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The norepinephrine transporter (NET) is a presynaptic plasma membrane protein that mediates reuptake of synaptically released norepinephrine. NET is also a major target for medications used for the treatment of depression, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, narcolepsy, and obesity. NET is regulated by numerous mechanisms, including catalytic activation and membrane trafficking. Amphetamine (AMPH), a psychostimulant and NET substrate, has also been shown to induce NET trafficking. However, neither the molecular basis nor the nature of the relevant membrane compartments of AMPH-modulated NET trafficking has been defined. Indeed, direct visualization of drug-modulated NET trafficking in neurons has yet to be demonstrated. In this study, we used a recently developed NET antibody and the presence of large presynaptic boutons in sympathetic neurons to examine basal and AMPH-modulated NET trafficking. Specifically, we establish a role for Rab11 in AMPH-induced NET trafficking. First, we found that, in cortical slices, AMPH induces a reduction in surface NET. Next, we observed AMPH-induced accumulation and colocalization of NET with Rab11a and Rab4 in presynaptic boutons of cultured neurons. Using tagged proteins, we demonstrated that NET and a truncated Rab11 effector (FIP2DeltaC2) do not redistribute in synchrony, whereas NET and wild-type Rab11a do. Analysis of various Rab11a/b mutants further demonstrates that Rab11 regulates NET trafficking. Expression of the truncated Rab11a effector (FIP2DeltaC2) attenuates endogenous Rab11 function and prevented AMPH-induced NET internalization as does GDP-locked Rab4 S22N. Our data demonstrate that AMPH leads to an increase of NET in endosomes of single boutons and varicosities in a Rab11-dependent manner.
Dual-specific A-kinase-anchoring protein 2 (D-AKAP2/AKAP10), which interacts at its carboxyl terminus with protein kinase A and PDZ domain proteins, contains two tandem regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) domains for which the binding partners have remained unknown. We show here that these RGS domains interact with Rab11 and GTP-bound Rab4, the first demonstration of RGS domains binding small GTPases. Rab4 and Rab11 help regulate membrane trafficking through the endocytic recycling pathways by recruiting effector proteins to specific membrane domains. Although D-AKAP2 is primarily cytosolic in HeLa cells, a fraction of the protein localizes to endosomes and can be recruited there to a greater extent by overexpression of Rab4 or Rab11. D-AKAP2 also regulates the morphology of the Rab11-containing compartment, with co-expression causing accumulation of both proteins on enlarged endosomes. Knockdown of D-AKAP2 by RNA interference caused a redistribution of both Rab11 and the constitutively recycling transferrin receptor to the periphery of cells. Knockdown also caused an increase in the rate of transferrin recycling, suggesting that D-AKAP2 promotes accumulation of recycling proteins in the Rab4/Rab11-positive endocytic recycling compartment.
The CXCR2 chemokine receptor is a G-protein-coupled receptor that undergoes clathrin-mediated endocytosis upon ligand binding. The trafficking of CXCR2 is crucial for cells to maintain a proper chemotactic response. The mechanisms that regulate the recycling/degradation sorting decision are unknown. In this study, we used dominant-negative (T19N) and GTPase-deficient activated (Q63L) RhoB mutants, as well as RhoB small interfering RNA (siRNA) to investigate the role of RhoB in CXCR2 trafficking. Expression of either of the RhoB mutants or transfection of RhoB siRNA impaired CXCR2-mediated chemotaxis. Expression of RhoB T19N and transfection of RhoB siRNA impaired sorting of CXCR2 to the lysosome after 3 hours of CXCL8 stimulation and impaired CXCL8-induced CXCR2 degradation. In cells expressing the RhoB Q63L mutant, CXCR2 recycling through the Rab11a recycling compartment was impaired after 30 minutes of CXCL8 stimulation as was CXCL8-induced CXCR2 degradation. For cells expressing activated RhoB, CXCR2 colocalized with Rab4, a marker for the rapid recycling pathway, and with the mannose-6-phosphate receptor, which traffics between the trans-Golgi network and endosomes. These data suggest that CXCR2 recycles through alternative pathways. We conclude that oscillation of RhoB GTPase activity is essential for appropriate sorting decisions, and for directing CXCR2 degradation and recycling--events that are required for optimal chemotaxis.