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Diastolic dysfunction (DD), an abnormality in cardiac left ventricular (LV) chamber compliance, is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Although DD has been extensively studied in older populations, co-morbidity patterns are less well characterized in middle-aged subjects. We screened 156,434 subjects with transthoracic echocardiogram reports available through Vanderbilt's electronic heath record and identified 6,612 subjects 40 to 55 years old with an LV ejection fraction ≥50% and diastolic function staging. We tested 452 incident and prevalent clinical diagnoses for associations with early-stage DD (n = 1,676) versus normal function. There were 44 co-morbid diagnoses associated with grade 1 DD including hypertension (odds ratio [OR] = 2.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.78 to 2.28, p <5.3 × 10-29), type 2 diabetes (OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.68 to 2.29, p = 2.1 × 10-17), tachycardia (OR 1.38, 95% CI 0.53 to 2.19, p = 2.9 × 10-6), obesity (OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.51 to 2.06, p = 1.7 × 10-12), and clinical end points, including end-stage renal disease (OR 3.29, 95% CI 2.19 to 4.96, p = 1.2 × 10-8) and stroke (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.12 to 2.02, p = 6.9 × 10-3). Among the 60 incident diagnoses associated with DD, heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (OR 4.63, 95% CI 3.39 to 6.32, p = 6.3 × 10-22) had the most significant association. Among subjects with normal diastolic function and blood pressure at baseline, a blood pressure measurement in the hypertensive range at the time of the second echocardiogram was associated with progression to stage 1 DD (p = 0.04). In conclusion, DD was common among subjects 40 to 55 years old and was associated with a heavy burden of co-morbid disease.
Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
OBJECTIVES - This study sought to assess whether body mass index (BMI) was associated with subclinical left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction in African-American individuals.
BACKGROUND - Higher BMI is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, including heart failure. Obesity disproportionately affects African Americans; however, the association between higher BMI and LV function in African Americans is not well understood.
METHODS - Peak systolic circumferential strain (ECC) was measured by tagged cardiac magnetic resonance in 1,652 adult African-American participants of the Jackson Heart Study between 2008 and 2012. We evaluated the association between BMI and ECC in multivariate linear regression and restricted cubic spline analyses adjusted for prevalent cardiovascular disease, conventional cardiovascular risk factors, LV mass, and ejection fraction. In exploratory analyses, we also examined whether inflammation, insulin resistance, or volume of visceral adipose tissue altered the association between BMI and ECC.
RESULTS - The proportions of female, nonsmokers, diabetic, and hypertensive participants rose with increase in BMI. In multivariate-adjusted models, higher BMI was associated with worse ECC (β = 0.052; 95% confidence interval: 0.028 to 0.075), even in the setting of preserved LV ejection fraction. Higher BMI was also associated with worse ECC when accounting for markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein, E-selection, and P-selectin), insulin resistance, and volume of visceral adipose tissue.
CONCLUSIONS - Higher BMI is significantly associated with subclinical LV dysfunction in African Americans, even in the setting of preserved LV ejection fraction.
Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
BACKGROUND - Despite increased secondary cardiovascular events in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM), the expression of innate cardiac protective molecules in the hearts of patients with ICM is incompletely characterized. Therefore, we used a nonbiased RNAseq approach to determine whether differences in cardiac protective molecules occur with ICM.
METHODS AND RESULTS - RNAseq analysis of human control and ICM left ventricular samples demonstrated a significant decrease in expression with ICM. encodes the Kir6.2 subunit of the cardioprotective K channel. Using wild-type mice and -deficient (-null) mice, we examined the effect of expression on cardiac function during ischemia-reperfusion injury. Reactive oxygen species generation increased in -null hearts above that found in wild-type mice hearts after ischemia-reperfusion injury. Continuous left ventricular pressure measurement during ischemia and reperfusion demonstrated a more compromised diastolic function in -null compared with wild-type mice during reperfusion. Analysis of key calcium-regulating proteins revealed significant differences in -null mice. Despite impaired relaxation, -null hearts increased phospholamban Ser16 phosphorylation, a modification that results in the dissociation of phospholamban from sarcoendoplasmic reticulum Ca, thereby increasing sarcoendoplasmic reticulum Ca-mediated calcium reuptake. However, -null mice also had increased 3-nitrotyrosine modification of the sarcoendoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase, a modification that irreversibly impairs sarcoendoplasmic reticulum Ca function, thereby contributing to diastolic dysfunction.
