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The current paradigm suggests that Yersinia enterocolitica (Ye) adheres to host cells via the outer membrane proteins Yersinia adhesin A (YadA) or invasin (Inv) to facilitate injection of Yops by the type III secretion system. In this process Inv binds directly to β1 integrins of host cells while YadA may bind indirectly via extracellular matrix proteins to β1 integrins. Here we challenged this paradigm and investigated the requirements for Yop injection. We demonstrate that Inv- but not YadA-mediated adhesion depends on β1 integrin binding and activation, and that tight adhesion is a prerequisite for Yop injection. By means of novel transgenic cell lines, shRNA approaches and RGD peptides, we found that YadA, in contrast to Inv, may use a broad host cell receptor repertoire for host cell adhesion. In the absence of β1 integrins, YadA mediates Yop injection by interaction with αV integrins in cooperation with yet unknown cofactors expressed by epithelial cells, but not fibroblasts. Electron microscopic and flow chamber studies revealed that a defined intimate contact area between Ye and host cells resulting in adhesion forces resisting shear stress is required for Yop injection. Thus, the indirect binding of YadA to a broad extracellular matrix (ECM) binding host cell receptor repertoire of different cell types makes YadA a versatile tool to ensure Yop injection. In conclusion, given the differential expression of the outer membrane proteins Inv and YadA in the course of Ye infection and differential expression of integrins by various host cell populations, the data demonstrate that Ye is flexibly armed to accomplish Yop injection in different host cell types, a central event in its immune evasion strategy.
© 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Septic infections dysregulate hemostatic pathways, prompting coagulopathy. Nevertheless, anticoagulant therapies typically fail to protect humans from septic pathology. The data reported in this work may help to explain this discrepancy by demonstrating critical protective roles for coagulation leading to fibrin deposition during host defense against the Gram-negative bacterium Yersinia enterocolitica. After i.p. inoculation with Y. enterocolitica, fibrinogen-deficient mice display impaired cytokine and chemokine production in the peritoneal cavity and suppressed neutrophil recruitment. Moreover, both gene-targeted fibrinogen-deficient mice and wild-type mice treated with the anticoagulant coumadin display increased hepatic bacterial burden and mortality following either i.p. or i.v. inoculation with Y. enterocolitica. Mice with low tissue factor activity succumb to yersiniosis with a phenotype similar to fibrin(ogen)-deficient mice, whereas factor XI-deficient mice show wild-type levels of resistance. Mice deficient in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 or thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor display modest phenotypes, but mice deficient in both plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor succumb to yersiniosis with a phenotype resembling fibrin(ogen)-deficient mice. These findings demonstrate critical protective roles for the tissue factor-dependent extrinsic coagulation pathway during host defense against bacteria and caution that therapeutics targeting major thrombin-generating or antifibrinolytic pathways may disrupt fibrin-mediated host defense during Gram-negative sepsis.
The magnitude of bacterial diarrhea in developing countries is largely unknown because affordable detection methods are not available. We have developed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay for use in areas with limited resources to screen for diarrheogenic strains from clinical isolates. To simplify the assay and minimize reagents, our method implemented the use of plasmids rather than bacteria as template controls and the use of bacterial suspensions or crude DNA preparations rather than purified genomic DNA as template DNA. The assay consisted of 3 PCR reactions using 3 groups of 5 to 6 primer pairs to identify the 11 most common bacterial diarrheogenic pathogens. The 3-reaction multiplex PCR amplifies DNA targets specific for each 1 of the 6 Escherichia coli diarrheogenic strains and the 5 non-E. coli diarrheogenic strains, including Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Campylobacter spp., Yersinia enterocolitica, and Vibrio cholerae. The assay may provide an important epidemiologic tool to investigate the role of diarrheogenic bacterial pathogens in areas of the world with limited resources.