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BACKGROUND & AIMS - Bile diversion to the ileum (GB-IL) has strikingly similar metabolic and satiating effects to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) in rodent obesity models. The metabolic benefits of these procedures are thought to be mediated by increased bile acids, although parallel changes in body weight and other confounding variables limit this interpretation.
METHODS - Global G protein-coupled bile acid receptor-1 null (Tgr5) and intestinal-specific farnesoid X receptor null (Fxr) mice on high-fat diet as well as wild-type C57BL/6 and glucagon-like polypeptide 1 receptor deficient (Glp-1r) mice on chow diet were characterized following GB-IL.
RESULTS - GB-IL induced weight loss and improved oral glucose tolerance in Tgr5, but not Fxr mice fed a high-fat diet, suggesting a role for intestinal Fxr. GB-IL in wild-type, chow-fed mice prompted weight-independent improvements in glycemia and glucose tolerance secondary to augmented insulin responsiveness. Improvements were concomitant with increased levels of lymphatic GLP-1 in the fasted state and increased levels of intestinal Akkermansia muciniphila. Improvements in fasting glycemia after GB-IL were mitigated with exendin-9, a GLP-1 receptor antagonist, or cholestyramine, a bile acid sequestrant. The glucoregulatory effects of GB-IL were lost in whole-body Glp-1r mice.
CONCLUSIONS - Bile diversion to the ileum improves glucose homeostasis via an intestinal Fxr-Glp-1 axis. Altered intestinal bile acid availability, independent of weight loss, and intestinal Akkermansia muciniphila appear to mediate the metabolic changes observed after bariatric surgery and might be manipulated for treatment of obesity and diabetes.
Copyright © 2019 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The mechanisms that restrict regeneration and maintain cell identity following injury are poorly characterized in higher vertebrates. Following β-cell loss, 1-2% of the glucagon-producing α-cells spontaneously engage in insulin production in mice. Here we explore the mechanisms inhibiting α-cell plasticity. We show that adaptive α-cell identity changes are constrained by intra-islet insulin- and Smoothened-mediated signalling, among others. The combination of β-cell loss or insulin-signalling inhibition, with Smoothened inactivation in α- or δ-cells, stimulates insulin production in more α-cells. These findings suggest that the removal of constitutive 'brake signals' is crucial to neutralize the refractoriness to adaptive cell-fate changes. It appears that the maintenance of cell identity is an active process mediated by repressive signals, which are released by neighbouring cells and curb an intrinsic trend of differentiated cells to change.
Many patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) have residual β cells producing small amounts of C-peptide long after disease onset but develop an inadequate glucagon response to hypoglycemia following T1D diagnosis. The features of these residual β cells and α cells in the islet endocrine compartment are largely unknown, due to the difficulty of comprehensive investigation. By studying the T1D pancreas and isolated islets, we show that remnant β cells appeared to maintain several aspects of regulated insulin secretion. However, the function of T1D α cells was markedly reduced, and these cells had alterations in transcription factors constituting α and β cell identity. In the native pancreas and after placing the T1D islets into a non-autoimmune, normoglycemic in vivo environment, there was no evidence of α-to-β cell conversion. These results suggest an explanation for the disordered T1D counterregulatory glucagon response to hypoglycemia.
Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
OBJECTIVE - Single-cell RNA sequencing studies have revealed that the type-2 diabetes associated two-pore domain K (K2P) channel TALK-1 is abundantly expressed in somatostatin-secreting δ-cells. However, a physiological role for TALK-1 in δ-cells remains unknown. We previously determined that in β-cells, K flux through endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized TALK-1 channels enhances ER Ca leak, modulating Ca handling and insulin secretion. As glucose amplification of islet somatostatin release relies on Ca-induced Ca release (CICR) from the δ-cell ER, we investigated whether TALK-1 modulates δ-cell Ca handling and somatostatin secretion.
METHODS - To define the functions of islet δ-cell TALK-1 channels, we generated control and TALK-1 channel-deficient (TALK-1 KO) mice expressing fluorescent reporters specifically in δ- and α-cells to facilitate cell type identification. Using immunofluorescence, patch clamp electrophysiology, Ca imaging, and hormone secretion assays, we assessed how TALK-1 channel activity impacts δ- and α-cell function.
