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Focused ultrasound (FUS) has gained recognition as a technique for non-invasive neuromodulation with high spatial precision and the ability to both excite and inhibit neural activity. Here we demonstrate that MRI-guided FUS is capable of exciting precise targets within areas 3a/3b in the monkey brain, causing downstream activations in off-target somatosensory and associated brain regions which are simultaneously detected by functional MRI. The similarity between natural tactile stimulation-and FUS- evoked fMRI activation patterns suggests that FUS likely can excite populations of neurons and produce associated spiking activities that may be subsequently transmitted to other functionally related touch regions. The across-region differences in fMRI signal changes relative to area 3a/3b between tactile and FUS conditions also indicate that FUS modulated the tactile network differently. The significantly faster rising (>1 sec) fMRI signals elicited by direct FUS stimulation at the targeted cortical region suggest that a different neural hemodynamic coupling mechanism may be involved in generating fMRI signals. This is the first demonstration of imaging neural excitation effects of FUS with BOLD fMRI on a specific functional circuit in non-human primates.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS - The need for transpapillary drainage (TPD) in patients undergoing transmural drainage (TMD) of pancreatic fluid collections (PFCs) remains unclear. The aims of this study were to compare treatment outcomes between patients with pancreatic pseudocysts undergoing TMD versus combined (TMD and TPD) drainage (CD) and to identify predictors of symptomatic and radiologic resolution.
METHODS - This is a retrospective review of 375 consecutive patients with PFCs who underwent EUS-guided TMD from 2008 to 2014 at 15 academic centers in the United States. Main outcome measures included TMD and CD technical success, treatment outcomes (symptomatic and radiologic resolution) at follow-up, and predictors of treatment outcomes on logistic regression.
RESULTS - A total of 375 patients underwent EUS-guided TMD of PFCs, of which 174 were pseudocysts. TMD alone was performed in 95 (55%) and CD in 79 (45%) pseudocysts. Technical success was as follows: TMD, 92 (97%) versus CD, 35 (44%) (P = .0001). There was no difference in adverse events between the TMD (15%) and CD (14%) cohorts (P = .23). Median long-term (LT) follow-up after transmural stent removal was 324 days (interquartile range, 72-493 days) for TMD and 201 days (interquartile range, 150-493 days) (P = .37). There was no difference in LT symptomatic resolution (TMD, 69% vs CD, 62%; P = .61) or LT radiologic resolution (TMD, 71% vs CD, 67%; P = .79). TPD attempt was negatively associated with LT radiologic resolution of pseudocyst (odds ratio, 0.11; 95% confidence interval, 0.02-0.8; P = .03).
CONCLUSIONS - TPD has no benefit on treatment outcomes in patients undergoing EUS-guided TMD of pancreatic pseudocysts and negatively affects LT resolution of PFCs.
Copyright © 2016 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Image-guided percutaneous biopsy of abdominal masses is a safe, minimally invasive procedure with a high diagnostic yield for a variety of pathologic processes. This article describes the basic technique of percutaneous biopsy, including the different modalities available for imaging guidance. Patient selection and preparation for safe performance of the procedure is emphasized, and the periprocedural management of coagulation status as well as basic indications and contraindications of the procedure are briefly discussed. In particular, the role of biopsy in the diagnosis of liver and renal masses is highlighted.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
PURPOSE - Unfortunately, the current re-excision rates for breast conserving surgeries due to positive margins average 20-40 %. The high re-excision rates arise from difficulty in localizing tumor boundaries intraoperatively and lack of real-time information on the presence of residual disease. The work presented here introduces the use of supine magnetic resonance (MR) images, digitization technology, and biomechanical models to investigate the capability of using an image guidance system to localize tumors intraoperatively.
METHODS - Preoperative supine MR images were used to create patient-specific biomechanical models of the breast tissue, chest wall, and tumor. In a mock intraoperative setup, a laser range scanner was used to digitize the breast surface and tracked ultrasound was used to digitize the chest wall and tumor. Rigid registration combined with a novel nonrigid registration routine was used to align the preoperative and intraoperative patient breast and tumor. The registration framework is driven by breast surface data (laser range scan of visible surface), ultrasound chest wall surface, and MR-visible fiducials. Tumor localizations by tracked ultrasound were only used to evaluate the fidelity of aligning preoperative MR tumor contours to physical patient space. The use of tracked ultrasound to digitize subsurface features to constrain our nonrigid registration approach and to assess the fidelity of our framework makes this work unique. Two patient subjects were analyzed as a preliminary investigation toward the realization of this supine image-guided approach.
