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Results: 1 to 10 of 61

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Training the physician-scientist: views from program directors and aspiring young investigators.
Williams CS, Iness AN, Baron RM, Ajijola OA, Hu PJ, Vyas JM, Baiocchi R, Adami AJ, Lever JM, Klein PS, Demer L, Madaio M, Geraci M, Brass LF, Blanchard M, Salata R, Zaidi M
(2018) JCI Insight 3:
MeSH Terms: Awards and Prizes, Biomedical Research, Career Choice, Charities, Education, Education, Medical, Education, Medical, Graduate, Foundations, Humans, National Institutes of Health (U.S.), Physicians, Research Personnel, Societies, Medical, Students, Medical, Surveys and Questionnaires, Training Support, United States, Workforce
Show Abstract · Added April 15, 2019
There is growing concern that the physician-scientist is endangered due to a leaky training pipeline and prolonged time to scientific independence (1). The NIH Physician-Scientist Workforce Working Group has concluded that as many as 1,000 individuals will need to enter the pipeline each year to sustain the workforce (2). Moreover, surveys of postgraduate training programs document considerable variability in disposition and infrastructure (3). Programs can be broadly grouped into two classes: physician-scientist training programs (PSTPs) that span residency and fellowship training, and research-in-residency programs (RiRs), which are limited to residency but trainees are able to match into PSTPs upon transitioning to fellowship (Figure 1). Funding sources for RiRs and PSTPs are varied and include NIH KL2 and T32 awards, charitable foundations, philanthropy, and institutional support. Furthermore, standards for research training and tools for evaluating programmatic success are lacking. Here, we share consensus generated from iterative workshops hosted by the Alliance of Academic Internal Medicine (AAIM) and the student-led American Physician Scientists Association (APSA).
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18 MeSH Terms
Evaluating the consistency of scales used in adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder assessment of college-aged adults.
Saleh A, Fuchs C, Taylor WD, Niarhos F
(2018) J Am Coll Health 66: 98-105
MeSH Terms: Adult, Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity, Female, Humans, Male, Mass Screening, Psychiatric Status Rating Scales, Retrospective Studies, Self-Assessment, Severity of Illness Index, Students, Universities, Young Adult
Show Abstract · Added March 14, 2018
OBJECTIVE - Neurocognitive evaluations are commonly integrated with clinical assessment to evaluate adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Study goal is to identify measures most strongly related to ADHD diagnosis and to determine their utility in screening processes.
PARTICIPANTS - 230 students who were evaluated at the Vanderbilt University Psychological and Counseling Center between July 2013 and October 2015.
METHODS - We retrospectively examined charts, including clinical diagnosis, family history, childhood parental reported and current self-reported ADHD symptoms, psychiatric comorbidities, and continuous performance test (CPT).
RESULT - Positive report of childhood and current ADHD symptoms, and lack of comorbid psychiatric symptoms were strongly associated with clinical diagnosis. CPT results were not associated with an ADHD diagnosis. The absence of reported childhood and current ADHD symptoms may serve as a contradictory marker for ADHD diagnosis.
CONCLUSION - Clinical assessment of ADHD symptoms and ADHD childhood history, but not CPT, contributes to an accurate diagnosis of ADHD in college-aged adults.
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13 MeSH Terms
Interprofessional projects promote and strengthen interdisciplinary collaboration.
Pfaltzgraff ER, Samade R, Adams R, Levic DS, Bader DM, Fleming AE
(2015) Med Educ 49: 1156-7
MeSH Terms: Cooperative Behavior, Education, Graduate, Education, Medical, Undergraduate, Humans, Interprofessional Relations, Students, Medical, Surveys and Questionnaires, Translational Medical Research
Added February 15, 2016
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8 MeSH Terms
The relation between 1st grade grey matter volume and 2nd grade math competence.
Price GR, Wilkey ED, Yeo DJ, Cutting LE
(2016) Neuroimage 124: 232-237
MeSH Terms: Aptitude, Aptitude Tests, Brain, Child, Female, Gray Matter, Humans, Individuality, Male, Mathematical Concepts, Parietal Lobe, Problem Solving, Students
Show Abstract · Added February 15, 2016
Mathematical and numerical competence is a critical foundation for individual success in modern society yet the neurobiological sources of individual differences in math competence are poorly understood. Neuroimaging research over the last decade suggests that neural mechanisms in the parietal lobe, particularly the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) are structurally aberrant in individuals with mathematical learning disabilities. However, whether those same brain regions underlie individual differences in math performance across the full range of math abilities is unknown. Furthermore, previous studies have been exclusively cross-sectional, making it unclear whether variations in the structure of the IPS are caused by or consequences of the development of math skills. The present study investigates the relation between grey matter volume across the whole brain and math competence longitudinally in a representative sample of 50 elementary school children. Results show that grey matter volume in the left IPS at the end of 1st grade relates to math competence a year later at the end of 2nd grade. Grey matter volume in this region did not change over that year, and was still correlated with math competence at the end of 2nd grade. These findings support the hypothesis that the IPS and its associated functions represent a critical foundation for the acquisition of mathematical competence.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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13 MeSH Terms
Using natural language processing to provide personalized learning opportunities from trainee clinical notes.
