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Results: 1 to 10 of 74

Publication Record


Arrhythmia genetics: Not dark and lite, but 50 shades of gray.
Roden DM, Glazer AM, Kroncke B
(2018) Heart Rhythm 15: 1231-1232
MeSH Terms: Arrhythmias, Cardiac, Humans, Long QT Syndrome, Phenotype, Potassium Channels, Voltage-Gated
Added March 26, 2019
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MeSH Terms
Antioxidant supplementation and atrial arrhythmias in critically ill trauma patients.
Mirhoseini MF, Hamblin SE, Moore WP, Pouliot J, Jenkins JM, Wang W, Chandrasekhar R, Collier BR, Patel MB
(2018) J Surg Res 222: 10-16
MeSH Terms: Adult, Antioxidants, Arrhythmias, Cardiac, Ascorbic Acid, Critical Care, Critical Illness, Dietary Supplements, Female, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Oxidative Stress, Retrospective Studies, Selenium, Trauma Centers, Vitamin D, Wounds and Injuries
Show Abstract · Added June 26, 2018
BACKGROUND - The purpose of this study is to determine if antioxidant supplementation influences the incidence of atrial arrhythmias in trauma intensive care unit (ICU) patients.
MATERIALS AND METHODS - In this retrospective pre-post study, critically ill injured patients aged ≥18 years, admitted to a single-center trauma ICU for ≥48 hours were eligible for inclusion. The control group consists of patients admitted from January 2000 to September 2005, before routine antioxidant supplementation in our ICU. The antioxidant group consists of patients admitted from October 2005 to June 2011 who received an antioxidant protocol for ≥48 hours. The primary outcome is the incidence of atrial arrhythmias in the first 2 weeks of hospitalization or before discharge.
RESULTS - Of the 4699 patients, 1622 patients were in the antioxidant group and 2414 patients were in the control group. Adjusted for age, sex, year, injury severity, past medical history, and medication administration, the unadjusted incidence of atrial arrhythmias was 3.02% in the antioxidant group versus 3.31% in the control group, with no adjusted difference in atrial arrhythmias among those exposed to antioxidants (odds ratio: 1.31 [95% confidence interval: 0.46, 3.75], P = 0.62). Although there was no change in overall mortality, the expected adjusted survival of patients in those without antioxidant therapy was lower (odds ratio: 0.65 [95% confidence interval: 0.43, 0.97], P = 0.04).
CONCLUSIONS - ICU antioxidant supplementation did not decrease the incidence of atrial arrhythmias, nor alter the time from admission to development of arrhythmia. A longer expected survival time was observed in the antioxidant group compared with the control group but without a change in overall mortality between groups.
Published by Elsevier Inc.
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17 MeSH Terms
Azithromycin Causes a Novel Proarrhythmic Syndrome.
Yang Z, Prinsen JK, Bersell KR, Shen W, Yermalitskaya L, Sidorova T, Luis PB, Hall L, Zhang W, Du L, Milne G, Tucker P, George AL, Campbell CM, Pickett RA, Shaffer CM, Chopra N, Yang T, Knollmann BC, Roden DM, Murray KT
(2017) Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 10:
MeSH Terms: Action Potentials, Animals, Anti-Bacterial Agents, Arrhythmias, Cardiac, Azithromycin, CHO Cells, Calcium Channel Blockers, Calcium Channels, L-Type, Cricetulus, Dose-Response Relationship, Drug, Electrocardiography, Ambulatory, Female, HEK293 Cells, Heart Rate, Humans, KCNQ1 Potassium Channel, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Myocytes, Cardiac, NAV1.5 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel, Potassium Channel Blockers, Potassium Channels, Inwardly Rectifying, Potassium Channels, Voltage-Gated, Rabbits, Sodium Channel Blockers, Telemetry, Time Factors, Transfection, Young Adult
Show Abstract · Added July 6, 2017
BACKGROUND - The widely used macrolide antibiotic azithromycin increases risk of cardiovascular and sudden cardiac death, although the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Case reports, including the one we document here, demonstrate that azithromycin can cause rapid, polymorphic ventricular tachycardia in the absence of QT prolongation, indicating a novel proarrhythmic syndrome. We investigated the electrophysiological effects of azithromycin in vivo and in vitro using mice, cardiomyocytes, and human ion channels heterologously expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK 293) and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells.
