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Despite its importance for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) inhibition and involvement in neurodevelopmental disease, the regulatory mechanisms of the K/Cl cotransporter KCC2 (encoded by ) during maturation of the central nervous system (CNS) are not entirely understood. Here, we applied quantitative phosphoproteomics to systematically map sites of KCC2 phosphorylation during CNS development in the mouse. KCC2 phosphorylation at Thr and Thr, which inhibits KCC2 activity, underwent dephosphorylation in parallel with the GABA excitatory-inhibitory sequence in vivo. Knockin mice expressing the homozygous phosphomimetic KCC2 mutations T906E/T1007E ( ), which prevented the normal developmentally regulated dephosphorylation of these sites, exhibited early postnatal death from respiratory arrest and a marked absence of cervical spinal neuron respiratory discharges. mice also displayed disrupted lumbar spinal neuron locomotor rhythmogenesis and touch-evoked status epilepticus associated with markedly impaired KCC2-dependent Cl extrusion. These data identify a previously unknown phosphorylation-dependent KCC2 regulatory mechanism during CNS development that is essential for dynamic GABA-mediated inhibition and survival.
Copyright © 2019 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.
Resuscitation with 0.9% Normal Saline (NS), a non-buffered acidic solution, leads to increased morbidity and mortality in the critically ill. The goal of this study was to determine the molecular mechanisms of endothelial injury after exposure to NS. The hypothesis of this investigation is that exposure of endothelium to NS would lead to loss of cell membrane integrity, resulting in release of ATP, activation of the purinergic receptor (P2X7R), and subsequent activation of stress activated signaling pathways and inflammation. Human saphenous vein endothelial cells (HSVEC) incubated in NS, but not buffered electrolyte solution (Plasma-Lyte, PL), exhibited abnormal morphology and increased release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and decreased transendothelial resistance (TEER), suggesting loss of membrane integrity. Incubation of intact rat aorta (RA) or human saphenous vein in NS but not PL led to impaired endothelial-dependent relaxation which was ameliorated by apyrase (hydrolyzes ATP) or SB203580 (p38 MAPK inhibitor). Exposure of HSVEC to NS but not PL led to activation of p38 MAPK and its downstream substrate, MAPKAP kinase 2 (MK2). Treatment of HSVEC with exogenous ATP led to interleukin 1β (IL-1β) release and increased vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM) expression. Treatment of RA with IL-1β led to impaired endothelial relaxation. IL-1β treatment of HSVEC led to increases in p38 MAPK and MK2 phosphorylation, and increased levels of arginase II. Incubation of porcine saphenous vein (PSV) in PL with pH adjusted to 6.0 or less also led to impaired endothelial function, suggesting that the acidic nature of NS is what contributes to endothelial dysfunction. Volume overload resuscitation in a porcine model after hemorrhage with NS, but not PL, led to acidosis and impaired endothelial function. These data suggest that endothelial dysfunction caused by exposure to acidic, non-buffered NS is associated with loss of membrane integrity, release of ATP, and is modulated by P2X7R-mediated inflammatory responses.
Tau protein is found to be aggregated and hyperphosphorylated (p-tau) in many neurologic disorders, including Parkinson disease (PD) and related parkinsonisms, Alzheimer disease, traumatic brain injury, and even in normal aging. Although not known to produce autoimmune responses, we hypothesized that the appearance of aggregated tau and p-tau with disease could activate the immune system. We thus compared T cell responses to tau and p-tau-derived peptides between PD patients, age-matched healthy controls, and young healthy controls (<35 y old; who are less likely to have high levels of tau aggregates). All groups exhibited CD4 T cell responses to tau-derived peptides, which were associated with secretion of IFN-γ, IL-5, and/or IL-4. The PD and control participants exhibited a similar magnitude and breadth of responses. Some tau-derived epitopes, consisting of both unmodified and p-tau residues, were more highly represented in PD participants. These results were verified in an independent set of PD and control donors (either age-matched or young controls). Thus, T cells recognizing tau epitopes escape central and peripheral tolerance in relatively high numbers, and the magnitude and nature of these responses are not modulated by age or PD disease.