RESULTS - TALK-1 channels are expressed in both mouse and human δ-cells, where they modulate glucose-stimulated changes in cytosolic Ca and somatostatin secretion. Measurement of cytosolic Ca levels in response to membrane potential depolarization revealed enhanced CICR in TALK-1 KO δ-cells that could be abolished by depleting ER Ca with sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca ATPase (SERCA) inhibitors. Consistent with elevated somatostatin inhibitory tone, we observed significantly reduced glucagon secretion and α-cell Ca oscillations in TALK-1 KO islets, and found that blockade of α-cell somatostatin signaling with a somatostatin receptor 2 (SSTR2) antagonist restored glucagon secretion in TALK-1 KO islets.
CONCLUSIONS - These data indicate that TALK-1 reduces δ-cell cytosolic Ca elevations and somatostatin release by limiting δ-cell CICR, modulating the intraislet paracrine signaling mechanisms that control glucagon secretion.
Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.
An increase in hepatic glucose production (HGP) is a key feature of type 2 diabetes. Excessive signaling through hepatic Gs-linked glucagon receptors critically contributes to pathologically elevated HGP. Here, we tested the hypothesis that this metabolic impairment can be counteracted by enhancing hepatic Gi signaling. Specifically, we used a chemogenetic approach to selectively activate Gi-type G proteins in mouse hepatocytes in vivo. Unexpectedly, activation of hepatic Gi signaling triggered a pronounced increase in HGP and severely impaired glucose homeostasis. Moreover, increased Gi signaling stimulated glucose release in human hepatocytes. A lack of functional Gi-type G proteins in hepatocytes reduced blood glucose levels and protected mice against the metabolic deficits caused by the consumption of a high-fat diet. Additionally, we delineated a signaling cascade that links hepatic Gi signaling to ROS production, JNK activation, and a subsequent increase in HGP. Taken together, our data support the concept that drugs able to block hepatic Gi-coupled GPCRs may prove beneficial as antidiabetic drugs.
BACKGROUND - IL-33 is one of the most consistently associated gene candidates for asthma identified by using a genome-wide association study. Studies in mice and in human cells have confirmed the importance of IL-33 in inducing type 2 cytokine production from both group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) and T2 cells. However, there are no pharmacologic agents known to inhibit IL-33 release from airway cells.
OBJECTIVE - We sought to determine the effect of glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R) signaling on aeroallergen-induced airway IL-33 production and release and on innate type 2 airway inflammation.
METHODS - BALB/c mice were challenged intranasally with Alternaria extract for 4 consecutive days. GLP-1R agonist or vehicle was administered starting either 2 days before the first Alternaria extract challenge or 1 day after the first Alternaria extract challenge.
RESULTS - GLP-1R agonist treatment starting 2 days before the first Alternaria extract challenge decreased IL-33 release in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and dual oxidase 1 (Duox1) mRNA expression 1 hour after the first Alternaria extract challenge and IL-33 expression in lung epithelial cells 24 hours after the last Alternaria extract challenge. Furthermore, GLP-1R agonist significantly decreased the number of ILC2s expressing IL-5 and IL-13, lung protein expression of type 2 cytokines and chemokines, the number of perivascular eosinophils, mucus production, and airway responsiveness compared with vehicle treatment. GLP-1R agonist treatment starting 1 day after the first Alternaria extract challenge also significantly decreased eosinophilia and type 2 cytokine and chemokine expression in the airway after 4 days of Alternaria extract challenge.
CONCLUSION - These results reveal that GLP-1R signaling might be a therapy to reduce IL-33 release and inhibit the ILC2 response to protease-containing aeroallergens, such as Alternaria.
Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Glucagon plays a major role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis during fed and fasting states. However, the mechanisms responsible for the regulation of pancreatic α cell mass and function are not completely understood. In the current study, we identified mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) as a major regulator of α cell mass and glucagon secretion. Using mice with tissue-specific deletion of the mTORC1 regulator Raptor in α cells (αRaptorKO), we showed that mTORC1 signaling is dispensable for α cell development, but essential for α cell maturation during the transition from a milk-based diet to a chow-based diet after weaning. Moreover, inhibition of mTORC1 signaling in αRaptorKO mice and in WT animals exposed to chronic rapamycin administration decreased glucagon content and glucagon secretion. In αRaptorKO mice, impaired glucagon secretion occurred in response to different secretagogues and was mediated by alterations in KATP channel subunit expression and activity. Additionally, our data identify the mTORC1/FoxA2 axis as a link between mTORC1 and transcriptional regulation of key genes responsible for α cell function. Thus, our results reveal a potential function of mTORC1 in nutrient-dependent regulation of glucagon secretion and identify a role for mTORC1 in controlling α cell-mass maintenance.