METHODS AND RESULTS - In conscious telemetered mice, acute intraperitoneal and oral administration of azithromycin caused effects consistent with multi-ion channel block, with significant sinus slowing and increased PR, QRS, QT, and QTc intervals, as seen with azithromycin overdose. Similarly, in HL-1 cardiomyocytes, the drug slowed sinus automaticity, reduced phase 0 upstroke slope, and prolonged action potential duration. Acute exposure to azithromycin reduced peak SCN5A currents in HEK cells (IC=110±3 μmol/L) and Na current in mouse ventricular myocytes. However, with chronic (24 hour) exposure, azithromycin caused a ≈2-fold increase in both peak and late SCN5A currents, with findings confirmed for I in cardiomyocytes. Mild block occurred for K currents representing I (CHO cells expressing hERG; IC=219±21 μmol/L) and I (CHO cells expressing KCNQ1+KCNE1; IC=184±12 μmol/L), whereas azithromycin suppressed L-type Ca currents (rabbit ventricular myocytes, IC=66.5±4 μmol/L) and I (HEK cells expressing Kir2.1, IC=44±3 μmol/L).
CONCLUSIONS - Chronic exposure to azithromycin increases cardiac Na current to promote intracellular Na loading, providing a potential mechanistic basis for the novel form of proarrhythmia seen with this macrolide antibiotic.
© 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
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28 MeSH Terms
Ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death in patients taking ibrutinib.
Lampson BL, Yu L, Glynn RJ, Barrientos JC, Jacobsen ED, Banerji V, Jones JA, Walewska R, Savage KJ, Michaud GF, Moslehi JJ, Brown JR
(2017) Blood 129: 2581-2584
MeSH Terms: Arrhythmias, Cardiac, Death, Sudden, Cardiac, Humans, Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell, Male, Middle Aged, Pyrazoles, Pyrimidines
Added March 26, 2017
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8 MeSH Terms
Fulminant Myocarditis with Combination Immune Checkpoint Blockade.
Johnson DB, Balko JM, Compton ML, Chalkias S, Gorham J, Xu Y, Hicks M, Puzanov I, Alexander MR, Bloomer TL, Becker JR, Slosky DA, Phillips EJ, Pilkinton MA, Craig-Owens L, Kola N, Plautz G, Reshef DS, Deutsch JS, Deering RP, Olenchock BA, Lichtman AH, Roden DM, Seidman CE, Koralnik IJ, Seidman JG, Hoffman RD, Taube JM, Diaz LA, Anders RA, Sosman JA, Moslehi JJ
(2016) N Engl J Med 375: 1749-1755
MeSH Terms: Aged, Antibodies, Monoclonal, Arrhythmias, Cardiac, Electrocardiography, Fatal Outcome, Female, Glucocorticoids, Heart Block, Humans, Immunotherapy, Ipilimumab, Male, Melanoma, Middle Aged, Myocarditis, Myocardium, Myositis, Nivolumab
Show Abstract · Added March 26, 2017
Immune checkpoint inhibitors have improved clinical outcomes associated with numerous cancers, but high-grade, immune-related adverse events can occur, particularly with combination immunotherapy. We report the cases of two patients with melanoma in whom fatal myocarditis developed after treatment with ipilimumab and nivolumab. In both patients, there was development of myositis with rhabdomyolysis, early progressive and refractory cardiac electrical instability, and myocarditis with a robust presence of T-cell and macrophage infiltrates. Selective clonal T-cell populations infiltrating the myocardium were identical to those present in tumors and skeletal muscle. Pharmacovigilance studies show that myocarditis occurred in 0.27% of patients treated with a combination of ipilimumab and nivolumab, which suggests that our patients were having a rare, potentially fatal, T-cell-driven drug reaction. (Funded by Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center Ambassadors and others.).
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18 MeSH Terms
Long QT Syndrome and Potentially Pathogenic Genetic Variants--In Reply.
Van Driest SL, Wells QS, Roden DM
(2016) JAMA 315: 2467-8
MeSH Terms: Arrhythmias, Cardiac, Electronic Health Records, Ether-A-Go-Go Potassium Channels, Female, Genetic Variation, Humans, Laboratories, Male, NAV1.5 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel, Phenotype
Added April 6, 2017
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10 MeSH Terms
Association of Arrhythmia-Related Genetic Variants With Phenotypes Documented in Electronic Medical Records.