RESULTS - An initial rigid registration was performed using adhesive MR-visible fiducial markers for two patients scheduled for a lumpectomy. For patient 1, the rigid registration resulted in a root-mean-square fiducial registration error (FRE) of 7.5 mm and the difference between the intraoperative tumor centroid as visualized with tracked ultrasound imaging and the registered preoperative MR counterpart was 6.5 mm. Nonrigid correction resulted in a decrease in FRE to 2.9 mm and tumor centroid difference to 5.5 mm. For patient 2, rigid registration resulted in a FRE of 8.8 mm and a 3D tumor centroid difference of 12.5 mm. Following nonrigid correction for patient 2, the FRE was reduced to 7.4 mm and the 3D tumor centroid difference was reduced to 5.3 mm.
CONCLUSION - Using our prototype image-guided surgery platform, we were able to align intraoperative data with preoperative patient-specific models with clinically relevant accuracy; i.e., tumor centroid localizations of approximately 5.3-5.5 mm.
OBJECT - Cerebrospinal fluid shunt ventricular catheters inserted into the frontal horn or trigone are associated with prolonged shunt survival. Developing surgical techniques for accurate catheter insertion could, therefore, be beneficial to patients. This study was conducted to determine if the rate of accurate catheter location with intraoperative ultrasound guidance could exceed 80%.
METHODS - The authors conducted a prospective, multicenter study of children (< 18 years) requiring first-time treatment for hydrocephalus with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Using intraoperative ultrasound, surgeons were required to target the frontal horn or trigone for catheter tip placement. An intraoperative ultrasound image was obtained at the time of catheter insertion. Ventricular catheter location, the primary outcome measure, was determined from the first postoperative image. A control group of patients treated by nonultrasound surgeons (conventional surgeons) were enrolled using the same study criteria. Conventional shunt surgeons also agreed to target the frontal horn or trigone for all catheter insertions. Patients were triaged to participating surgeons based on call schedules at each center. A pediatric neuroradiologist blinded to method of insertion, center, and surgeon determined ventricular catheter tip location.
RESULTS - Eleven surgeons enrolled as ultrasound surgeons and 6 as conventional surgeons. Between February 2009 and February 2010, 121 patients were enrolled at 4 Hydrocephalus Clinical Research Network centers. Experienced ultrasound surgeons (> 15 cases prior to study) operated on 67 patients; conventional surgeons operated on 52 patients. Experienced ultrasound surgeons achieved accurate catheter location in 39 (59%) of 66 patients, 95% CI (46%-71%). Intraoperative ultrasound images were compared with postoperative scans. In 32.7% of cases, the catheter tip moved from an accurate location on the intraoperative ultrasound image to an inaccurate location on the postoperative study. This was the most significant factor affecting accuracy. In comparison, conventional surgeons achieved accurate location in 24 (49.0%) of 49 cases (95% CI [34%-64%]). The shunt survival rate at 1 year was 70.8% in the experienced ultrasound group and 66.9% in the conventional group (p = 0.66). Ultrasound surgeons had more catheters surrounded by CSF (30.8% vs 6.1%, p = 0.0012) and away from the choroid plexus (72.3% vs 58.3%, p = 0.12), and fewer catheters in the brain (3% vs 22.4%, p = 0.0011) and crossing the midline (4.5% vs 34.7%, p < 0.001), but they had a higher proportion of postoperative pseudomeningocele (10.1% vs 3.8%, p = 0.30), wound dehiscence (5.8% vs 0%, p = 0.13), CSF leak (10.1% vs 1.9%, p = 0.14), and shunt infection (11.6% vs 5.8%, p = 0.35).
CONCLUSIONS - Ultrasound-guided shunt insertion as performed in this study was unable to consistently place catheters into the frontal horn or trigone. The technique is safe and achieves outcomes similar to other conventional shunt insertion techniques. Further efforts to improve accurate catheter location should focus on prevention of catheter migration that occurs between intraoperative placement and postoperative imaging. Clinical trial registration no.: NCT01007786 ( ClinicalTrials.gov ).
OBJECTIVE - Antioxidative drugs continue to be developed for the treatment of atherosclerosis. Apocynin is an nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase inhibitor with anti-inflammatory properties. We used contrast-enhanced ultrasound molecular imaging to assess whether short-term apocynin therapy in atherosclerosis reduces vascular oxidative stress and endothelial activation
APPROACH AND RESULTS - Genetically modified mice with early atherosclerosis were studied at baseline and after 7 days of therapy with apocynin (4 mg/kg per day IP) or saline. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound molecular imaging of the aorta was performed with microbubbles targeted to vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1; MB(V)), to platelet glycoprotein Ibα (MB(Pl)), and control microbubbles (MB(Ctr)). Aortic vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 was measured using Western blot. Aortic reactive oxygen species generation was measured using a lucigenin assay. Hydroethidine oxidation was used to assess aortic superoxide generation. Baseline signal for MBV (1.3 ± 0.3 AU) and MB(Pl )(1.5 ± 0.5 AU) was higher than for MBCtr (0.5 ± 0.2 AU; P<0.01). In saline-treated animals, signal did not significantly change for any microbubble agent, whereas short-term apocynin significantly (P<0.05) reduced vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 and platelet signal (MBV: 0.3 ± 0.1; MBPl: 0.4 ± 0.1; MBCtr: 0.3 ± 0.2 AU; P=0.6 between agents). Apocynin reduced aortic vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 expression by 50% (P<0.05). However, apocynin therapy did not reduce reactive oxygen species content, superoxide generation, or macrophage content.