Denny JC, Spickard A, Speltz PJ, Porier R, Rosenstiel DE, Powers JS
(2015) J Biomed Inform 56: 292-9
MeSH Terms: Academic Medical Centers, Advance Directives, Aged, Algorithms, Automation, Clinical Clerkship, Clinical Competence, Education, Medical, Educational Measurement, Electronic Health Records, Geriatrics, Hospitals, Veterans, Humans, Learning, Mental Disorders, Middle Aged, Natural Language Processing, Outcome Assessment, Health Care, Reproducibility of Results, Software, Students, Medical, Tennessee, User-Computer Interface
Show Abstract · Added March 14, 2018
OBJECTIVE - Assessment of medical trainee learning through pre-defined competencies is now commonplace in schools of medicine. We describe a novel electronic advisor system using natural language processing (NLP) to identify two geriatric medicine competencies from medical student clinical notes in the electronic medical record: advance directives (AD) and altered mental status (AMS).
MATERIALS AND METHODS - Clinical notes from third year medical students were processed using a general-purpose NLP system to identify biomedical concepts and their section context. The system analyzed these notes for relevance to AD or AMS and generated custom email alerts to students with embedded supplemental learning material customized to their notes. Recall and precision of the two advisors were evaluated by physician review. Students were given pre and post multiple choice question tests broadly covering geriatrics.
RESULTS - Of 102 students approached, 66 students consented and enrolled. The system sent 393 email alerts to 54 students (82%), including 270 for AD and 123 for AMS. Precision was 100% for AD and 93% for AMS. Recall was 69% for AD and 100% for AMS. Students mentioned ADs for 43 patients, with all mentions occurring after first having received an AD reminder. Students accessed educational links 34 times from the 393 email alerts. There was no difference in pre (mean 62%) and post (mean 60%) test scores.
CONCLUSIONS - The system effectively identified two educational opportunities using NLP applied to clinical notes and demonstrated a small change in student behavior. Use of electronic advisors such as these may provide a scalable model to assess specific competency elements and deliver educational opportunities.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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23 MeSH Terms
Alterations in default-mode network connectivity may be influenced by cerebrovascular changes within 1 week of sports related concussion in college varsity athletes: a pilot study.
Militana AR, Donahue MJ, Sills AK, Solomon GS, Gregory AJ, Strother MK, Morgan VL
(2016) Brain Imaging Behav 10: 559-68
MeSH Terms: Adolescent, Athletes, Athletic Injuries, Brain, Brain Concussion, Brain Mapping, Cerebrovascular Circulation, Connectome, Female, Gyrus Cinguli, Humans, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Male, Parietal Lobe, Pilot Projects, Sports, Students, Young Adult
Show Abstract · Added February 17, 2016
The goal of this pilot study is to use complementary MRI strategies to quantify and relate cerebrovascular reactivity, resting cerebral blood flow and functional connectivity alterations in the first week following sports concussion in college varsity athletes. Seven college athletes (3F/4M, age = 19.7 ± 1.2 years) were imaged 3-6 days following a diagnosed sports related concussion and compared to eleven healthy controls with no history of concussion (5M/6F, 18-23 years, 7 athletes). Cerebrovascular reactivity and functional connectivity were measured using functional MRI during a hypercapnia challenge and via resting-state regional partial correlations, respectively. Resting cerebral blood flow was quantified using arterial spin labeling MRI methods. Group comparisons were made within and between 18 regions of interest. Cerebrovascular reactivity was increased after concussion when averaged across all regions of interest (p = 0.04), and within some default-mode network regions, the anterior cingulate and the right thalamus (p < 0.05) independently. The FC was increased in the concussed athletes within the default-mode network including the left and right hippocampus, precuneus and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (p < 0.01), with measures being linearly related to cerebrovascular reactivity in the hippocampus in the concussed athletes. Significant resting cerebral blood flow changes were not detected between the two groups. This study provides evidence for increased cerebrovascular reactivity and functional connectivity in the medial regions of the default-mode network within days of a single sports related concussion in college athletes. Our findings emphasize the utility of complementary cerebrovascular measures in the interpretation of alterations in functional connectivity following concussion.
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18 MeSH Terms
Automated Assessment of Medical Students' Clinical Exposures according to AAMC Geriatric Competencies.