Van Driest SL, Wells QS, Stallings S, Bush WS, Gordon A, Nickerson DA, Kim JH, Crosslin DR, Jarvik GP, Carrell DS, Ralston JD, Larson EB, Bielinski SJ, Olson JE, Ye Z, Kullo IJ, Abul-Husn NS, Scott SA, Bottinger E, Almoguera B, Connolly J, Chiavacci R, Hakonarson H, Rasmussen-Torvik LJ, Pan V, Persell SD, Smith M, Chisholm RL, Kitchner TE, He MM, Brilliant MH, Wallace JR, Doheny KF, Shoemaker MB, Li R, Manolio TA, Callis TE, Macaya D, Williams MS, Carey D, Kapplinger JD, Ackerman MJ, Ritchie MD, Denny JC, Roden DM
(2016) JAMA 315: 47-57
MeSH Terms: Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Alleles, Arrhythmias, Cardiac, Brugada Syndrome, ERG1 Potassium Channel, Electronic Health Records, Ether-A-Go-Go Potassium Channels, Female, Genetic Predisposition to Disease, Genetic Testing, Genetic Variation, Genomics, Heterozygote, Humans, Incidental Findings, Laboratories, Male, Middle Aged, Mutation, Missense, NAV1.5 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel, Phenotype, Prospective Studies, Random Allocation, Statistics, Nonparametric, Young Adult
Show Abstract · Added April 6, 2017
IMPORTANCE - Large-scale DNA sequencing identifies incidental rare variants in established Mendelian disease genes, but the frequency of related clinical phenotypes in unselected patient populations is not well established. Phenotype data from electronic medical records (EMRs) may provide a resource to assess the clinical relevance of rare variants.
OBJECTIVE - To determine the clinical phenotypes from EMRs for individuals with variants designated as pathogenic by expert review in arrhythmia susceptibility genes.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS - This prospective cohort study included 2022 individuals recruited for nonantiarrhythmic drug exposure phenotypes from October 5, 2012, to September 30, 2013, for the Electronic Medical Records and Genomics Network Pharmacogenomics project from 7 US academic medical centers. Variants in SCN5A and KCNH2, disease genes for long QT and Brugada syndromes, were assessed for potential pathogenicity by 3 laboratories with ion channel expertise and by comparison with the ClinVar database. Relevant phenotypes were determined from EMRs, with data available from 2002 (or earlier for some sites) through September 10, 2014.
EXPOSURES - One or more variants designated as pathogenic in SCN5A or KCNH2.
MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES - Arrhythmia or electrocardiographic (ECG) phenotypes defined by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes, ECG data, and manual EMR review.
RESULTS - Among 2022 study participants (median age, 61 years [interquartile range, 56-65 years]; 1118 [55%] female; 1491 [74%] white), a total of 122 rare (minor allele frequency <0.5%) nonsynonymous and splice-site variants in 2 arrhythmia susceptibility genes were identified in 223 individuals (11% of the study cohort). Forty-two variants in 63 participants were designated potentially pathogenic by at least 1 laboratory or ClinVar, with low concordance across laboratories (Cohen κ = 0.26). An ICD-9 code for arrhythmia was found in 11 of 63 (17%) variant carriers vs 264 of 1959 (13%) of those without variants (difference, +4%; 95% CI, -5% to +13%; P = .35). In the 1270 (63%) with ECGs, corrected QT intervals were not different in variant carriers vs those without (median, 429 vs 439 milliseconds; difference, -10 milliseconds; 95% CI, -16 to +3 milliseconds; P = .17). After manual review, 22 of 63 participants (35%) with designated variants had any ECG or arrhythmia phenotype, and only 2 had corrected QT interval longer than 500 milliseconds.
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE - Among laboratories experienced in genetic testing for cardiac arrhythmia disorders, there was low concordance in designating SCN5A and KCNH2 variants as pathogenic. In an unselected population, the putatively pathogenic genetic variants were not associated with an abnormal phenotype. These findings raise questions about the implications of notifying patients of incidental genetic findings.
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26 MeSH Terms
Channel Activity of Cardiac Ryanodine Receptors (RyR2) Determines Potency and Efficacy of Flecainide and R-Propafenone against Arrhythmogenic Calcium Waves in Ventricular Cardiomyocytes.
Savio-Galimberti E, Knollmann BC
(2015) PLoS One 10: e0131179
MeSH Terms: Animals, Arrhythmias, Cardiac, Caffeine, Calcium, Calcium Signaling, Calsequestrin, Cell Membrane Permeability, Flecainide, Heart Ventricles, Humans, Inhibitory Concentration 50, Male, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Myocytes, Cardiac, Propafenone, Rabbits, Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel, Tetracaine
Show Abstract · Added February 22, 2016
Flecainide blocks ryanodine receptor type 2 (RyR2) channels in the open state, suppresses arrhythmogenic Ca2+ waves and prevents catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) in mice and humans. We hypothesized that differences in RyR2 activity induced by CPVT mutations determines the potency of open-state RyR2 blockers like flecainide (FLEC) and R-propafenone (RPROP) against Ca2+ waves in cardiomyocytes. Using confocal microscopy, we studied Ca2+ sparks and waves in isolated saponin-permeabilized ventricular myocytes from two CPVT mouse models (Casq2-/-, RyR2-R4496C+/-), wild-type (c57bl/6, WT) mice, and WT rabbits (New Zealand white rabbits). Consistent with increased RyR2 activity, Ca2+ spark and wave frequencies were significantly higher in CPVT compared to WT mouse myocytes. We next obtained concentration-response curves of Ca2+ wave inhibition for FLEC, RPROP (another open-state RyR2 blocker), and tetracaine (TET) (a state-independent RyR2 blocker). Both FLEC and RPROP inhibited Ca2+ waves with significantly higher potency (lower IC50) and efficacy in CPVT compared to WT. In contrast, TET had similar potency in all groups studied. Increasing RyR2 activity of permeabilized WT myocytes by exposure to caffeine (150 µM) increased the potency of FLEC and RPROP but not of TET. RPROP and FLEC were also significantly more potent in rabbit ventricular myocytes that intrinsically exhibit higher Ca2+ spark rates than WT mouse ventricular myocytes. In conclusion, RyR2 activity determines the potency of open-state blockers FLEC and RPROP for suppressing arrhythmogenic Ca2+ waves in cardiomyocytes, a mechanism likely relevant to antiarrhythmic drug efficacy in CPVT.
