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Previously unreported (15) N labeled Azidothymidine (AZT) was prepared as an equimolar mixture of two isotopomers: 1-(15) N-AZT and 3-(15) N-AZT. Polarization decay of (15) N NMR signal was studied in high (9.4 T) and low (~50 mT) magnetic fields. (15) N T1 values were 45 ± 5 s (1-(15) N-AZT) and 37 ± 2 s (3-(15) N-AZT) at 9.4 T, and 140 ± 16 s (3-(15) N-AZT) at 50 mT. (15) N-AZT can be potentially (15) N hyperpolarized by several methods. These sufficiently long (15) N-AZT T1 values potentially enable hyperpolarized in vivo imaging of (15) N-AZT, because of the known favorable efficient (i.e., of the time scale shorter than the longest reported here (15) N T1 ) kinetics of uptake of injected AZT. Therefore, 3-(15) N-AZT can be potentially used for HIV molecular imaging using hyperpolarized magnetic resonance imaging.
Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Stavudine (d4T) was, until recently, one of the most widely prescribed antiretroviral drugs worldwide. While there has been a major shift away from d4T use in resource-limited countries, a large number of patients have previously received (or continue to receive) d4T, and many have developed peripheral neuropathy. The identification of genetic predictors of increased risk might suggest novel therapeutic targets for such patients. In AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol 384, antiretroviral-naïve patients were randomized to d4T/didanosine (ddI)- or zidovudine/lamivudine-containing regimens. Data from d4T/ddI recipients were analyzed for genome-wide associations (approximately 1 million genetic loci) with new onset distal sensory peripheral neuropathy. Analyses involved 254 patients (49 % White, 34 % Black, 17 % Hispanic), comprising 90 peripheral neuropathy cases (32 grade 1, 35 grade 2, 23 grade 3) and 164 controls. After correcting for multiple comparisons, no polymorphism was consistently associated with neuropathy among all patients, among White, Black, and Hispanic patients analyzed separately, both in genome-wide analyses (threshold, P < 5.0 × 10(-8)) and focused on 46 neuropathy-associated genes (threshold, P < 3.5 × 10(-5)). In the latter analyses, the lowest P values were in KIF1A among Whites (rs10199388, P = 8.4 × 10(-4)), in LITAF among Blacks (rs13333308, P = 6.0 × 10(-6)), and in NEFL among Hispanics (rs17763685, P = 5.6 × 10(-6)). Susceptibility to d4T/ddI-associated neuropathy is not explained by a single genetic variant with a marked effect.
BACKGROUND - HIV and combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) may increase cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. We assessed the early effects of cART on CVD risk markers in a population with presumed low CVD risk.
METHODS - Adult patients (n=118) in Lusaka, Zambia were recruited at the time of initiation of cART for HIV/AIDS. Cardiometabolic risk factors were measured before and 90 days after starting cART. Participants were grouped according to cART regimens: Zidovudine + Lamivudine + Nevirapine (n=58); Stavudine + Lamivudine + Nevirapine (n=43); and 'other' (Zidovudine + Lamivudine + Efavirenz, Stavudine + Lamivudine + Efavirenz, Tenofovir + Emtricitabine + Efavirenz or Tenofovir + Emtricitabine + Nevirapine, n=17). ANOVA was used to test whether changes in cardiometabolic risk markers varied by cART regimen.
RESULTS - From baseline to 90 days after initiation of cART, the prevalence of low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (<1.04 mmol/L for men and <1.30 mmol/L for women) significantly decreased (78.8% vs. 34.8%, P<0.001) while elevated total cholesterol (TC ≥5.18 mmol/L, 5.1% vs. 11.9%, P=0.03) and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance ≥3.0 (1.7% vs. 17.0%, P<0.001) significantly increased. The prevalence of TC:HDL-c ratio ≥5.0 significantly decreased (44.9% vs. 6.8%, P<0.001). These changes in cardiometabolic risk markers were independent of the cART regimen.
CONCLUSION - Our results suggest that short-term cART is associated with a cardioprotective lipid profile in Zambia and a tendency towards insulin resistance regardless of the cART regimen.
Low mother/infant retention has impeded early infant diagnosis of HIV in rural Mozambique. We enhanced the referral process for postpartum HIV-infected women by offering direct accompaniment to the location of exposed infant testing before discharge. Retrospective record review for 395 women/infants (September 2009 to June 2010) found enhanced referral was associated with higher odds of follow-up (adjusted odds ratio = 3.18, 95% confidence interval: 1.76 to 5.73, P < 0.001); and among those followed-up, earlier infant testing (median follow-up: 33 days vs. 59 days, P = 0.01) compared with women receiving standard referral. This simple intervention demonstrates benefits gleaned from attention to system improvement through service integration without increasing staff.
PURPOSE - Oxidant stress may be an effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART) or chronic HIV infection. Plasma F2-isoprostanes (F2-IsoP) reflect lipid peroxidation and oxidant stress and have been described in ART-associated toxicities. We explored factors associated with F2-IsoP in HIV-infected adults.
METHODS - HIV-infected adults enrolled in this cross-sectional study were (a) on ART including zidovudine or stavudine but not non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI), (b) on ART including NNRTI, or (c) not on ART. Plasma F2-IsoP levels were quantified by GC/MS, and clinical and laboratory data were collected at enrollment.