Chen Y, Wrenn J, Xu H, Spickard A, Habermann R, Powers J, Denny JC
(2014) AMIA Annu Symp Proc 2014: 375-84
MeSH Terms: Area Under Curve, Artificial Intelligence, Clinical Competence, Education, Medical, Undergraduate, Educational Measurement, Geriatrics, Humans, Natural Language Processing, Students, Medical, Tennessee
Show Abstract · Added March 14, 2018
Competence is essential for health care professionals. Current methods to assess competency, however, do not efficiently capture medical students' experience. In this preliminary study, we used machine learning and natural language processing (NLP) to identify geriatric competency exposures from students' clinical notes. The system applied NLP to generate the concepts and related features from notes. We extracted a refined list of concepts associated with corresponding competencies. This system was evaluated through 10-fold cross validation for six geriatric competency domains: "medication management (MedMgmt)", "cognitive and behavioral disorders (CBD)", "falls, balance, gait disorders (Falls)", "self-care capacity (SCC)", "palliative care (PC)", "hospital care for elders (HCE)" - each an American Association of Medical Colleges competency for medical students. The systems could accurately assess MedMgmt, SCC, HCE, and Falls competencies with F-measures of 0.94, 0.86, 0.85, and 0.84, respectively, but did not attain good performance for PC and CBD (0.69 and 0.62 in F-measure, respectively).
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10 MeSH Terms
Dynamic reflexivity in action: an armchair walkthrough of a qualitatively driven mixed-method and multiple methods study of mindfulness training in schoolchildren.
Cheek J, Lipschitz DL, Abrams EM, Vago DR, Nakamura Y
(2015) Qual Health Res 25: 751-62
MeSH Terms: Algorithms, Child, Curriculum, Empathy, Evaluation Studies as Topic, Health Services Research, Humans, Mindfulness, Qualitative Research, Quality of Life, Research Design, Resilience, Psychological, Students, United States
Show Abstract · Added January 4, 2020
Dynamic reflexivity is central to enabling flexible and emergent qualitatively driven inductive mixed-method and multiple methods research designs. Yet too often, such reflexivity, and how it is used at various points of a study, is absent when we write our research reports. Instead, reports of mixed-method and multiple methods research focus on what was done rather than how it came to be done. This article seeks to redress this absence of emphasis on the reflexive thinking underpinning the way that mixed- and multiple methods, qualitatively driven research approaches are thought about and subsequently used throughout a project. Using Morse's notion of an armchair walkthrough, we excavate and explore the layers of decisions we made about how, and why, to use qualitatively driven mixed-method and multiple methods research in a study of mindfulness training (MT) in schoolchildren.
© The Author(s) 2015.
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MeSH Terms
An algorithm developed using the Brighton Collaboration case definitions is more efficient for determining diagnostic certainty.
Joshi D, Alsentzer E, Edwards K, Norton A, Williams SE
(2014) Vaccine 32: 3469-72
MeSH Terms: Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems, Algorithms, Anaphylaxis, Humans, Students, Medical, Time Factors, Vaccination, Young Adult
Show Abstract · Added May 28, 2014
The Brighton Collaboration is a global research network focused on vaccine safety. The Collaboration has created case definitions to determine diagnostic certainty for several adverse events. Currently nested within multi-page publications, these definitions can be cumbersome for use. We report the results of a randomized trial in which the case definition for anaphylaxis was converted into a user-friendly algorithm and compared the algorithm with the standard case definition. The primary outcomes were efficiency and accuracy. Forty medical students determined the Brighton Level of diagnostic certainty of a sample case of anaphylaxis using either the algorithm or the original case definition. Most participants in both groups selected the correct Brighton Level. Participants using the algorithm required significantly less time to review the case and determine the level of diagnostic certainty [mean difference=107 s (95% CI: 13-200; p=0.026)], supporting that the algorithm was more efficient without impacting accuracy.
Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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8 MeSH Terms
Scheduled physical activity is associated with better academic performance in Chilean school-age children.
Burrows R, Correa-Burrows P, Orellana Y, Almagiá A, Lizana P, Ivanovic D
(2014) J Phys Act Health 11: 1600-6
MeSH Terms: Adolescent, Anthropometry, Child, Chile, Educational Measurement, Educational Status, Exercise, Female, Hispanic Americans, Humans, Logistic Models, Male, Random Allocation, Schools, Social Class, Socioeconomic Factors, Students
Show Abstract · Added May 27, 2014
BACKGROUND - This study was carried out to examine the association between systematic physical activity and academic performance in school kids after controlling for potential sociodemographic and educational confounders.
METHODS - In a random sample of 1271 students from urban Santiago, attending 5th and 9th grade, who took the 2009 System for the Assessment of Educational Quality (SIMCE) tests, we measured physical activity habits, anthropometric characteristics, and socioeconomic status. Academic performance was measured by the standardized SIMCE tests. Logistic regressions assessed the relationship between the allocation of time to weekly scheduled exercise, potential confounding factors, and individual academic performance.
RESULTS - About 80% of students reported less than 2 hours of weekly scheduled exercise, while 10.6% and 10.2% reported 2 to 4 hours/week and more than 4 hours/week, respectively. Devoting more than 4 hours/week to scheduled exercise significantly increased (P < .01) the odds of having SIMCE composite z-scores ≥ 50th percentile (OR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.4 to 3.6) and ≥ 75th percentile (OR: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.3-3.3).
CONCLUSIONS - Better academic performance was associated with a higher allocation of time to scheduled exercise in school-age children.
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17 MeSH Terms