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS - The Cre/loxP system, which enables tissue-specific manipulation of genes, is widely used in mice for diabetes research. Our aim was to develop a new Cre-driver mouse line for the specific and efficient manipulation of genes in pancreatic alpha cells.
METHODS - A Gcg knockin mouse, which expresses a tamoxifen-inducible form of Cre from the endogenous preproglucagon (Gcg) gene locus, was generated by homologous recombination. The new Gcg mouse line was crossed to the Rosa26 (R26 ) Cre reporter mouse line in order to evaluate the tissue specificity, efficiency and tamoxifen dependency of Gcg -mediated recombination. Cell types of pancreatic islets were identified using immunohistochemistry. Biochemical and physiological data, including blood glucose levels, plasma glucagon and glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 levels, and pancreatic glucagon content, were collected and used to assess the overall effect of Gcg gene targeting on Gcg heterozygous mice.
RESULTS - Tamoxifen-treated Gcg ;R26 mice displayed Cre reporter activity, i.e. expression of tdTomato red fluorescent protein (RFP) in all known cells that produce proglucagon-derived peptides. In the adult pancreas, RFP was detected in 94-97% of alpha cells, whereas it was detected in a negligible (~ 0.2%) proportion of beta cells. While more than 98% of cells labelled with tamoxifen-induced RFP were glucagon-positive cells, 14-25% of pancreatic polypeptide (PP)-positive cells were also positive for RFP, indicating the presence of glucagon/PP bihormonal cell population. Tamoxifen-independent expression of RFP occurred in approximately 6% of alpha cells. In contrast to alpha cells and GLP-1-producing neurons, in which RFP expression persisted for at least 5 months after tamoxifen administration (presumably due to rare neogenesis in these cell types in adulthood), nearly half of RFP-positive intestinal L cells were replaced with RFP-negative L cells over the first 2 weeks after tamoxifen administration. Heterozygous Gcg mice showed reduced Gcg mRNA levels in islets, but maintained normal levels of pancreatic and plasma glucagon. The mice did not exhibit any detectable baseline physiological abnormalities, at least in young adulthood.
CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION - The newly developed Gcg knockin mouse shows faithful expression of CreER in pancreatic alpha cells, intestinal L cells and GLP-1-producing neurons. This mouse line will be particularly useful for manipulating genes in alpha cells, due to highly specific and efficient CreER-mediated recombination in this cell type in the pancreas.
Pharmacological activation of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) reduces food intake. Here, we assessed whether suppression of food intake by GLP-1R agonists (GLP-1RA) in this region is dependent on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). We found that pharmacological inhibition of glycolysis, and thus activation of AMPK, in the VMH attenuates the anorectic effect of the GLP-1R agonist exendin-4 (Ex4), indicating that glucose metabolism and inhibition of AMPK are both required for this effect. Furthermore, we found that Ex4-mediated anorexia in the VMH involved mTOR but not acetyl-CoA carboxylase, two downstream targets of AMPK. We support this by showing that Ex4 activates mTOR signaling in the VMH and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cells. In contrast to the clear acute pharmacological impact of the these receptors on food intake, knockdown of the VMH conferred no changes in energy balance in either chow- or high-fat-diet-fed mice, and the acute anorectic and glucose tolerance effects of peripherally dosed GLP-1RA were preserved. These results show that the VMH GLP-1R regulates food intake by engaging key nutrient sensors but is dispensable for the effects of GLP-1RA on nutrient homeostasis.
Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.
An increase in hepatic glucose production (HGP) represents a key feature of type 2 diabetes. This deficiency in metabolic control of glucose production critically depends on enhanced signaling through hepatic glucagon receptors (GCGRs). Here, we have demonstrated that selective inactivation of the GPCR-associated protein β-arrestin 2 in hepatocytes of adult mice results in greatly increased hepatic GCGR signaling, leading to striking deficits in glucose homeostasis. However, hepatocyte-specific β-arrestin 2 deficiency did not affect hepatic insulin sensitivity or β-adrenergic signaling. Adult mice lacking β-arrestin 1 selectively in hepatocytes did not show any changes in glucose homeostasis. Importantly, hepatocyte-specific overexpression of β-arrestin 2 greatly reduced hepatic GCGR signaling and protected mice against the metabolic deficits caused by the consumption of a high-fat diet. Our data support the concept that strategies aimed at enhancing hepatic β-arrestin 2 activity could prove useful for suppressing HGP for therapeutic purposes.