CONCLUSIONS - expression is decreased in human ICM. Lack of expression increases peroxynitrite-mediated modification of the key calcium-handling protein sarcoendoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase after myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, contributing to impaired diastolic function. These data suggest a mechanism for ischemia-induced diastolic dysfunction in patients with ICM.
© 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
IMPORTANCE - Trastuzumab is a life-saving therapy but is associated with symptomatic and asymptomatic left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) decline. We report the cardiac toxic effects of a nonanthracycline and trastuzumab-based treatment for patients with early-stage human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (ERBB2, formerly HER2 or HER2/neu)-positive breast cancer.
OBJECTIVE - To determine the cardiac safety of paclitaxel with trastuzumab and the utility of LVEF monitoring in patients with node-negative, ERBB2-positive breast cancer.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS - In this secondary analysis of an uncontrolled, single group study across 14 medical centers, enrollment of 406 patients with node-negative, ERBB2-positive breast cancer 3 cm, or smaller, and baseline LVEF of greater than or equal to 50% occurred from October 9, 2007, to September 3, 2010. Patients with a micrometastasis in a lymph node were later allowed with a study amendment. Median patient age was 55 years, 118 (29%) had hypertension, and 30 (7%) had diabetes. Patients received adjuvant paclitaxel for 12 weeks with trastuzumab, and trastuzumab was continued for 1 year. Median follow-up was 4 years.
INTERVENTIONS - Treatment consisted of weekly 80-mg/m2 doses of paclitaxel administered concurrently with trastuzumab intravenously for 12 weeks, followed by trastuzumab monotherapy for 39 weeks. During the monotherapy phase, trastuzumab could be administered weekly 2-mg/kg or every 3 weeks as 6-mg/kg. Radiation and hormone therapy were administered per standard guidelines after completion of the 12 weeks of chemotherapy. Patient LVEF was assessed at baseline, 12 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year.
MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES - Cardiac safety data, including grade 3 to 4 left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) and significant asymptomatic LVEF decline, as defined by our study, were reported.
RESULTS - Overall, 2 patients (0.5%) (95% CI, 0.1%-1.8%) developed grade 3 LVSD and came off study, and 13 (3.2%) (95% CI, 1.9%-5.4%) had significant asymptomatic LVEF decline, 11 of whom completed study treatment. Median LVEF at baseline was 65%; 12 weeks, 64%; 6 months, 64%; and 1 year, 64%.
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE - Cardiac toxic effects from paclitaxel with trastuzumab, manifesting as grade 3 or 4 LVSD or asymptomatic LVEF decline, were low. Patient LVEF was assessed at baseline, 12 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year, and our findings suggest that LVEF monitoring during trastuzumab therapy without anthracyclines could be simplified for many individuals.
