The publication data currently available has been vetted by Vanderbilt faculty, staff, administrators and trainees. The data itself is retrieved directly from NCBI's PubMed and is automatically updated on a weekly basis to ensure accuracy and completeness.
If you have any questions or comments, please contact us.
INTRODUCTION - The 2007 Interim Rule mandated changes to food packages in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) for implementation by 2009. The 2014 Final Rule required additional changes, including increasing the cash value voucher for fruits and vegetables from $6 to $8 for children by June 2014, and allowing only low-fat (1%) or nonfat milk for mothers and children aged 2 to 4 years by October 2014. This study evaluated the effect of the 2014 Final Rule changes on the food environment of small and mid-sized WIC-authorized grocery stores.
METHODS - We analyzed secondary data using a natural experimental design to compare the percentage of shelf space for low-fat and nonfat milk and the number of fresh fruit and vegetable varieties in stock before and after the changes. We collected observational data on 18 small and mid-sized WIC-authorized grocery stores in Nashville, Tennessee, using the Nutrition Environment Measures in Store tool in March 2014 and February 2016.
RESULTS - The mean percentage of shelf space occupied by low-fat and nonfat milk increased from 2.5% to 14.4% (P = .003), primarily because of an increase in the proportion of low-fat milk (P = .001). The mean number of fresh fruit and vegetable varieties increased from 24.3 to 27.7 (P = .01), with a significant increase for vegetables (P = .008) but not fruit.
CONCLUSION - Availability of low-fat milk and variety of fresh vegetables increased after the Final Rule changes in the observed stores. Future research should examine outcomes in other cities.
No study to date has prospectively evaluated the association between pre-diagnostic cruciferous vegetables intake and lung cancer survival among women. This analysis included 547 incident lung cancer cases identified from the Shanghai Women's Health Study (SWHS) during the follow-up period of 1997-2011. Dietary intake was assessed for all SWHS participants at enrollment and reassessed 2-3 years later. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) with adjustment for potential confounders. Of the 547 lung cancer patients, 412 patients died during the follow-up. A total of 393 (95.4%) deaths from lung cancer were documented with median survival time of 10.3 months (interquartile range, 3.6-21.1 months). High cruciferous vegetables intake was significantly associated with improved lung cancer-specific survival after adjusting for all nonclinical prognostic factors (n = 547, HR = 0.69; 95%CI = 0.49-0.95; P trend = 0.02) for the highest versus lowest quartile. A slightly stronger association of cruciferous vegetables intake with lung cancer-specific survival was observed in analyses restricted to patients with known clinical prognostic factors (n = 331, HR = 0.63; 95%CI = 0.41-0.97; P trend = 0.03) or never smokers (n = 308, HR = 0.58; 95%CI = 0.37-0.91; P trend = 0.02). In conclusion, pre-diagnostic cruciferous vegetables intake is associated with better survival of lung cancer in Chinese women.
BACKGROUND - Choline deficiency has been shown to induce liver fat accumulation in both rodent and human studies. However, it is unclear whether dietary choline intake is related to fatty liver in the general population.
OBJECTIVE - We examined the association between choline intake and nonalcoholic fatty liver.
METHODS - Participants included 56,195 Chinese women and men, 40-75 y of age, with no or negligible alcohol consumption and with no history of hepatitis, cardiovascular disease, or cancer. All participants reported undergoing liver ultrasonography. Fatty liver was defined by self-report of a physician diagnosis. Habitual dietary intakes were assessed via validated food-frequency questionnaires.
RESULTS - The average total choline intakes were 289 ± 85 mg/d in women and 318 ± 92 mg/d in men. Major food sources were eggs, soy foods, red meat, fish, and vegetables. A higher choline intake was associated with lower risk of fatty liver; after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, and other dietary intakes, the ORs (95% CIs) for the highest vs. the lowest quintiles of choline intake were 0.68 (0.59, 0.79) in women and 0.75 (0.60, 0.93) in men (both P-trend < 0.01). The inverse association was attenuated after further adjustment for history of metabolic disease and, in particular, BMI. The corresponding ORs (95% CIs) were 0.88 (0.75, 1.03) in women (P-trend = 0.05) and 0.85 (0.68, 1.06) in men (P-trend = 0.09). Stratified analyses suggested a potential effect modification by obesity status in women; the OR (95% CI) across extreme quintiles was 0.72 (0.57, 0.91) in normal-weight women vs. 1.05 (0.84, 1.31) in overweight or obese women (P-trend = 0.007 vs. 0.99, P-interaction < 0.0001).
CONCLUSION - Higher dietary choline intake may be associated with lower risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver only in normal-weight Chinese women.
© 2014 American Society for Nutrition.