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18 MeSH Terms
Association between perioperative dexmedetomidine and arrhythmias after surgery for congenital heart disease.
Shuplock JM, Smith AH, Owen J, Van Driest SL, Marshall M, Saville B, Xu M, Radbill AE, Fish FA, Kannankeril PJ
(2015) Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 8: 643-50
MeSH Terms: Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Agonists, Arrhythmias, Cardiac, Bradycardia, Cardiac Surgical Procedures, Chi-Square Distribution, Child, Child, Preschool, Dexmedetomidine, Female, Heart Defects, Congenital, Humans, Incidence, Infant, Infant, Newborn, Logistic Models, Male, Multivariate Analysis, Odds Ratio, Propensity Score, Retrospective Studies, Risk Factors, Tachycardia, Tennessee, Time Factors, Treatment Outcome
Show Abstract · Added April 11, 2017
BACKGROUND - Dexmedetomidine is commonly used after congenital heart surgery and may be associated with a decreased incidence of postoperative tachyarrhythmias. Using a large cohort of patients undergoing congenital heart surgery, we examined for an association between dexmedetomidine use in the immediate postoperative period and subsequent arrhythmia development.
METHODS AND RESULTS - A total of 1593 surgical procedures for congenital heart disease were performed. Dexmedetomidine was administered in the immediate postoperative period after 468 (29%) surgical procedures. When compared with 1125 controls, the group receiving dexmedetomidine demonstrated significantly fewer tachyarrhythmias (29% versus 38%; P<0.001), tachyarrhythmias receiving intervention (14% versus 23%; P<0.001), bradyarrhythmias (18% versus 22%; P=0.03), and bradyarrhythmias receiving intervention (12% versus 16%; P=0.04). After propensity score matching with 468 controls, the arrhythmia incidence between groups became similar: tachyarrhythmias (29% versus 31%; P=0.66), tachyarrhythmias receiving intervention (14% versus 17%; P=0.16), bradyarrhythmias (18% versus 15%; P=0.44), and bradyarrhythmias receiving intervention (12% versus 9%; P=0.17). After excluding controls exposed to dexmedetomidine at a later time in the hospitalization, dexmedetomidine was associated with increased odds of bradyarrhythmias receiving intervention (odds ratio, 2.18; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-4.65). Furthermore, there was a dose-dependent increase in the odds of bradyarrhythmias (odds ratio, 1.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.07) and bradyarrhythmias receiving intervention (odds ratio, 1.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.08).
CONCLUSIONS - Although dexmedetomidine exposure in the immediate postoperative period is not associated with a clinically meaningful difference in the incidence of tachyarrhythmias after congenital heart surgery, it may be associated with increased odds of bradyarrhythmias.
© 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
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25 MeSH Terms
Slow wave conduction patterns in the stomach: from Waller's foundations to current challenges.
Cheng LK
(2015) Acta Physiol (Oxf) 213: 384-93
MeSH Terms: Animals, Arrhythmias, Cardiac, Cell Movement, Electromagnetic Phenomena, Humans, Models, Biological, Muscle Contraction, Stomach
Show Abstract · Added April 26, 2016
This review provides an overview of our understanding of motility and slow wave propagation in the stomach. It begins by reviewing seminal studies conducted by Walter Cannon and Augustus Waller on in vivo motility and slow wave patterns. Then our current understanding of slow wave patterns in common laboratory animals and humans is presented. The implications of slow wave arrhythmic patterns that have been recorded in animals and patients suffering from gastroparesis are discussed. Finally, current challenges in experimental methods and techniques, slow wave modulation and the use of mathematical models are discussed.
© 2014 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
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8 MeSH Terms