CONCLUSIONS - Short-term treatment with apocynin in atherosclerosis reduces endothelial cell adhesion molecule expression. This change in endothelial phenotype can be detected by molecular imaging before any measurable decrease in macrophage content and is not associated with a detectable change in oxidative burden.
OBJECTIVE - Ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia with in-plane needle approaches can be challenging due to difficult needle visualization. We hypothesized that an in-plane, multiangle needle guide can help reduce the time it takes novice regional anesthesiologists to perform a simulated ultrasound-guided nerve-targeting procedure and enhance the visualization of the needle.
DESIGN - Crossover simulation study.
SETTING - Simulation environment at an academic institution.
SUBJECTS - Volunteer trainees in their postgraduate years 1 and 2.
METHODS - Sixteen subjects were randomized to repeat a single nerve targeting simulation task four times with and four times without a needle guide. End points were time to complete the nerve targeting, needle visualization, number of passes, and needle approximation to the target.
RESULTS - The needle guide reduced median time to complete the task by 27% (95% confidence interval: 4-44%) and increased the odds of an acceptable needle visualization by 355% (95% confidence interval: 171-737%). A learning benefit for the time outcome was also noted, with multiple attempts regardless of whether the needle guide was used or not.
CONCLUSIONS - A needle guide can help reduce the time needed to complete a simulated nerve targeting procedure and enhance needle visualization for the novice sonographer in a phantom gel simulation. There was no significant reduction in the number of needle passes or in improvement of target approximation noted.
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PURPOSE - To compare subharmonic aided pressure estimation (SHAPE) with pressure catheter-based measurements in human patients with chronic liver disease undergoing transjugular liver biopsy.
MATERIALS AND METHODS - This HIPAA-compliant study had U.S. Food and Drug Administration and institutional review board approval, and written informed consent was obtained from all participants. Forty-five patients completed this study between December 2010 and December 2011. A clinical ultrasonography (US) scanner was modified to obtain SHAPE data. After transjugular liver biopsy with pressure measurements as part of the standard of care, 45 patients received an infusion of a microbubble US contrast agent and saline. During infusion, SHAPE data were collected from a portal and hepatic vein and were compared with invasive measurements. Correlations between data sets were determined by using the Pearson correlation coefficient, and statistical significance between groups was determined by using the Student t test.
RESULTS - The 45 study patients included 27 men and 18 women (age range, 19-71 years; average age, 55.8 years). The SHAPE gradient between the portal and hepatic veins was in good overall agreement with the hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) (R = 0.82). Patients at increased risk for variceal hemorrhage (HVPG ≥ 12 mm Hg) had a significantly higher mean subharmonic gradient than patients with lower HVPGs (1.93 dB ± 0.61 [standard deviation] vs -1.47 dB ± 0.29, P < .001), with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 81%, indicating that SHAPE may be a useful tool for the diagnosis of clinically important portal hypertension.
CONCLUSION - Preliminary results show SHAPE to be an accurate noninvasive technique for estimating portal hypertension.
BACKGROUND - Much of the epidemiologic research on risk factors for fibroids, the leading indication for hysterectomy, relies on self-reported outcome. Self-report is subject to misclassification because many women with fibroids are undiagnosed. The purpose of this analysis was to quantify the extent of misclassification and identify associated factors.
METHODS - Self-reported fibroid status was compared to ultrasound screening from 2046 women in Right From The Start (RFTS) and 869 women in the Uterine Fibroid Study (UFS). Log-binomial regression was used to estimate sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) and examine differences by ethnicity, age, education, body mass index, parity, and miscarriage history.
RESULTS - Overall sensitivity was ≤0.50. Sensitivity was higher in blacks than whites (RFTS: 0.34 vs. 0.23; UFS: 0.58 vs. 0.32) and increased with age. Parous women had higher sensitivity than nulliparae, especially in RFTS whites (Se ratio=2.90; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.51, 5.60). Specificity was 0.98 in RFTS and 0.86 in UFS. Modest ethnic differences were seen in UFS (Sp ratio, black vs. white=0.90; 95% CI: 0.81, 0.99). Parity was inversely associated with specificity, especially among UFS black women (Sp ratio=0.84; 95% CI: 0.73, 0.97). Among women who reported a previous diagnosis, a shorter time interval between diagnosis and ultrasound was associated with increased agreement between the two measures.
CONCLUSIONS - Misclassification of fibroid status can differ by factors of etiologic interest. These findings are useful for assessing (and correcting) bias in studies using self-reported clinical diagnosis as the outcome measure.