The publication data currently available has been vetted by Vanderbilt faculty, staff, administrators and trainees. The data itself is retrieved directly from NCBI's PubMed and is automatically updated on a weekly basis to ensure accuracy and completeness.
If you have any questions or comments, please contact us.
BACKGROUND - Experimental data indicate that reducing factor XI levels attenuates thrombosis without causing bleeding, but the role of factor XI in the prevention of postoperative venous thrombosis in humans is unknown. FXI-ASO (ISIS 416858) is a second-generation antisense oligonucleotide that specifically reduces factor XI levels. We compared the efficacy and safety of FXI-ASO with those of enoxaparin in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty.
METHODS - In this open-label, parallel-group study, we randomly assigned 300 patients who were undergoing elective primary unilateral total knee arthroplasty to receive one of two doses of FXI-ASO (200 mg or 300 mg) or 40 mg of enoxaparin once daily. The primary efficacy outcome was the incidence of venous thromboembolism (assessed by mandatory bilateral venography or report of symptomatic events). The principal safety outcome was major or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding.
RESULTS - Around the time of surgery, the mean (±SE) factor XI levels were 0.38±0.01 units per milliliter in the 200-mg FXI-ASO group, 0.20±0.01 units per milliliter in the 300-mg FXI-ASO group, and 0.93±0.02 units per milliliter in the enoxaparin group. The primary efficacy outcome occurred in 36 of 134 patients (27%) who received the 200-mg dose of FXI-ASO and in 3 of 71 patients (4%) who received the 300-mg dose of FXI-ASO, as compared with 21 of 69 patients (30%) who received enoxaparin. The 200-mg regimen was noninferior, and the 300-mg regimen was superior, to enoxaparin (P<0.001). Bleeding occurred in 3%, 3%, and 8% of the patients in the three study groups, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS - This study showed that factor XI contributes to postoperative venous thromboembolism; reducing factor XI levels in patients undergoing elective primary unilateral total knee arthroplasty was an effective method for its prevention and appeared to be safe with respect to the risk of bleeding. (Funded by Isis Pharmaceuticals; FXI-ASO TKA ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01713361.).
Deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism are diseases associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Known risk factors are attributed for only slight majority of venous thromboembolic disease (VTE) with the remainder of risk presumably related to unidentified genetic factors. We designed a general purpose Natural Language (NLP) algorithm to retrospectively capture both acute and historical cases of thromboembolic disease in a de-identified electronic health record. Applying the NLP algorithm to a separate evaluation set found a positive predictive value of 84.7% and sensitivity of 95.3% for an F-measure of 0.897, which was similar to the training set of 0.925. Use of the same algorithm on problem lists only in patients without VTE ICD-9s was found to be the best means of capturing historical cases with a PPV of 83%. NLP of VTE ICD-9 positive cases and non-ICD-9 positive problem lists provides an effective means for capture of both acute and historical cases of venous thromboembolic disease.
BACKGROUND - The aim of this study was to build electronic algorithms using a combination of structured data and natural language processing (NLP) of text notes for potential safety surveillance of 9 postoperative complications.
METHODS - Postoperative complications from 6 medical centers in the Southeastern United States were obtained from the Veterans Affairs Surgical Quality Improvement Program (VASQIP) registry. Development and test datasets were constructed using stratification by facility and date of procedure for patients with and without complications. Algorithms were developed from VASQIP outcome definitions using NLP-coded concepts, regular expressions, and structured data. The VASQIP nurse reviewer served as the reference standard for evaluating sensitivity and specificity. The algorithms were designed in the development and evaluated in the test dataset.
RESULTS - Sensitivity and specificity in the test set were 85% and 92% for acute renal failure, 80% and 93% for sepsis, 56% and 94% for deep vein thrombosis, 80% and 97% for pulmonary embolism, 88% and 89% for acute myocardial infarction, 88% and 92% for cardiac arrest, 80% and 90% for pneumonia, 95% and 80% for urinary tract infection, and 77% and 63% for wound infection, respectively. A third of the complications occurred outside of the hospital setting.
CONCLUSIONS - Computer algorithms on data extracted from the electronic health record produced respectable sensitivity and specificity across a large sample of patients seen in 6 different medical centers. This study demonstrates the utility of combining NLP with structured data for mining the information contained within the electronic health record.
BACKGROUND - Procoagulant states, leading to activation of the coagulation protease thrombin, are common in cancer and portend a poor clinical outcome. Although procoagulant states in osteosarcoma patients have been described, studies exploring osteosarcoma cells' ability to directly contribute to procoagulant activity have not been reported. This study explores the hypothesis that osteosarcoma can regulate thrombin generation and proliferate in response to thrombin, and that attenuating thrombin generation with anticoagulants can slow tumor growth.
METHODS - Pathologic analysis of osteosarcoma with adjacent venous thrombus was performed. In vitro proliferation assays, cell-based coagulant activity assays, and quantification of coagulation cofactor expression were performed on human and murine osteosarcoma cell lines with varying aggressiveness. The efficacy of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) attenuation of tumor-dependent thrombin generation and growth in vitro and in vivo was determined.