UNLABELLED - Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and heart failure (HF) are obesity-related conditions with high cardiovascular mortality. Whether NAFLD is independently associated with subclinical myocardial remodeling or dysfunction among the general population is unknown. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 2,713 participants from the multicenter, community-based Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study who underwent concurrent computed tomography (CT) quantification of liver fat and comprehensive echocardiography with myocardial strain measured by speckle tracking during the Year-25 examination (age, 43-55 years; 58.8% female and 48.0% black). NAFLD was defined as liver attenuation ≤40 Hounsfield units after excluding other causes of liver fat. Subclinical left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction was defined using values of absolute peak global longitudinal strain (GLS). Diastolic dysfunction was defined using Doppler and tissue Doppler imaging markers. Prevalence of NAFLD was 10.0%. Participants with NAFLD had lower early diastolic relaxation (e') velocity (10.8 ± 2.6 vs. 11.9 ± 2.8 cm/s), higher LV filling pressure (E/e' ratio: 7.7 ± 2.6 vs. 7.0 ± 2.3), and worse absolute GLS (14.2 ± 2.4% vs. 15.2 ± 2.4%) than non-NAFLD (P < 0.0001 for all). When adjusted for HF risk factors or body mass index, NAFLD remained associated with subclinical myocardial remodeling and dysfunction (P < 0.01). The association of NAFLD with e' velocity (β = -0.36 [standard error = 0.15] cm/s; P = 0.02), E/e' ratio (β = 0.35 [0.16]; P = 0.03), and GLS (β = -0.42 [0.18]%; P = 0.02) was attenuated after controlling for visceral adipose tissue. Effect modification by race and sex was not observed.
CONCLUSIONS - NAFLD is independently associated with subclinical myocardial remodeling and dysfunction and provides further insight into a possible link between NAFLD and HF.
© 2015 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.
OBJECTIVES - The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship of body mass index (BMI) and its 25-year change to left ventricular (LV) structure and function.
BACKGROUND - Longstanding obesity may be associated with clinical cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. Whether obesity relates to cardiac dysfunction during young adulthood and middle age has not been investigated.
METHODS - The CARDIA (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adult) study enrolled white and black adults ages 18 to 30 years in 1985 to 1986 (Year-0). At Year-25, cardiac function was assessed by conventional echocardiography, tissue Doppler imaging (TDI), and speckle tracking echocardiography (STE). Twenty-five-year change in BMI (classified as low: <27 kg/m(2) and high: ≥27 kg/m(2)) was categorized into 4 groups (Low-Low, High-Low, Low-High, and High-High). Multiple linear regression was used to quantify the association between categorical changes in BMI (Low-Low as reference) with LV structural and functional parameters obtained in middle age, adjusting for baseline and 25-year change in risk factors.
RESULTS - The mean BMI was 24.4 kg/m(2) in 3,265 participants included at Year-0. Change in BMI adjusted for risk factors was directly associated with incipient myocardial systolic dysfunction assessed by STE (High-High: β-coefficient = 0.67; Low-High: β-coefficient = 0.35 for longitudinal peak systolic strain) and diastolic dysfunction assessed by TDI (High-High: β-coefficient = -074; Low-High: β-coefficient = -0.45 for e') and STE (High-High: β-coefficient = -0.06 for circumferential early diastolic strain rate). Greater BMI was also significantly associated with increased LV mass/height (High-High: β-coefficient = 26.11; Low-High: β-coefficient = 11.87).
CONCLUSIONS - Longstanding obesity from young adulthood to middle age is associated with impaired LV systolic and diastolic function assessed by conventional echocardiography, TDI, and STE in a large biracial cohort of adults age 43 to 55 years.
Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
BACKGROUND - There are increasing numbers of patients undergoing orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT) with left ventricular assist device (LVAD) explantation (LVAD explant-OHT). We hypothesized that LVAD explant-OHT is a more challenging surgical procedure compared to OHT without LVAD explantation and that institutional LVAD explant-OHT procedural volume would be associated with post-transplant graft survival. We sought to assess the impact of institutional volume of LVAD explant-OHT on post-transplant graft survival.
METHODS - This is a retrospective analysis of the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients for adult OHTs with long-term LVAD explantation. LVAD explant-OHT volume was characterized on the basis of the center's year-specific total OHT volume (OHTvol) and year-specific LVAD explant-OHT volume quartile (LVADvolQ). The effect of LVADvolQ on graft survival (death or re-transplantation) was analyzed.
