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The Relation Between Early Parent Verb Input and Later Expressive Verb Vocabulary in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder.
Crandall MC, McDaniel J, Watson LR, Yoder PJ
(2019) J Speech Lang Hear Res 62: 1787-1797
MeSH Terms: Autism Spectrum Disorder, Child, Child Language, Child, Preschool, Female, Humans, Infant, Language Tests, Longitudinal Studies, Male, Parenting, Verbal Behavior, Verbal Learning, Vocabulary
Show Abstract · Added March 30, 2020
Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate if higher quantity, diversity, and grammatical informativeness of verb phrases in parent follow-in utterances (i.e., utterances that mapped onto child attentional leads) were significantly related to later expressive verb vocabulary in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Method We examined these associations in a sample of 31 toddlers with ASD and their parents in a longitudinal correlational study. Key aspects of parents' verb input were measured in 2 video-recorded 15-min parent-child free-play sessions. Child expressive verb vocabulary was measured using parent report. Results An aggregate variable composed of the quantity, diversity, and grammatical informativeness of parent verb input in follow-in utterances across the 2 parent-child sessions strongly and positively predicted later child expressive verb vocabulary, total R = .25, even when early child expressive verb vocabulary was controlled, R change = .17. Parent follow-in utterances without verbs were not significantly related to later child expressive verb vocabulary, R = .001. Conclusions These correlational findings are initial steps toward developing a knowledge base for how strong verb vocabulary skills might be facilitated in children with ASD.
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14 MeSH Terms
Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder May Learn from Caregiver Verb Input Better in Certain Engagement States.
Crandall MC, Bottema-Beutel K, McDaniel J, Watson LR, Yoder PJ
(2019) J Autism Dev Disord 49: 3102-3112
MeSH Terms: Autism Spectrum Disorder, Caregivers, Child, Preschool, Female, Humans, Language Development, Male, Verbal Learning, Vocabulary
Show Abstract · Added March 30, 2020
The relation between caregiver follow-in utterances with verbs presented in different states of dyadic engagement and later child expressive verb vocabulary in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was examined in 29 toddlers with ASD and their caregivers. Caregiver verb input in follow-in utterances presented during higher order supported joint engagement (HSJE) accounted for a significant, large amount of variance in later child verb vocabulary; R= .26. This relation remained significant when controlling for early verb vocabulary or verb input in lower support engagement states. Other types of talk in follow-in utterances in HSJE did not correlate with later verb vocabulary. These findings are an important step towards identifying interactional contexts that facilitate verb learning in children with ASD.
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MeSH Terms
Smashing the strict hierarchy: three cases of clinical decision support malfunctions involving carvedilol.
Wright A, Wright AP, Aaron S, Sittig DF
(2018) J Am Med Inform Assoc 25: 1552-1555
MeSH Terms: Adrenergic alpha-1 Receptor Antagonists, Adrenergic beta-Antagonists, Carvedilol, Decision Support Systems, Clinical, Electronic Health Records, Humans, Knowledge Management, Medication Errors, Terminology as Topic, Vocabulary, Controlled
Show Abstract · Added November 7, 2019
Clinical vocabularies allow for standard representation of clinical concepts, and can also contain knowledge structures, such as hierarchy, that facilitate the creation of maintainable and accurate clinical decision support (CDS). A key architectural feature of clinical hierarchies is how they handle parent-child relationships - specifically whether hierarchies are strict hierarchies (allowing a single parent per concept) or polyhierarchies (allowing multiple parents per concept). These structures handle subsumption relationships (ie, ancestor and descendant relationships) differently. In this paper, we describe three real-world malfunctions of clinical decision support related to incorrect assumptions about subsumption checking for β-blocker, specifically carvedilol, a non-selective β-blocker that also has α-blocker activity. We recommend that 1) CDS implementers should learn about the limitations of terminologies, hierarchies, and classification, 2) CDS implementers should thoroughly test CDS, with a focus on special or unusual cases, 3) CDS implementers should monitor feedback from users, and 4) electronic health record (EHR) and clinical content developers should offer and support polyhierarchical clinical terminologies, especially for medications.
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10 MeSH Terms
Predicting Receptive-Expressive Vocabulary Discrepancies in Preschool Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder.
McDaniel J, Yoder P, Woynaroski T, Watson LR
(2018) J Speech Lang Hear Res 61: 1426-1439
MeSH Terms: Autism Spectrum Disorder, Child Language, Child, Preschool, Female, Humans, Infant, Language Development, Language Development Disorders, Language Tests, Linguistics, Male, Speech Perception, Vocabulary
Show Abstract · Added March 18, 2020
Purpose - Correlates of receptive-expressive vocabulary size discrepancies may provide insights into why language development in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) deviates from typical language development and ultimately improve intervention outcomes.