OBJECTIVE - To assess correlations between cruciferous vegetable intake and urinary isothiocyanate (ITC) level, in addition to glutathione S-transferase (GST) genotypes and other individual factors.
DESIGN - The study included cohort participants whose urinary ITC levels had been previously ascertained. Urinary ITC was assessed using HPLC. Usual dietary intake of cruciferous vegetables was assessed using a validated FFQ and total dietary ITC intake was calculated. Recent cruciferous vegetable intake was determined. GST genotypes were assessed using duplex real-time quantitative PCR assays. Spearman correlations were calculated between the covariates and urinary ITC levels and linear regression analyses were used to calculate the mean urinary ITC excretion according to GST genotype.
SETTING - Urban city in China.
SUBJECTS - The study included 3589 women and 1015 men from the Shanghai Women's and Men's Health Studies.
RESULTS - Median urinary ITC level was 1.61 nmol/mg creatinine. Self-reported usual cruciferous vegetable intake was weakly correlated with urinary ITC level (r s=0.1149; P<0.0001), while self-reported recent intake was more strongly correlated with urinary ITC (r s=0.2591; P<0.0001). Overall, the GST genotypes were not associated with urinary ITC level, but significant differences according to genotype were observed among current smokers and participants who provided an afternoon urine sample. Other factors, including previous gastrectomy or gastritis, were also related to urinary ITC level.
CONCLUSIONS - The study suggests that urinary secretion of ITC may provide additional information on cruciferous vegetable intake and that GST genotypes are related to urinary ITC level only in some subgroups.
PURPOSE - We evaluated the relationship between dietary fiber, fruit and vegetable intake, and the risk of kidney stone formation.
MATERIALS AND METHODS - Overall 83,922 postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative observational study were included in the analysis and followed prospectively. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to evaluate the associations between total dietary fiber, fruit and vegetable intake, and the risk of incident kidney stone formation, adjusting for nephrolithiasis risk factors (age, race/ethnicity, geographic region, diabetes mellitus, calcium supplementation, hormone therapy use, body mass index and calibrated caloric intake; and dietary water, sodium, animal protein and calcium intake). Women with a history of kidney stones (3,471) were analyzed separately.
RESULTS - Mean age of the women was 64±7 years, 85% were white and 2,937 (3.5%) experienced a kidney stone in a median followup of 8 years. In women with no history of kidney stones higher total dietary fiber (6% to 26% decreased risk, p <0.001), greater fruit intake (12% to 25% decreased risk, p <0.001) and greater vegetable intake (9% to 22% decreased risk, p=0.002) were associated with a decreased risk of incident kidney stone formation in separate adjusted models. In women with a history of stones there were no significant protective effects of fiber, fruit or vegetable intake on the risk of kidney stone recurrence.
CONCLUSIONS - Greater dietary intake of fiber, fruits and vegetables was associated with a reduced risk of incident kidney stones in postmenopausal women. The protective effects were independent of other known risk factors for kidney stones. In contrast, there was no reduction in risk in women with a history of stones.
Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
BACKGROUND - Higher intakes of cruciferous vegetables or their constituents have been shown to lower inflammation in animal studies. However, evidence for this anti-inflammatory effect of cruciferous vegetable consumption in humans is scarce.
OBJECTIVE/DESIGN - In this cross-sectional analysis, we evaluated associations of vegetable intake with a panel of inflammatory and oxidative stress markers among 1,005 middle-aged Chinese women. Dietary intake of foods was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire.
RESULTS - Multivariable-adjusted circulating concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interlukin-1β (IL-1β), and IL-6 were lower among women with higher intakes of cruciferous vegetables. The differences in concentrations of inflammatory biomarkers between extreme quintiles of cruciferous vegetable intake were 12.66% for TNF-α (Ptrend=0.01), 18.18% for IL-1β (Ptrend=0.02), and 24.68% for IL-6 (Ptrend=0.02). A similar, but less apparent, inverse association was found for intakes of all vegetables combined but not for noncruciferous vegetables. Levels of the urinary oxidative stress markers F2-isoprostanes and their major metabolite, 2,3-dinor-5,6-dihydro-15-F2t-IsoP, were not associated with intakes of cruciferous vegetables or all vegetables combined.
CONCLUSIONS - This study suggests that the previously observed health benefits of cruciferous vegetable consumption may be partly associated with the anti-inflammatory effects of these vegetables.
Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
PURPOSE - To assess the associations between cruciferous vegetable (CV) intake, GST gene polymorphisms, and colorectal cancer (CRC) in a population of Chinese men.