RESULTS - Venous thrombi adjacent to osteosarcoma were found to harbor tumor surrounded by fibrin expressing coagulation cofactors, a finding associated with poor clinical outcome. More aggressive osteosarcoma cell lines had greater surface expression of procoagulant factors and generated more thrombin than less aggressive cell lines and were found to proliferate in response to thrombin. Treatment with LMWH reduced in vitro osteosarcoma proliferation and procoagulant activity as well as tumor growth in vivo.
CONCLUSIONS - These findings suggest that elements of the coagulation cascade may play a role in and represent a pharmaceutical target to disrupt osteosarcoma growth. They also have broader implications, as they suggest that, to be effective, dosing of anticoagulants must take into account an individual tumor's capacity to generate thrombin.
Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.
CONTEXT - Currently most automated methods to identify patient safety occurrences rely on administrative data codes; however, free-text searches of electronic medical records could represent an additional surveillance approach.
OBJECTIVE - To evaluate a natural language processing search-approach to identify postoperative surgical complications within a comprehensive electronic medical record.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS - Cross-sectional study involving 2974 patients undergoing inpatient surgical procedures at 6 Veterans Health Administration (VHA) medical centers from 1999 to 2006.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES - Postoperative occurrences of acute renal failure requiring dialysis, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, sepsis, pneumonia, or myocardial infarction identified through medical record review as part of the VA Surgical Quality Improvement Program. We determined the sensitivity and specificity of the natural language processing approach to identify these complications and compared its performance with patient safety indicators that use discharge coding information.
RESULTS - The proportion of postoperative events for each sample was 2% (39 of 1924) for acute renal failure requiring dialysis, 0.7% (18 of 2327) for pulmonary embolism, 1% (29 of 2327) for deep vein thrombosis, 7% (61 of 866) for sepsis, 16% (222 of 1405) for pneumonia, and 2% (35 of 1822) for myocardial infarction. Natural language processing correctly identified 82% (95% confidence interval [CI], 67%-91%) of acute renal failure cases compared with 38% (95% CI, 25%-54%) for patient safety indicators. Similar results were obtained for venous thromboembolism (59%, 95% CI, 44%-72% vs 46%, 95% CI, 32%-60%), pneumonia (64%, 95% CI, 58%-70% vs 5%, 95% CI, 3%-9%), sepsis (89%, 95% CI, 78%-94% vs 34%, 95% CI, 24%-47%), and postoperative myocardial infarction (91%, 95% CI, 78%-97%) vs 89%, 95% CI, 74%-96%). Both natural language processing and patient safety indicators were highly specific for these diagnoses.
CONCLUSION - Among patients undergoing inpatient surgical procedures at VA medical centers, natural language processing analysis of electronic medical records to identify postoperative complications had higher sensitivity and lower specificity compared with patient safety indicators based on discharge coding.
BACKGROUND - The generation of thrombin is a critical process in the formation of venous thrombi. In isolated plasma under static conditions, phosphatidylserine (PS)-exposing platelets support coagulation factor activation and thrombin generation; however, their role in supporting coagulation factor binding under shear conditions remains unclear. We sought to determine where activated factor X (FXa), (pro)thrombin, and fibrin(ogen) are localized in thrombi formed under venous shear.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS - Fluorescence microscopy was used to study the accumulation of platelets, FXa, (pro)thrombin, and fibrin(ogen) in thrombi formed in vitro and in vivo. Co-perfusion of human blood with tissue factor resulted in formation of visible fibrin at low, but not at high shear rate. At low shear, platelets demonstrated increased Ca(2+) signaling and PS exposure, and supported binding of FXa and prothrombin. However, once cleaved, (pro)thrombin was observed on fibrin fibers, covering the whole thrombus. In vivo, wild-type mice were injected with fluorescently labeled coagulation factors and venous thrombus formation was monitored in mesenteric veins treated with FeCl(3). Thrombi formed in vivo consisted of platelet aggregates, focal spots of platelets binding FXa, and large areas binding (pro)thrombin and fibrin(ogen).
CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE - FXa bound in a punctate manner to thrombi under shear, while thrombin and fibrin(ogen) distributed ubiquitously over platelet-fibrin thrombi. During thrombus formation under venous shear, thrombin may relocate from focal sites of formation (on FXa-binding platelets) to dispersed sites of action (on fibrin fibers).
OBJECTIVE - We compared popular methods to handle missing data with multiple imputation (a more sophisticated method that preserves data).
STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING - We used data of 804 patients with a suspicion of deep venous thrombosis (DVT). We studied three covariates to predict the presence of DVT: d-dimer level, difference in calf circumference, and history of leg trauma. We introduced missing values (missing at random) ranging from 10% to 90%. The risk of DVT was modeled with logistic regression for the three methods, that is, complete case analysis, exclusion of d-dimer level from the model, and multiple imputation.
RESULTS - Multiple imputation showed less bias in the regression coefficients of the three variables and more accurate coverage of the corresponding 90% confidence intervals than complete case analysis and dropping d-dimer level from the analysis. Multiple imputation showed unbiased estimates of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (0.88) compared with complete case analysis (0.77) and when the variable with missing values was dropped (0.65).
CONCLUSION - As this study shows that simple methods to deal with missing data can lead to seriously misleading results, we advise to consider multiple imputation. The purpose of multiple imputation is not to create data, but to prevent the exclusion of observed data.
Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.