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Effect of agro-ecological zone and grazing system on incidence of East Coast Fever in calves in Mbale and Sironko Districts of Eastern Uganda.
Rubaire-Akiiki CM, Okello-Onen J, Musunga D, Kabagambe EK, Vaarst M, Okello D, Opolot C, Bisagaya A, Okori C, Bisagati C, Ongyera S, Mwayi MT
(2006) Prev Vet Med 75: 251-66
MeSH Terms: Age Factors, Anaplasma marginale, Animal Husbandry, Animals, Animals, Newborn, Antibodies, Bacterial, Antibodies, Protozoan, Babesia, Cattle, Cohort Studies, Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, Female, Incidence, Longitudinal Studies, Male, Risk Assessment, Risk Factors, Seroepidemiologic Studies, Theileria, Theileriasis, Tick Infestations, Ticks, Uganda
Show Abstract · Added April 24, 2015
Between May 2002 and February 2003 a longitudinal survey was carried out in Mbale and Sironko Districts of Eastern Uganda to determine the influence of agro-ecological zones (AEZ) and grazing systems on tick infestation patterns and incidence of East Coast Fever (ECF) in bovine calves. The study area was stratified into AEZ (lowland, midland and upland) and grazing systems {zero grazing (ZG), restricted-outdoor grazing (ROG) and communal grazing (CG)}, whose strata had previously been shown to influence the prevalence of ECF, babesiosis and anaplasmosis. One hundred and eighty-five smallholder dairy farms with a total of 198 calves of both sexes, between the ages of 1 day and 6 weeks, were purposively selected from the AEZ-grazing system strata. Nine dynamic cohorts (11-51 calves in each) of these calves were examined and sampled monthly. Ticks infesting the calves were counted from one side of the animal body and categorized into the different species, sex and feeding status. Sera were collected at recruitment and monthly thereafter and antibodies against Theileria parva, T. mutans, Babesia bigemina, B. bovis and Anaplasma marginale were measured using ELISA. Tick challenge (total and specific) varied with AEZ and grazing system. The risk of infection with T. parva was higher in the lowland zone compared to the upland zone (hazard ratio (HR)=2.59; 95% CI: 1.00-6.34). The risk of infection with T. parva was higher in the CG system than the ZG system (HR=10.00; 95% CI: 3.61-27.92). The incidence risk for sero-conversion, over the 10 months study period, was 62, 16 and 9% in the lowland, midland and upland zones, respectively. Ninety-eight percent of the calves in lowland-CG stratum sero-converted by the age of 6 months, while 56 and 8% did so in the lowland-ROG and the lowland-ZG stratum, respectively. The results of this study show the need to consider farm circumstances and the variation in ECF risk, both spatially and temporally when designing control strategies for ECF.
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23 MeSH Terms
The prevalence of serum antibodies to tick-borne infections in Mbale District, Uganda: the effect of agro-ecological zone, grazing management and age of cattle.
Rubaire-Akiiki C, Okello-Onen J, Nasinyama GW, Vaarst M, Kabagambe EK, Mwayi W, Musunga D, Wandukwa W
(2004) J Insect Sci 4: 8
MeSH Terms: Aging, Anaplasma marginale, Animal Husbandry, Animals, Antibodies, Bacterial, Antibodies, Protozoan, Babesia, Cattle, Cattle Diseases, Cross-Sectional Studies, Environmental Pollution, Insecticides, Risk Factors, Seroepidemiologic Studies, Theileria parva, Tick-Borne Diseases, Ticks, Uganda
Show Abstract · Added April 24, 2015
Between August and October 2000, a cross-sectional study was conducted in smallholder dairy farms in Mbale District, Uganda to assess the prevalence of ticks and tick-borne diseases under different grazing systems and agro-ecological zones and understand the circumstances under which farmers operated. A questionnaire was administered to obtain information on dairy farm circumstances and practices. A total of 102 farms were visited and sera and ticks were collected from 478 animals. Sero-prevalence of tick-borne diseases was determined using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Acaricides were used indiscriminately but the intensity of their use varied with the grazing system and zone. Cattle from different farms mixed for various reasons. During the dry seasons farmers have to get additional fodder from outside their farms that can result in importation of ticks. The prevalence of ticks and serum antibodies to tick-borne infections differed across the grazing systems and zones. The highest serum antibody prevalence (>60%) was recorded in the lowland zone under the free range and tethering grazing systems. The lowest tick challenge and serum antibody levels (<50%) were recorded in the midland and upland zones under a zero-grazing system. These findings suggest that endemic stability to East Coast Fever, babesiosis and anaplasmosis is most likely to have existed in the lowland zone, particularly, under the tethering and free-range grazing systems. Also, endemic stability for babesiosis existed in the upland zones. Endemic instability for East Coast Fever existed in the midland and upland zones. These structured observational studies are instrumental in planning of control strategies for ticks and tick borne diseases since production systems and the cattle population at high risk of the diseases in the district have been identified.
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18 MeSH Terms
Risk factors for fecal shedding of Salmonella in 91 US dairy herds in 1996.
Kabagambe EK, Wells SJ, Garber LP, Salman MD, Wagner B, Fedorka-Cray PJ
(2000) Prev Vet Med 43: 177-94
MeSH Terms: Animal Husbandry, Animals, Cattle, Cattle Diseases, Feces, Female, Food Contamination, Lactation, Meat, Risk Factors, Salmonella, Salmonella Infections, Animal
Show Abstract · Added April 24, 2015
In 1996, data on management practices used on US dairy operations were collected and analyzed for association with fecal shedding of Salmonella by dairy cows. A total of 4299 fecal samples from 91 herds was cultured for Salmonella isolation. Herd-size (adjusted odds ratios (OR) = 5.8, 95% CI 1.1, 31.3), region (OR = 5.7, CI 1.4, 23.5), use of flush water systems (OR = 3.5, CI 0.9, 14.7), and feeding brewers' products to lactating cows (OR = 3.4, CI 0.9, 12.9) were identified as the most important predictive risk factors. The population attributable risks (PARs) for herd-size, region, flush water system, and feeding brewers' products to lactating cows were 0.76, 0.46, 0.37, and 0.42, respectively. The estimated PAR for all four risk factors combined was 0.95. The effects of these factors need to be more-closely evaluated in more-controlled studies, in order to develop intervention programs that reduce Salmonella shedding.
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12 MeSH Terms