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Viruses modulate the actin cytoskeleton at almost every step of their cellular journey from entry to egress. Cellular sensing of these cytoskeletal changes may function in the recognition of viral infection. Here we show that focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a focal adhesion localized tyrosine kinase that transmits signals between the extracellular matrix and the cytoplasm, serves as a RIG-I-like receptor antiviral signaling component by directing mitochondrial antiviral signaling adaptor (MAVS) activation. Cells deficient in FAK are highly susceptible to RNA virus infection and attenuated in antiviral signaling. We show that FAK interacts with MAVS at the mitochondrial membrane in a virus infection-dependent manner and potentiates MAVS-mediated signaling via a kinase-independent mechanism. A cysteine protease encoded by enteroviruses cleaves FAK to suppress its role in innate immune signaling. These findings suggest that FAK serves as a link between cytoskeletal perturbations that occur during virus infection and activation of innate immune signaling.
Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a serious pediatric pathogen for which there is currently no clinically approved vaccine. This report describes the design and testing of a new RSV vaccine construct (rSV-RSV-F), created by the recombination of an RSV F sequence with the murine parainfluenza virus-type 1 (Sendai virus, SV) genome. SV was selected as the vaccine backbone for this study, because it has previously been shown to elicit high-magnitude, durable immune activities in animal studies and has advanced to human safety trials as a xenogenic vaccine for human parainfluenza virus-type 1 (hPIV-1). Cells infected with the recombinant SV expressed RSV F protein, but F was not incorporated into progeny SV virions. When cotton rats were inoculated with the vaccine, high-titer RSV-binding and neutralizing antibodies as well as interferon-gamma-producing T-cells were induced. Most striking was the protection against intra-nasal RSV challenge conferred by the vaccine. The rSV-RSV-F construct was also tested as a mixture with a second SV construct expressing the RSV G protein, but no clear advantage was demonstrated by combining the two vaccines. As a final analysis, the efficacy of the rSV-RSV-F vaccine was tested against an array of RSV isolates. Results showed that neutralizing and protective responses were effective against RSV isolates of both A and B subtypes. Together, experimental results encourage promotion of this recombinant SV construct as a vaccine candidate for the prevention of RSV in humans.
Sindbis virus (SIN) is a mosquito-transmitted animal RNA virus. We previously reported that SIN genomes lacking a canonical 19 nt 3'CSE undergo novel repair processes in BHK cells to generate a library of stable atypical SIN genomes with non-canonical 3'A/U-rich elements (NC3AREs) adjacent to the 3' poly(A) tail . To determine the stability and evolutionary pressures on the SIN genomes with NC3AREs to regain a 3'CSE, five representative SIN isolates and a wild type SIN were tested in newborn mice. The key findings of this study are: (a) all six SIN isolates, including those that have extensive NC3AREs in the 3'NTRs, replicate well and produce high titer viremia in newborn mice; (b) 7-9 successive passages of these isolates in newborn mice produced comparable levels of viremia; (c) while all isolates produced only small-sized plaques during primary infection in animals, both small- and large-sized plaques were generated in all other passages; (d) polymerase stuttering occurs on select 3' oligo(U) motifs to add more U residues within the NC3AREs; (e) the S3-8 isolate with an internal UAUUU motif in the 3'poly(A) tail maintains this element even after 9 passages in animals; (f) despite differences in 3'NTRs and variable tissue distribution, all SIN isolates appear to produce similar tissue pathology in infected animals. Competition experiments with wt SIN and atypical SIN isolates in BHK cells show dominance of wt SIN. As shown for BHK cells in culture, the 3'CSE of the SIN genome is not required for virus replication and genome stability in live animals. Since the NC3AREs of atypical SIN genomes are not specific to SIN replicases, alternate RNA motifs of alphavirus genome must confer specificity in template selection. These studies fulfill the need to confirm the long-term viability of atypical SIN genomes in newborn mice and offer a basis for exploring the use of atypical SIN genomes in biotechnology.
