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Purpose - The current study compares the relative strength of associations of different adherence measures with glycemic control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes, while highlighting the challenges in using more objective measures (i.e., glucometer data).
Methods - Adolescents with type 1 diabetes ( = 149) and their caregivers completed a questionnaire measure assessing adolescents' adherence (Self-Care Inventory (SCI)) to the diabetes regimen. Adolescents' glucometers were downloaded to determine average blood glucose checks per day, as an objective measure of adherence. A measure of glycemic control (hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c)) was obtained as part of adolescents' regular clinic visits.
Results - Adolescents' self-reported adherence to the treatment regimen was more strongly correlated with HbA1c than caregivers' reports of adherence. In multivariate analyses, both adolescents' self-report of adherence and average blood glucose checks per day (obtained via a glucometer) were significant predictors of HbA1c. Challenges to obtaining glucometer data were identified.
Conclusions - The findings highlight adolescents' self-report of adherence using the SCI as a brief and meaningful measure to understand and improve adolescents' glycemic control, particularly when glucometer data is difficult to obtain.
OBJECTIVE - To assess effectiveness of inpatient hybrid closed-loop control (HCLC) followed by outpatient sensor-augmented pump (SAP) therapy initiated within 7 days of diagnosis of type 1 diabetes on the preservation of β-cell function at 1 year.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - Sixty-eight individuals (mean age 13.3 ± 5.7 years; 35% female, 92% Caucasian) were randomized to HCLC followed by SAP therapy (intensive group; N = 48) or to the usual-care group treated with multiple daily injections or insulin pump therapy (N = 20). Primary outcome was C-peptide concentrations during mixed-meal tolerance tests at 12 months.
RESULTS - Intensive-group participants initiated HCLC a median of 6 days after diagnosis for a median duration of 71.3 h, during which median participant mean glucose concentration was 140 mg/dL (interquartile range 134-153 mg/dL). During outpatient SAP, continuous glucose monitor (CGM) use decreased over time, and at 12 months, only 33% of intensive participants averaged sensor use ≥6 days/week. In the usual-care group, insulin pump and CGM use were initiated prior to 12 months by 15 and 5 participants, respectively. Mean HbA1c levels were similar in both groups throughout the study. At 12 months, the geometric mean (95% CI) of C-peptide area under the curve was 0.43 (0.34-0.52) pmol/mL in the intensive group and 0.52 (0.32-0.75) pmol/mL in the usual-care group (P = 0.49). Thirty-seven (79%) intensive and 16 (80%) usual-care participants had a peak C-peptide concentration ≥0.2 pmol/mL (P = 0.30).
CONCLUSIONS - In new-onset type 1 diabetes, HCLC followed by SAP therapy did not provide benefit in preserving β-cell function compared with current standards of care.
The central objective of diabetes research and management is to restore the deficient secretion of insulin, thereby restoring a state of euglycemia and minimizing short- and long-term risks associated with poor glucose control. The development of the artificial pancreas seeks to imitate the action of the pancreatic beta cell by employing closed-loop control to respond to glycemic excursions by appropriately infusing appropriate amounts of insulin. This article examines progress towards implementing an artificial pancreas in the context of the pancreatic islet as the ideal model for controlling blood glucose. Physiologic insulin secretion will form our foundation for considering the technical design elements relevant to electromechanically imitating the beta cell. The most recent clinical trials using closed-loop control are reviewed and this modality is compared to other curative approaches including islet cell transplantation and preservation. Finally, the potential of the artificial pancreas as a method to adequately reestablish euglycemia is considered.
The role of the exercise-induced fall in insulin in fat metabolism was studied in dogs during 150 min of treadmill exercise alone (controls) or with insulin clamped at basal levels by an intraportal infusion to prevent the normal fall in insulin concentration (ICs). To counteract the suppressive effect of insulin on glucagon release, glucagon was supplemented by an intraportal infusion in ICs. In all dogs, catheters were placed in a carotid artery and in the portal and hepatic veins for sampling and in the vena cava and the splenic vein for infusion purposes. Glucose levels were clamped in ICs to recreate the glycemic response evident in controls. In controls, insulin fell by 7 +/- 1 microU/ml but was unchanged from basal levels in ICs (0 +/- 2 microU/ml). Glucagon, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and cortisol rose similarly in controls and ICs. Arterial free-fatty acid (FFA) levels rose by 644 +/- 126 mu eq/L in controls but did not increase in ICs (-12 +/- 148 mu eq/L). Arterial glycerol levels rose by 337 +/- 43 and 183 +/- 19 microM in controls and ICs. Hepatic FFA delivery and fractional extraction increased by 17 +/- 3 and 0.06 +/- 0.02 mumol.kg-1.min-1, respectively, in controls. In ICs, hepatic FFA delivery increased by only 1 +/- 2 mumol.kg-1.min-1, whereas hepatic fractional extraction fell slightly (-0.03 +/- 0.03). Consequently, net hepatic FFA uptake rose by 4.8 +/- 1.5 mumol.kg-1.min-1 in controls but decreased slightly in ICs (-0.5 +/- 1.1 mumol.kg-1.min-1).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
To assess the interaction of exercise and insulin action, healthy males were studied with saline infusion (n = 5) or with a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, or 15.0 mU.kg-1.min-1; n = 5 at each dose) during rest (40 min), moderate-intensity cycle exercise (100 min), and recovery (100 min). Metabolism was assessed using isotopic methods and indirect calorimetry. During rest, exercise, and recovery with saline infusion, plasma glucose was unchanged, total glucose utilization (Rd) was 2.4 +/- 0.4, 4.9 +/- 0.2, and 2.6 +/- 0.2 mg.kg-1.min-1, and carbohydrate (CHO) oxidation (OX) was 1.4 +/- 0.3, 10.6 +/- 1.1, and 0.5 +/- 0.2 mg.kg-1.min-1. The glucose infusion, insulin-dependent Rd, and CHO OX increased synergistically when exercise and insulin clamps were combined. Exercise decreased (P less than 0.05) the half-maximal doses (ED50) and increased the maximal responses (Vmax) for insulin-dependent Rd and CHO OX. Estimates of insulin-independent Rd were 1.3 +/- 0.7, 4.1 +/- 1.3, and 1.9 +/- 0.7 mg.kg-1.min-1 and insulin-independent CHO OX were 1.2 +/- 0.9, 10.4 +/- 1.3, and 0.6 +/- 0.3 mg.kg-1.min-1 during rest, exercise, and recovery. Estimates during exercise were greater than those at rest (P less than 0.05). The total suppression of free fatty acids (FFA) and fat OX by insulin were elevated by exercise (P less than 0.05). In summary, exercise and insulin interact synergistically in stimulating Rd and CHO OX.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)