide polymorphisms genotyping data in a DNA databank and extracted outcomes from linked electronic medical records. We then used zero-inflated negative binomial regression to analyze age-adjusted associations between mitochondrial DNA haplogroups and duration of delirium, identified using the Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU. Eight-hundred ten patients accounted for 958 sepsis admissions, with 802 (84%) by Caucasians and 156 (16%) by African Americans. In total, 795 patient admissions (83%) involved one or more days of delirium. The 7% of Caucasians belonging to mitochondrial DNA haplogroup clade IWX experienced more delirium than the 49% in haplogroup H, the most common Caucasian haplogroup (age-adjusted rate ratio for delirium 1.36; 95% CI, 1.13-1.64; p = 0.001). Alternatively, among African Americans the 24% in haplogroup L2 experienced less delirium than those in haplogroup L3, the most common African haplogroup (adjusted rate ratio for delirium 0.60; 95% CI, 0.38-0.94; p = 0.03).
CONCLUSIONS - Variations in mitochondrial DNA are associated with development of and protection from delirium in Caucasians and African Americans during sepsis. Future studies are now required to determine whether mitochondrial DNA and mitochondrial dysfunction contribute to the pathogenesis of delirium during sepsis so that targeted treatments can be developed.
Anthracyclines are the cornerstone for many oncologic treatments, but their cardiotoxicity has been recognized for several decades. Female subjects, especially before puberty and adolescence, or after menopause, seem to be more at increased risk, with the prognostic impact of this sex issue being less consistent compared to other cardiovascular risk factors. Several studies imply that sex differences could depend on the lack of the protective effect of sex hormones against the anthracycline-initiated damage in cardiac cells, or on differential mitochondria-related oxidative gene expression. This is also reflected by the results obtained with different diagnostic methods, such as cardiovascular biomarkers and imaging techniques (echocardiography, magnetic resonance, and nuclear medicine) in the diagnosis and monitoring of cardiotoxicity, confirming that sex differences exist. The same is true about protective strategies from anthracycline cardiotoxicity. Indeed, first studied to withstand oxidative damage in response to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, cardioprotection has different outcomes in men and women. A number of studies assessed the differences in I/R response between male and female hearts, with oxidative stress and apoptosis being shared mechanisms between the I/R and anthracyclines heart damage. Sex hormones can modulate these mechanisms, thus confirming their importance in the pathophysiology in cardioprotection not only from the ischemia/reperfusion damage, but also from anthracyclines, fueling further cardio-oncologic research on the topic.
The translocator protein (TSPO), previously known as the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR), is a membrane protein located on the outer mitochondrial membrane. Experimentally-derived structures of mouse TSPO (mTSPO) and its homologs from bacterial species have been determined by NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography, respectively. These structures and ligand interactions within the TSPO binding pocket display distinct differences. Here, we leverage experimental and computational studies to derive a unified structural model of mTSPO in the presence and absence of the TSPO ligand, PK11195, and study the effects of DPC detergent micelles on the TSPO structure and ligand binding. From this work, we conclude that that the lipid-mimetic system used to solubilize mTSPO for NMR studies thermodynamically destabilizes the protein, introduces structural perturbations, and alters the characteristics of ligand binding. Furthermore, we used Rosetta to construct a unified mTSPO model that reconciles deviating features of the mammalian and bacterial TSPO. These deviating features are likely a consequence of the detergent system used for structure determination of mTSPO by NMR. The unified mTSPO model agrees with available experimental NMR data, appears to be physically realistic (i.e. thermodynamically not frustrated as judged by the Rosetta energy function), and simultaneously shares the structural features observed in sequence-conserved regions of the bacterial proteins. Finally, we identified the binding site for an imaging ligand VUIIS8310 that is currently positioned for clinical translation using NMR spectroscopy and propose a computational model of the VUIIS8310-mTSPO complex.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a major human disease associated with degeneration of the central nervous system. Evidence suggests that several endogenously formed 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-mimicking chemicals that are metabolic conversion products, especially β-carbolines and isoquinolines, act as neurotoxins that induce PD or enhance progression of the disease. We have demonstrated previously that mitochondrially targeted human cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6), supported by mitochondrial adrenodoxin and adrenodoxin reductase, can efficiently catalyze the conversion of MPTP to the toxic 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion. In this study, we show that the mitochondrially targeted CYP2D6 can efficiently catalyze MPTP-mimicking compounds, 2-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline, 2-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline, and 9-methyl-norharmon, suspected to induce PD in humans. Our results reveal that activity and respiration in mouse brain mitochondrial complex I are significantly affected by these toxins in WT mice but remain unchanged in Cyp2d6 locus knockout mice, indicating a possible role of CYP2D6 in the metabolism of these compounds both and These metabolic effects were minimized in the presence of two CYP2D6 inhibitors, quinidine and ajmalicine. Neuro-2a cells stably expressing predominantly mitochondrially targeted CYP2D6 were more sensitive to toxin-mediated respiratory dysfunction and complex I inhibition than cells expressing predominantly endoplasmic reticulum-targeted CYP2D6. Exposure to these toxins also induced the autophagic marker Parkin and the mitochondrial fission marker Dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) in differentiated neurons expressing mitochondrial CYP2D6. Our results show that monomethylamines are converted to their toxic cationic form by mitochondrially directed CYP2D6 and result in neuronal degradation in mice.
© 2019 Chattopadhyay et al.