Method - We indexed receptive-expressive vocabulary size discrepancies of 65 initially preverbal children with ASD (20-48 months) to a comparison sample from the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories Wordbank (Frank, Braginsky, Yurovsky, & Marchman, 2017) to quantify typicality. We then tested whether attention toward a speaker and oral motor performance predict typicality of the discrepancy 8 months later.
Results - Attention toward a speaker correlated positively with receptive-expressive vocabulary size discrepancy typicality. Imitative and nonimitative oral motor performance were not significant predictors of vocabulary size discrepancy typicality. Secondary analyses indicated that midpoint receptive vocabulary size mediated the association between initial attention toward a speaker and end point receptive-expressive vocabulary size discrepancy typicality.
Conclusions - Findings support the hypothesis that variation in attention toward a speaker might partially explain receptive-expressive vocabulary size discrepancy magnitude in children with ASD. Results are consistent with an input-processing deficit explanation of language impairment in this clinical population. Future studies should test whether attention toward a speaker is malleable and causally related to receptive-expressive discrepancies in children with ASD.
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Longitudinal associations across vocabulary modalities in children with autism and typical development.
Bottema-Beutel K, Woynaroski T, Louick R, Stringer Keefe E, Watson LR, Yoder PJ
(2019) Autism 23: 424-435
MeSH Terms: Autism Spectrum Disorder, Autistic Disorder, Case-Control Studies, Child, Preschool, Female, Humans, Infant, Language Development, Longitudinal Studies, Male, Vocabulary
Show Abstract · Added March 18, 2020
We examined differences between children with autism spectrum disorder and typically developing children over an 8-month period in: (a) longitudinal associations between expressive and receptive vocabulary and (b) the extent to which caregiver utterances provided within an "optimal" engagement state mediated the pathway from early expressive to later receptive vocabulary. In total, 59 children (28-53 months at Time 1) comprised the autism spectrum disorder group and 46 children (8-24 months at Time 1) comprised the typically developing group. Groups were matched on initial vocabulary sizes. Results showed that the association between early expressive and later receptive vocabulary was moderated by group. A moderated mediation effect was also found, indicating linguistic input provided within an optimal engagement state only mediated associations for the autism spectrum disorder group.
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11 MeSH Terms
Word Processing in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders: Evidence From Event-Related Potentials.
Sandbank M, Yoder P, Key AP
(2017) J Speech Lang Hear Res 60: 3441-3455
MeSH Terms: Autism Spectrum Disorder, Child Language, Child, Preschool, Comprehension, Electroencephalography, Evoked Potentials, Female, Humans, Male, Recognition, Psychology, Speech Perception, Vocabulary
Show Abstract · Added March 30, 2020
Purpose - This investigation was conducted to determine whether young children with autism spectrum disorders exhibited a canonical neural response to word stimuli and whether putative event-related potential (ERP) measures of word processing were correlated with a concurrent measure of receptive language. Additional exploratory analyses were used to examine whether the magnitude of the association between ERP measures of word processing and receptive language varied as a function of the number of word stimuli the participants reportedly understood.
Method - Auditory ERPs were recorded in response to spoken words and nonwords presented with equal probability in 34 children aged 2-5 years with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder who were in the early stages of language acquisition. Average amplitudes and amplitude differences between word and nonword stimuli within 200-500 ms were examined at left temporal (T3) and parietal (P3) electrode clusters. Receptive vocabulary size and the number of experimental stimuli understood were concurrently measured using the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories.
Results - Across the entire participant group, word-nonword amplitude differences were diminished. The average word-nonword amplitude difference at T3 was related to receptive vocabulary only if 5 or more word stimuli were understood.
Conclusions - If ERPs are to ever have clinical utility, their construct validity must be established by investigations that confirm their associations with predictably related constructs. These results contribute to accruing evidence, suggesting that a valid measure of auditory word processing can be derived from the left temporal response to words and nonwords. In addition, this measure can be useful even for participants who do not reportedly understand all of the words presented as experimental stimuli, though it will be important for researchers to track familiarity with word stimuli in future investigations.
Supplemental Material - https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.5614840.
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A Path Model of Expressive Vocabulary Skills in Initially Preverbal Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.