RESULTS - Among 285 participants, 24% were female, 37% were African American, and 194 (68%) were on ART; 44 (23%) of whom were receiving efavirenz, 45 (23%) nevirapine, and 85 (44%) protease inhibitors. Median F2-IsoP was lower in those on NNRTI than those on ART without NNRTI (p = .02). In a multivariable model, factors independently associated with increased F2-IsoP were female sex (p = .002), higher BMI (p = .01), and heavy smoking (p = .004). There was a trend toward lower F2-IsoP among nevirapine users (p = .054).
CONCLUSIONS - Among HIV-infected adults, oxidant stress status differs by sex, BMI, smoking status, and perhaps specific ART. Prospective studies should better define relationships between oxidant stress and complications of HIV infection and its therapy.
Nucleoside analogs used in antiretroviral treatment have been associated with mitochondrial toxicity. The polymerase-gamma hypothesis states that this toxicity stems from the analogs' inhibition of the mitochondrial DNA polymerase (polymerase-gamma) leading to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion. We have constructed a computational model of the interaction of polymerase-gamma with activated nucleoside and nucleotide analog drugs, based on experimentally measured reaction rates and base excision rates, together with the mtDNA genome size, the human mtDNA sequence, and mitochondrial dNTP concentrations. The model predicts an approximately 1000-fold difference in the activated drug concentration required for a 50% probability of mtDNA strand termination between the activated di-deoxy analogs d4T, ddC, and ddI (activated to ddA) and the activated forms of the analogs 3TC, TDF, AZT, FTC, and ABC. These predictions are supported by experimental and clinical data showing significantly greater mtDNA depletion in cell culture and patient samples caused by the di-deoxy analog drugs. For zidovudine (AZT) we calculated a very low mtDNA replication termination probability, in contrast to its reported mitochondrial toxicity in vitro and clinically. Therefore AZT mitochondrial toxicity is likely due to a mechanism that does not involve strand termination of mtDNA replication.
Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), such as zidovudine (AZT) and stavudine (d4T), cause toxicities to numerous tissues, including the liver and vasculature. While much is known about hepatic NRTI toxicity, the mechanism of toxicity in endothelial cells is incompletely understood. Human aortic endothelial and HepG2 liver cells were exposed to 1 muM AZT or d4T for up to 5 weeks. Markers of oxidative stress, mitochondrial function, NRTI phosphorylation, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) levels, and cytotoxicity were monitored over time. In endothelial cells, AZT significantly oxidized glutathione redox potential, increased total cellular and mitochondrial-specific superoxide, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, increased lactate release, and caused cell death from weeks 3 through 5. Toxicity occurred in the absence of di- and tri-phosphorylated AZT and mtDNA depletion. These data show that oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in endothelial cells occur with a physiologically relevant concentration of AZT, and require long-term exposure to develop. In contrast, d4T did not induce endothelial oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, or cytotoxicity despite the presence of d4T-triphosphate. Both drugs depleted mtDNA in HepG2 cells without causing cell death. Endothelial cells are more susceptible to AZT-induced toxicity than HepG2 cells, and AZT caused greater endothelial dysfunction than d4T because of its pro-oxidative effects.
The high incidence of toxicity of antiviral drugs is a common complication in the long-term use of antiviral drugs to treat chronic viral infections, including HIV. This review describes the use of computational models to explore antiviral toxicity, concentrating on three series of recent papers that have used a combination of experimental and computational techniques to address the issue of antiviral toxicity from different viewpoints. The limitations of these studies are discussed and likely directions for future research are suggested.
AZT remains an important drug to combat HIV infection in combination with other nucleoside analogs. However, long-term treatment with nucleoside analogs can result in mitochondrial toxicity, which can be fatal in some forms. We review the metabolic pathway for AZT transport and phosphorylation within mitochondria and its interaction with the mitochondrial DNA polymerase, Pol-gamma. Suggested mechanisms for the mitochondrial toxicity of AZT related to this metabolism are discussed. Finally we review recent evidence that the HIV virus itself is involved in the toxicity of AZT.
OBJECTIVE - To assess the practicality and effectiveness of an Ultra-Short zidovudine regimen for prevention of perinatal HIV transmission in rural Zimbabwe.
DESIGN - Double-blinded placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial.
SETTING - The Salvation Army Howard Hospital, a district hospital in rural Zimbabwe.
SUBJECTS - 222 HIV positive pregnant women presenting for antenatal care prior to 36 weeks were randomized. Twenty nine women were lost to follow up.
INTERVENTION - In the Thai regimen, mothers received zidovudine (300 mg po bid) from 36 weeks gestation until labour, and zidovudine (300 mg po q3h) during labour, and the neonates received a placebo. In the Ultra-Short regimen, the mothers received a placebo from 36 weeks to labour, then zidovudine (300 mg po q3h) in labour. The neonates received zidovudine (2 mg/kg po qid) for the first three days of life.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE - Infant HIV RNA status at six weeks of life.
RESULTS - Results were available for 90 infants from the Thai group and 89 infants from the Ultra-Short group. Infant HIV seroconversion rates at six weeks of life were 18.9% (95%CI 10.8 to 27.0) with the Thai regimen, and 15.7% [95% Confidence Interval (CI) 8.1 to 23.4] with the Ultra-Short regimen. The upper bound of seroconversion in the Ultra-Short group was lower than the 25% seroconversion boundary that was specified to show equivalence.
CONCLUSIONS - Although the Ultra-Short regimen has equivalent efficacy to the Thai regimen, it also has many practical advantages. Ultra-Short is thus a preferable protocol.