METHODS - Using incidence density sampling, CRC cases (N = 340) diagnosed before December 31, 2010 within the Shanghai Men's Health Study were matched to noncases (N = 673). CV intake was assessed from a food frequency questionnaire and by isothiocyanate levels from spot urine samples. GSTM1 and GSTT1 were categorized as null (0 copies) versus non-null (1 or 2 copies). Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between CV intake and GST gene variants with CRC, and statistical interactions were evaluated.
RESULTS - CRC risk was not associated with CV intake, whether measured by self-report or by urinary isothiocyanate nor with GST gene variants. No statistical interactions were detected between CV intake and GST gene variants on the odds of CRC. Stratifying by timing of urine sample collection and excluding CRC cases diagnosed in the first 2 years did not materially alter the results.
CONCLUSIONS - This study provides no evidence supporting the involvement of CV intake in the development of CRC in Chinese men.
Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
PURPOSE - The observed associations of fruit and vegetable consumption with the risk of colorectal cancer have been inconsistent. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the association of fruit and vegetable consumption with the risk of colorectal cancer among Chinese men.
METHODS - 61,274 male participants aged 40-74 years were included. A validated food frequency questionnaire was administered to collect information on usual dietary intake, including 8 fruits and 38 vegetables commonly consumed by residents of Shanghai. Follow-up for diagnoses of colon or rectal cancer was available through 31 December 2010. Dietary intakes were analyzed both as categorical and continuous variables. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CIs) were calculated for colorectal, colon, and rectal cancers using Cox proportional hazards models.
RESULTS - After 390,688 person-years of follow-up, 398 cases of colorectal cancer (236 colon and 162 rectal) were observed in the cohort. Fruit consumption was inversely associated with the risk of colorectal cancer (fifth vs. first quintile HR 0.67; 95 % CI 0.48, 0.95; p trend = 0.03), whereas vegetable intake was not significantly associated with risk. The associations for subgroups of fruits and legumes, but not other vegetable categories, were generally inversely associated with the risk of colon and rectal cancers.
CONCLUSIONS - Fruit intake was generally inversely associated with the risk of colorectal cancer, whereas vegetable consumption was largely unrelated to risk among middle-aged and older Chinese men.
BACKGROUND - Food deserts, areas that lack full-service grocery stores, may contribute to rising rates of obesity and chronic diseases among low-income and racial/ethnic minority residents. Our corner store project, part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Communities Putting Prevention to Work initiative, aimed to increase availability of healthful foods in food deserts in Nashville, Tennessee.
COMMUNITY CONTEXT - We identified 4 food deserts in which most residents are low-income and racially and ethnically diverse. Our objectives were to develop an approach to increase availability of fresh fruits and vegetables, low-fat or nonfat milk, and 100% whole-wheat bread in Nashville's food deserts and to engage community members to inform our strategy.
METHODS - Five corner stores located in food deserts met inclusion criteria for our intervention. We then conducted community listening sessions, proprietor surveys, store audits, and customer-intercept surveys to identify needs, challenges to retailing the products, and potential intervention strategies.
OUTCOME - Few stores offered fresh fruits, fresh vegetables, low-fat or nonfat milk, or 100% whole-wheat bread, and none stocked items from all 4 categories. Major barriers to retailing healthful options identified by community members are mistrust of store owners, history of poor-quality produce, and limited familiarity with healthful options. Store owners identified neighborhood crime as the major barrier. We used community input to develop strategies.
INTERPRETATION - Engaging community residents and understanding neighborhood context is critical to developing strategies that increase access to healthful foods in corner stores.
The protective effects of fruits and vegetables against CHD have been suggested by many epidemiological studies among Western populations. However, prospective data are lacking for Asian populations. In the present study, we examined the associations of fruit and vegetable intake with CHD incidence among 67 211 women (aged 40-70 years) and 55 474 men (aged 40-74 years) living in Shanghai, China. Food intake was assessed using validated FFQ through in-person interviews. Coronary events (non-fatal myocardial infarction or fatal CHD) were identified by biennial home visits and further confirmed by medical record review. During a mean follow-up period of 9·8 and 5·4 years, 148 events in women and 217 events in men were documented and verified. After adjustment for potential confounders, women in the highest quartile of total fruit and vegetable intake (median 814 g/d) had a hazard ratio (HR) of 0·62 (95 % CI 0·38, 1·02) for CHD (P for trend = 0·04) compared with those in the lowest quartile (median 274 g/d). This association was primarily driven by fruits (HR for the highest v. the lowest intake in women: 0·62, 95 % CI 0·37, 1·03). The strength of the association was attenuated after further controlling for history of diabetes or hypertension. For men, no significant association was found for fruit and vegetable intake when analysed either in combination or individually. The present findings suggest that a high consumption of fruits may reduce CHD risk in Chinese women.