McDaniel J, Yoder P, Watson LR
(2017) J Autism Dev Disord 47: 947-960
MeSH Terms: Autism Spectrum Disorder, Child Language, Child, Preschool, Communication, Female, Humans, Linguistics, Longitudinal Studies, Male, Parents, Vocabulary
Show Abstract · Added March 30, 2020
We examined direct and indirect paths involving receptive vocabulary and diversity of key consonants used in communication (DKCC) to improve understanding of why previously identified value-added predictors are associated with later expressive vocabulary for initially preverbal children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n = 87). Intentional communication, DKCC, and parent linguistic responses accounted for unique variance in later expressive vocabulary when controlling for mid-point receptive vocabulary, but responding to joint attention did not. We did not confirm any indirect paths through mid-point receptive vocabulary. DKCC mediated the association between intentional communication and expressive vocabulary. Further research is needed to replicate the findings, test potentially causal relations, and provide a specific sequence of intervention targets for preverbal children with ASD.
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CATEGORICAL DIAGNOSIS OF EXTREME HYPERACTIVITY, IMPULSIVITY, AND INATTENTION IN VERY YOUNG CHILDREN.
Gleason MM, Humphreys KL
(2016) Infant Ment Health J 37: 476-85
MeSH Terms: Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity, Child, Child, Preschool, Humans, Impulsive Behavior, Infant, Vocabulary, Controlled
Show Abstract · Added March 3, 2020
Severe hyperactivity and impulsivity are common reasons for referral to infant mental health services. Past versions of ZERO TO THREE's () diagnostic nosology, the Diagnostic Classification of Mental and Developmental Disorders in Infancy and Early Childhood (DC:0-3), did not address this clinical issue because it had been addressed in other nosologies. These general diagnostic nosologies describe attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but with little attention to developmentally specific aspects of the diagnosis in very young children. Categorical diagnosis related to hyperactivity and impulsivity in very young children warrants careful review of existing literature. Explicit attention must be paid to ensure that categorical diagnoses serve to describe syndromes that cause significant impairment to the family to allow children and families to access effective supports and ensure that behaviors typical of the developmental level are not described as pathologic. This article reviews proposed diagnostic criteria for ADHD and overactivity disorder of toddlerhood as well as the rationale for the criteria and evidence supporting validity and reliability of the diagnoses in very young children. Clinical implications also are presented.
© 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
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Early Predictors of Growth in Diversity of Key Consonants Used in Communication in Initially Preverbal Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.
Woynaroski T, Watson L, Gardner E, Newsom CR, Keceli-Kaysili B, Yoder PJ
(2016) J Autism Dev Disord 46: 1013-24
MeSH Terms: Autism Spectrum Disorder, Child Language, Child, Preschool, Communication, Female, Humans, Infant, Language Development, Linguistics, Longitudinal Studies, Male, Parents, Predictive Value of Tests, Vocabulary
Show Abstract · Added March 18, 2020
Diversity of key consonants used in communication (DKCC) is a value-added predictor of expressive language growth in initially preverbal children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Studying the predictors of DKCC growth in young children with ASD might inform treatment of this under-studied aspect of prelinguistic development. Eighty-seven initially preverbal preschoolers with ASD and their parents were observed at five measurement periods. In this longitudinal correlational investigation, we found that child intentional communication acts and parent linguistic responses to child leads predicted DKCC growth, after controlling for two other predictors and two background variables. As predicted, receptive vocabulary mediated the association between the value-added predictors and endpoint DKCC.
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A Standards-based Semantic Metadata Repository to Support EHR-driven Phenotype Authoring and Execution.
Jiang G, Solbrig HR, Kiefer R, Rasmussen LV, Mo H, Speltz P, Thompson WK, Denny JC, Chute CG, Pathak J
(2015) Stud Health Technol Inform 216: 1098
MeSH Terms: Databases, Factual, Electronic Health Records, Guidelines as Topic, Health Level Seven, Medical Record Linkage, Natural Language Processing, Semantics, United States, Vocabulary, Controlled
Show Abstract · Added March 14, 2018
This study describes our efforts in developing a standards-based semantic metadata repository for supporting electronic health record (EHR)-driven phenotype authoring and execution. Our system comprises three layers: 1) a semantic data element repository layer; 2) a semantic services layer; and 3) a phenotype application layer. In a prototype implementation, we developed the repository and services through integrating the data elements from both Quality Data Model (QDM) and HL7 Fast Healthcare Inteoroperability Resources (FHIR) models. We discuss the modeling challenges and the potential of our system to support EHR phenotype authoring and execution applications.
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9 MeSH Terms