RESULTS - From 2004 to 2011, 2,681 patients underwent OHT with LVAD explantation (740 with HeartMate XVE, 1,877 with HeartMate II and 64 with HeartWare devices). LVAD explant-OHT at centers falling in the lowest LVADvolQ was associated with reduced post-transplant graft survival (p = 0.022). After adjusting for annualized OHTvol (HR = 0.998, 95% CI 0.993 to 1.003, p = 0.515 and pulsatile XVE (HR = 0.842, 95% CI 0.688 to 1.032, p = 0.098), multivariate analysis confirmed a significantly (approximately 37%) increased risk of post-transplant graft failure among explant-OHT procedures occurring at centers in the lowest volume quartile (HR = 1.371, 95% CI 1.030 to 1.825, p = 0.030).
CONCLUSION - Graft survival is decreased when performed at centers falling in the lowest quartile of LVAD explant-OHT for a given year. This volume-survival relationship should be considered in the context of limited donor organ availability and the rapidly growing number of LVAD centers.
Copyright © 2014 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
OBJECTIVES - This analysis aimed to perform a head-to-head comparison of 3 of the promising biomarkers of cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in heart failure (HF)-soluble ST2 (sST2), growth differentiation factor (GDF)-15, and highly-sensitive troponin T (hsTnT)-and to evaluate the role of serial measurement of these biomarkers in patients with chronic HF.
BACKGROUND - sST2, GDF-15, and hsTnT are strongly associated with CV outcomes in HF.
METHODS - This post-hoc analysis used data from a study in which 151 patients with chronic HF due to left ventricular systolic dysfunction were followed up over 10 months. At each visit, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), sST2, GDF-15, and hsTnT were measured and any major CV events were recorded.
RESULTS - Baseline values of all 3 novel biomarkers independently predicted total CV events even after adjusting for clinical and biochemical characteristics, including NT-proBNP, with the best model including all 3 biomarkers (p < 0.001). Adding serial measurement to the base model appeared to improve the model's predictive ability (with sST2 showing the most promise), but it is not clear whether this addition is a unique contribution. However, when time-dependent factors were included, only sST2 serial measurement independently added to the risk model (odds ratio: 3.64; 95% confidence interval: 1.37 to 9.67; p = 0.009) and predicted reverse myocardial remodeling (odds ratio: 1.22; 95% confidence interval: 1.04 to 1.43; p = 0.01).
CONCLUSIONS - In patients with chronic HF, baseline measurement of novel biomarkers added independent prognostic information to clinical variables and NT-proBNP. Only serial measurement of sST2 appeared to add prognostic information to baseline concentrations and predicted change in left ventricular function. (Use of NT-proBNP Testing to Guide Heart Failure Therapy in the Outpatient Setting (PROTECT)]; NCT00351390).
Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
RATIONALE - Nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability is reduced in the setting of heart failure. Nitrite (NO2) is a critically important NO intermediate that is metabolized to NO during pathological states. We have previously demonstrated that sodium nitrite ameliorates acute myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury.
OBJECTIVE - No evidence exists as to whether increasing NO bioavailability via nitrite therapy attenuates heart failure severity after pressure-overload-induced hypertrophy.
METHODS AND RESULTS - Serum from patients with heart failure exhibited significantly decreased nitrosothiol and cGMP levels. Transverse aortic constriction was performed in mice at 10 to 12 weeks. Sodium nitrite (50 mg/L) or saline vehicle was administered daily in the drinking water postoperative from day 1 for 9 weeks. Echocardiography was performed at baseline and at 1, 3, 6, and 9 weeks after transverse aortic constriction to assess left ventricular dimensions and ejection fraction. We observed increased cardiac nitrite, nitrosothiol, and cGMP levels in mice treated with nitrite. Sodium nitrite preserved left ventricular ejection fraction and improved left ventricular dimensions at 9 weeks (P<0.001 versus vehicle). In addition, circulating and cardiac brain natriuretic peptide levels were attenuated in mice receiving nitrite (P<0.05 versus vehicle). Western blot analyses revealed upregulation of Akt-endothelial nitric oxide-nitric oxide-cGMP-GS3Kβ signaling early in the progression of hypertrophy and heart failure.
CONCLUSIONS - These results support the emerging concept that nitrite therapy may be a viable clinical option for increasing NO levels and may have a practical clinical use in the treatment of heart failure.