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OBJECTIVE - To examine the risk factors for urothelial carcinoma (UC) involvement of the prostate in patients undergoing radical cystoprostatectomy (RCP) for bladder cancer, as such involvement has both prognostic and therapeutic implications.
PATIENTS AND METHODS - We examined 308 consecutive men from 1998 to 2005 who had RCP for UC of the bladder, with whole-mount processing of their prostate. Prostatic involvement was categorized by site of origin (the bladder or the prostatic urethra) and, in the case of prostatic urethral origin, by depth of invasion, i.e. dysplasia/carcinoma in situ (CIS), involving the prostatic urethra, prostatic ductal invasion or prostatic stromal invasion. The impact of pathological characteristics was evaluated.
RESULTS - In all, 121 (39.3%) patients had some form of urothelial involvement of the prostate, of whom 59 (48.8%) had dysplasia/CIS of the prostatic urethra, 20 (16.5%) had ductal involvement and 32 (26.4%) had stromal involvement. Multivariate analysis showed that bladder CIS (odds ratio 2.0, 95% confidence interval, 1.2-3.6, P = 0.012) and trigonal involvement of bladder tumours (2.0, 1.1-3.7, P = 0.028) were independent risk factors for urothelial involvement of the prostate.
CONCLUSION - There was prostatic involvement with UC in nearly 40% of patients undergoing RCP. In this study CIS and trigonal involvement were independent predictors of risk, but were not adequate enough to accurately identify most patients who have UC within their prostate; further prospective studies are needed to more accurately predict risk factors and depth of invasion.
PURPOSE - Before the early 1990s total urethrectomy at radical cystectomy for bladder cancer in women was considered the standard of care. As our understanding of the natural history of urethral urothelial carcinoma in women has improved, neobladders have been increasingly created in carefully selected women with bladder cancer. We reviewed the literature regarding the incidence of urethral involvement, the risk factors for urethral involvement and the incidence of urethral recurrence in women undergoing orthotopic urinary diversion for bladder cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS - A comprehensive literature review was performed regarding the natural history of urethral tumor involvement by urothelial carcinoma, risk factors and the incidence of urethral recurrence following radical cystectomy and orthotopic diversion in women with bladder cancer.
RESULTS - Urethral tumor involvement occurs in approximately 12% of female patients with bladder cancer undergoing radical cystectomy for high grade, invasive urothelial carcinoma. Preoperative involvement of the bladder neck or anterior vaginal wall with urothelial carcinoma is an important risk factor for urethral tumor involvement. Intraoperative frozen section analysis of the proximal urethra is an appropriate and reliable method of identifying female candidates for orthotopic diversion. The rate of secondary tumor recurrence in the retained urethra of women following radical cystectomy and orthotopic urinary diversion is low but the condition requires long-term followup.
CONCLUSIONS - Orthotopic urinary diversion can be performed safely in appropriately selected women with bladder cancer. Excellent oncological outcomes can be expected with a minimal risk of urethral recurrence. Preoperative bladder neck involvement is an important risk factor for urethral involvement but not an absolute contraindication to orthotopic diversion should intraoperative frozen section of the proximal urethra be without evidence of malignancy.
The incidence of urethral TCC after radical cystectomy is approximately 8% overall. The most important risk factor for urethral TCC after radical cystectomy and urinary diversion is prostatic involvement by TCC, particularly stromal invasion. The safety of using the urethra for orthotopic urinary diversion seems to be best when intra-operative frozen section analysis of the urethral margin is performed at the time of radical cystectomy. There is provocative but unconfirmed evidence that orthotopic urinary diversion may be protective against the development of urethral TCC. Although most urethral "recurrences" occur within 5 years, delayed recurrences have been documented, mandating life-long follow-up of the retained urethra. Follow-up should include urinary cytology, either voided or urethral wash cytology as appropriate, with evaluation by endoscopy of any urethral related symptoms or change in voiding symptoms. The management of urethral TCC after cystectomy remains a total urethrectomy including excision of the meatus; however, in carefully selected patients with superficial disease and an orthotopic urinary diversion, urethra sparing may be attempted after a careful discussion with the patient. Survival after urethral TCC has generally been disappointing. The relative value of urethral versus original cystectomy pathologic stage and symptomatic versus nonsymptomatic recurrence in predicting survival remains controversial and awaits further studies that will most likely require the pooling of data from several large series.
PURPOSE - Previous reports have identified risk factors for urethral recurrence following radical cystectomy for transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). However, reports of the clinical presentation, treatment and outcome in these patients are lacking. We report our experience with the diagnosis, management and outcome of urethral TCC after radical cystectomy for bladder cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS - A database of 1,054 patients who underwent radical cystectomy and urinary diversion for TCC from 1971 to 1997 was retrospectively reviewed. All patients with urethral TCC after surgery were identified.
RESULTS - Urethral TCC was diagnosed in 47 men a median of 18.5 months (range 2 to 116) after cystectomy with 20 (42%) diagnosed within 1 year. Symptomatic recurrence developed in 24 of 42 evaluable patients (57%), 21 had bloody urethral discharge and 7 had pain or a palpable mass. A total of 13 patients (31%) were asymptomatic with abnormal cytology. The remaining 5 patients underwent prophylactic urethrectomy based on cystectomy pathology. Overall 41 patients underwent urethrectomy, which was total in 36 and distal with perineal urethrostomy in 5, including later conversion to total urethrectomy in 2. Overall at a median followup of 26 months (range 3 to 275) since diagnosis 36 of 47 patients (76%) were dead, including 25 of metastatic disease. Only 10 patients (21%) remained disease-free. Median overall survival in patients with urethral TCC after radical cystectomy was only 28 months after the diagnosis of urethral TCC. Urethral stage (superficial vs invasive disease) at diagnosis was the most import predictor of overall survival in this cohort of patients.
CONCLUSIONS - Most patients with urethral recurrence present with symptoms. However, screening cytology alone still detects a significant proportion. The median survival of patients with urethral TCC after radical cystectomy is only 28 months after diagnosis. Urethral stage (superficial vs invasive disease) at diagnosis is the most import predictor of overall survival in this cohort of patients.