Copyright © 2019 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
Extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2) are mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) that play a pro-tumorigenic role in numerous cancers. ERK1/2 possess two protein-docking sites that are distinct from the active site: the D-recruitment site (DRS) and the F-recruitment site. These docking sites facilitate substrate recognition, intracellular localization, signaling specificity, and protein complex assembly. Targeting these sites on ERK in a therapeutic context may overcome many problems associated with traditional ATP-competitive inhibitors. Here, we identified a new class of inhibitors that target the ERK DRS by screening a synthetic combinatorial library of more than 30 million compounds. The screen detects the competitive displacement of a fluorescent peptide from the DRS of ERK2. The top molecular scaffold from the screen was optimized for structure-activity relationship by positional scanning of different functional groups. This resulted in 10 compounds with similar binding affinities and a shared core structure consisting of a tertiary amine hub with three functionalized cyclic guanidino branches. Compound 2507-1 inhibited ERK2 from phosphorylating a DRS-targeting substrate and prevented the phosphorylation of ERK2 by a constitutively active MEK1 (MAPK/ERK kinase 1) mutant. Interaction between an analogue, 2507-8, and the ERK2 DRS was confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance and X-ray crystallography. 2507-8 forms critical interactions at the common docking domain residue Asp319 via an arginine-like moiety that is shared by all 10 hits, suggesting a common binding mode. The structural and biochemical insights reported here provide the basis for developing new ERK inhibitors that are not ATP-competitive but instead function by disrupting critical protein-protein interactions.
In IBD patients, integration between a hyper-activated immune system and epithelial cell plasticity underlies colon cancer development. However, molecular regulation of such a circuity remains undefined. Claudin-1 (Cld-1), a tight-junction integral protein deregulation alters colonic epithelial cell (CEC) differentiation, and promotes colitis severity while impairing colitis-associated injury/repair. Tumorigenesis is a product of an unregulated wound-healing process and therefore we postulated that upregulated Cld-1 levels render IBD patients susceptible to the colitis-associated cancer (CAC). Villin Cld-1 mice are used to carryout overexpressed studies in mice. The role of deregulated Cld-1 expression in CAC and the underlying mechanism was determined using a well-constructed study scheme and mouse models of DSS colitis/recovery and CAC. Using an inclusive investigative scheme, we here report that upregulated Cld-1 expression promotes susceptibility to the CAC and its malignancy. Increased mucosal inflammation and defective epithelial homeostasis accompanied the increased CAC in Villin-Cld-1-Tg mice. We further found significantly increased levels of protumorigenic M2 macrophages and β-cateninSer552 (β-CatSer552) expression in the CAC in Cld-1Tg vs. WT mice. Mechanistic studies identified the role of PI3K/Akt signaling in Cld-1-dependent activation of the β-CatSer552, which, in turn, was dependent on proinflammatory signals. Our studies identify a critical role of Cld-1 in promoting susceptibility to CAC. Importantly, these effects of deregulated Cld-1 were not associated with altered tight junction integrity, but on its noncanonical role in regulating Notch/PI3K/Wnt/ β-CatSer552 signaling. Overall, outcome from our current studies identifies Cld-1 as potential prognostic biomarker for IBD severity and CAC, and a novel therapeutic target.
In animals and fungi, cytokinesis is facilitated by the constriction of an actomyosin contractile ring (CR) . In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the CR forms mid-cell during mitosis from clusters of proteins at the medial cell cortex called nodes . The anillin-like protein Mid1 localizes to nodes and is required for CR assembly at mid-cell . When CR constriction begins, Mid1 leaves the division site. How Mid1 disassociates and whether this step is important for cytokinetic progression has been unknown. The septation initiation network (SIN), analogous to the Hippo pathway of multicellular organisms, is a signaling cascade that triggers node dispersal, CR assembly and constriction, and septum formation [4, 5]. We report that the terminal SIN kinase, Sid2 , phosphorylates Mid1 to drive its removal from the cortex at CR constriction onset. A Mid1 mutant that cannot be phosphorylated by Sid2 remains cortical during cytokinesis, over-accumulates in interphase nodes following cell division in a manner dependent on the SAD kinase Cdr2, advances the G2/M transition, precociously recruits other CR components to nodes, pulls Cdr2 aberrantly into the CR, and reduces rates of CR maturation and constriction. When combined with cdr2 mutants that affect node assembly or disassembly, gross defects in division site positioning result. Our findings identify Mid1 as a key Sid2 substrate for SIN-mediated remodeling of the division site for efficient cytokinesis and provide evidence that nodes serve to integrate signals coordinating cell cycle progression and cytokinesis.
Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
CD40 expression is required for germinal center (GC) formation and function, but the kinetics and magnitude of signaling following CD40 engagement remain poorly characterized in human B cells undergoing GC reactions. Here, differences in CD40 expression and signaling responses were compared across differentiation stages of mature human tonsillar B cells. A combination of mass cytometry and phospho-specific flow cytometry was used to quantify protein expression and CD40L-induced signaling in primary human naïve, GC, and memory B cells. Protein expression signatures of cell subsets were quantified using viSNE and Marker Enrichment Modeling (MEM). This approach revealed enriched expression of CD40 protein in GC B cells, compared to naïve and memory B cells. Despite this, GC B cells responded to CD40L engagement with lower phosphorylation of NFκB p65 during the first 30 min following CD40L activation. Before CD40L stimulation, GC B cells expressed higher levels of suppressor protein IκBα than naïve and memory B cells. Following CD40 activation, IκBα was rapidly degraded and reached equivalently low levels in naïve, GC, and memory B cells at 30 min following CD40L. Quantifying CD40 signaling responses as a function of bound ligand revealed a correlation between bound CD40L and degree of induced NFκB p65 phosphorylation, whereas comparable IκBα degradation occurred at all measured levels of CD40L binding. These results characterize cell-intrinsic signaling differences that exist in mature human B cells undergoing GC reactions. © 2019 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.
© 2019 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS - Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, however, the underlying mechanisms that link CKD and CVD are not fully understood and limited treatment options exist in this high-risk population. microRNAs (miRNA) are critical regulators of gene expression for many biological processes in atherosclerosis, including endothelial dysfunction and inflammation. We hypothesized that renal injury-induced endothelial miRNAs promote atherosclerosis. Here, we demonstrate that dual inhibition of endothelial miRNAs inhibits atherosclerosis in the setting of renal injury.
METHODS - Aortic endothelial miRNAs were analyzed in apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe) mice with renal damage (5/6 nephrectomy, 5/6Nx) by real-time PCR. Endothelial miR-92a-3p and miR-489-3p were inhibited by locked-nucleic acid (LNA) miRNA inhibitors complexed to HDL.
RESULTS - Renal injury significantly increased endothelial miR-92a-3p levels in Apoe;5/6Nx mice. Dual inhibition of miR-92a-3p and miR-489-3p in Apoe;5/6Nx with a single injection of HDL + LNA inhibitors significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesion area by 28.6% compared to HDL + LNA scramble (LNA-Scr) controls. To examine the impact of dual LNA treatment on aortic endothelial gene expression, total RNA sequencing was completed, and multiple putative target genes and pathways were identified to be significantly altered, including the STAT3 immune response pathway. Among the differentially expressed genes, Tgfb2 and Fam220a were identified as putative targets of miR-489-3p and miR-92a-3p, respectively. Both Tgfb2 and Fam220a were significantly increased in aortic endothelium after miRNA inhibition in vivo compared to HDL + LNA-Scr controls. Furthermore, Tgfb2 and Fam220a were validated with gene reporter assays as direct targets of miR-489-3p and miR-92a-3p, respectively. In human coronary artery endothelial cells, over-expression and inhibition of miR-92a-3p decreased and increased FAM220A expression, respectively. Moreover, miR-92a-3p overexpression increased STAT3 phosphorylation, likely through direct regulation of FAM220A, a negative regulator of STAT3 phosphorylation.
CONCLUSIONS - These results support endothelial miRNAs as therapeutic targets and dual miRNA inhibition as viable strategy to reduce CKD-associated atherosclerosis.
Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier B.V.
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest family of signaling proteins targeted by more clinically used drugs than any other protein family. GPCR signaling via G proteins is quenched (desensitized) by the phosphorylation of the active receptor by specific GPCR kinases (GRKs) followed by tight binding of arrestins to active phosphorylated receptors. Thus, arrestins engage two types of receptor elements: those that contain GRK-added phosphates and those that change conformation upon activation. GRKs attach phosphates to serines and threonines in the GPCR C-terminus or any one of the cytoplasmic loops. In addition to these phosphates, arrestins engage the cavity that appears between trans-membrane helices upon receptor activation and several other non-phosphorylated elements. The residues that bind GPCRs are localized on the concave side of both arrestin domains. Arrestins undergo a global conformational change upon receptor binding (become activated). Arrestins serve as important hubs of cellular signaling, emanating from activated GPCRs and receptor-independent.
Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier B.V.