A reverse genetic system was recently established for the coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus strain A59 (MHV-A59), in which cDNA fragments of the RNA genome are assembled in vitro into a full-length genome cDNA, followed by electroporation of in vitro-transcribed genome RNA into cells with recovery of viable virus. The "in vitro-assembled" wild-type MHV-A59 virus (icMHV-A59) demonstrated replication identical to laboratory strains of MHV-A59 in tissue culture; however, icMHV-A59 was avirulent following intracranial inoculation of C57BL/6 mice. Sequencing of the cloned genome cDNA fragments identified two single-nucleotide mutations in cloned genome fragment F, encoding a Tyr6398His substitution in open reading frame (ORF) 1b p59-nsp14 and a Leu94Pro substitution in the ORF 2a 30-kDa protein. The mutations were repaired individually and together in recombinant viruses, all of which demonstrated wild-type replication in tissue culture. Following intracranial inoculation of mice, the viruses encoding Tyr6398His/Leu94Pro substitutions and the Tyr6398His substitution alone demonstrated log10 50% lethal dose (LD50) values too great to be measured. The Leu94Pro mutant virus had reduced but measurable log10 LD5), and the "corrected" Tyr6398/Leu94 virus had a log10 LD50 identical to wild-type MHV-A59. The experiments have defined residues in ORF 1b and ORF 2a that attenuate virus replication and virulence in mice but do not affect in vitro replication. The results suggest that these proteins serve roles in pathogenesis or virus survival in vivo distinct from functions in virus replication. The study also demonstrates the usefulness of the reverse genetic system to confirm the role of residues or proteins in coronavirus replication and pathogenesis.
Zinc supplementation decreases the morbidity of lower respiratory tract infection in pediatric patients in the developing world. We sought to determine if zinc mediates a specific inhibitory effect against the major cause of pediatric lower respiratory tract disease, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). We determined the in vitro inhibitory effect of three zinc salts (zinc acetate, lactate, and sulfate) on the replication of RSV at various concentrations of 10 and 1 mM and 100 and 10 microM. The degree of inhibition of RSV replication was examined in the presence of zinc during preincubation, adsorption, or penetration and was compared with that caused by salts of other divalent cations. Complete inhibition of RSV plaque formation was observed at 1 and 10 mM, representing reductions that were >or=10(6)-fold. At the lowest concentration tested, 10 microM, we observed >or=1000-fold reductions in RSV yield when zinc was present during preincubation, adsorption, penetration, or egress of virus. The therapeutic indices, determined as ratios of 50% toxicity concentration to 50% inhibitory concentration, were 100, 150, and 120 for zinc acetate, zinc lactate, and zinc sulfate, respectively. The inhibitory effect of zinc salts on RSV was concentration dependent and was not observed with other salts containing divalent cations such as calcium, magnesium, and manganese. RSV plaque formation was prevented by pretreatment of HEp-2 cell monolayer cultures with zinc or by addition of zinc to methylcellulose overlay media after infection. The results of this study suggest that zinc mediates antiviral activity on RSV by altering the ability of the cell to support RSV replication.
After attachment to receptors, reovirus virions are internalized by endocytosis and exposed to acid-dependent proteases that catalyze viral disassembly. Previous studies using the cysteine protease inhibitor E64 and a mutant cell line that does not support reovirus disassembly suggest a requirement for specific endocytic proteases in reovirus entry. This study identifies the endocytic proteases that mediate reovirus disassembly in murine fibroblast cells. Infection of both L929 cells treated with the cathepsin L inhibitor Z-Phe-Tyr(t-Bu)-diazomethyl ketone and cathepsin L-deficient mouse embryo fibroblasts resulted in inefficient proteolytic disassembly of viral outer-capsid proteins and decreased viral yields. In contrast, both L929 cells treated with the cathepsin B inhibitor CA-074Me and cathepsin B-deficient mouse embryo fibroblasts support reovirus disassembly and growth. However, removal of both cathepsin B and cathepsin L activity completely abrogates disassembly and growth of reovirus. Concordantly, cathepsin L mediates reovirus disassembly more efficiently than cathepsin B in vitro. These results demonstrate that either cathepsin L or cathepsin B is required for reovirus entry into murine fibroblasts and indicate that cathepsin L is the primary mediator of reovirus disassembly. Moreover, these findings suggest that specific endocytic proteases can determine host cell susceptibility to infection by intracellular pathogens.
The pathological consequences of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) latency in the nervous system are not well understood. To determine whether acute and latent HSV-1 infections of the nervous system are associated with oxidative damage, mice were inoculated with HSV-1 by the corneal route, and the extent of viral infection and oxidative damage in trigeminal ganglia and brain was assessed at 7, 90, and 220 days after inoculation. Abundant HSV-1 protein expression in the nervous system was observed in neurons and non-neuronal cells at 7 days after inoculation, consistent with viral replication and spread through the trigeminal and olfactory systems. Acute HSV-1 infection was associated with focal, neuronal and non-neuronal 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal- and 8-hydroxyguanosine-specific immunoreactivity, indicating oxidative damage. Rare HSV-1 antigen-positive cells were observed at 90 and 220 days after inoculation; however, widespread HSV-1 latency-associated transcript expression was detected, consistent with latent HSV-1 infection in the nervous system. HSV-1 latency was detected predominantly in the trigeminal ganglia, brainstem, olfactory bulbs, and temporal cortex. Latent HSV-1 infection was associated with focal chronic inflammation and consistently detectable evidence of oxidative damage involving primarily neurons. These results indicate that both acute and latent HSV-1 infections in the murine nervous system are associated with oxidative damage.
Copyright 2000 Academic Press.
The cold-adapted (ca), temperature-sensitive (ts) respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) subgroup B vaccine candidate, designated RSV 2B33F, was found previously to be restricted in replication, immunogenic, and protective against wild-type (wt) virus challenge in rodents and African green monkeys. We sought to investigate the level of attenuation, immunogenicity and genetic stability of this vaccine candidate in seronegative chimpanzees. The 2B33F vaccine candidate was attenuated in chimpanzees and manifested a ten- and 1000-fold restriction in replication in the upper and lower respiratory tracts respectively, compared with its wt RSV 2B parent virus. Despite this attenuation, chimpanzees immunized with RSV 2B33F were completely resistant to respiratory tract disease and virus replication upon challenge with wt virus. The ts phenotype of the RSV 2B33F mutant exhibited some alteration during replication in vivo in three of four chimpanzees tested. Virus present in nasopharyngeal swab or tracheal lavage secretions of these three chimpanzees was biologically cloned by plaque passage in Vero cells at permissive temperature. The plaque progeny retained the ts phenotype, but uniformly produced plaques at 39 and 40 degrees C to a level intermediate between that of the 2B33F input virus and the 2B wt parent virus, indicating that partial loss of the level of temperature sensitivity occurred following replication in vivo. The implications of these findings for RSV vaccine development are discussed.
We examined pathogenic characteristics of plaque-purified reoviruses isolated from persistently infected L-cell cultures (PI viruses) after intracranial inoculation into newborn mice. The PI viruses were isolated from independent cultures initiated with high-passage stocks of the wild-type (wt) strain, type 3 Dearing. The virulence of most PI viruses was equivalent to that of the wt strain. However, replication of PI viruses in the central nervous system of infected mice was prolonged to 25 (but not 50) days postinoculation. Thirty-eight percent (n = 186) of mice inoculated with the PI viruses had residual virus detectable in brain tissue 25 days after inoculation, in contrast to only 16% (n = 57) of mice inoculated with wt virus (P = 0.009). Mean residual brain titers were more than 20-fold higher in mice inoculated with PI viruses compared with wt virus (4.3 x 10(4) versus 2.1 x 10(3); P = 0.006). Tropism of PI virus within the brain resembled that of wt virus, and the distribution of PI virus antigen in the brain did not change over time. The extent of necrosis in the brains of mice harboring PI virus 25 days after inoculation was minimal, despite continued presence of high titers of infectious virus. The latter observation resembles the absence of cytopathicity seen in L-cell cultures persistently infected with reovirus. These observations suggest that the interaction of PI viruses with cells can be altered in vivo as well as in cell culture, but virus is eventually cleared from the infected animal.