The publication data currently available has been vetted by Vanderbilt faculty, staff, administrators and trainees. The data itself is retrieved directly from NCBI's PubMed and is automatically updated on a weekly basis to ensure accuracy and completeness.
If you have any questions or comments, please contact us.
During cell division, the timing of mitosis and cytokinesis must be ordered to ensure that each daughter cell receives a complete, undamaged copy of the genome. In fission yeast, the septation initiation network (SIN) is responsible for this coordination, and a mitotic checkpoint dependent on the E3 ubiquitin ligase Dma1 and the protein kinase CK1 controls SIN signaling to delay cytokinesis when there are errors in mitosis. The participation of kinases and ubiquitin ligases in cell cycle checkpoints that maintain genome integrity is conserved from yeast to human, making fission yeast an excellent model system in which to study checkpoint mechanisms. In this review, we highlight recent advances and remaining questions related to checkpoint regulation, which requires the synchronized modulation of protein ubiquitination, phosphorylation, and subcellular localization.
RATIONALE - Atherosclerosis is, in part, caused by immune and inflammatory cell infiltration into the vascular wall, leading to enhanced inflammation and lipid accumulation in the aortic endothelium. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying this disease is critical for the development of new therapies. Our recent studies demonstrate that epsins, a family of ubiquitin-binding endocytic adaptors, are critical regulators of atherogenicity. Given the fundamental contribution lesion macrophages make to fuel atherosclerosis, whether and how myeloid-specific epsins promote atherogenesis is an open and significant question.
OBJECTIVE - We will determine the role of myeloid-specific epsins in regulating lesion macrophage function during atherosclerosis.
METHODS AND RESULTS - We engineered myeloid cell-specific epsins double knockout mice (LysM-DKO) on an ApoE background. On Western diet, these mice exhibited marked decrease in atherosclerotic lesion formation, diminished immune and inflammatory cell content in aortas, and reduced necrotic core content but increased smooth muscle cell content in aortic root sections. Epsins deficiency hindered foam cell formation and suppressed proinflammatory macrophage phenotype but increased efferocytosis and anti-inflammatory macrophage phenotype in primary macrophages. Mechanistically, we show that epsin loss specifically increased total and surface levels of LRP-1 (LDLR [low-density lipoprotein receptor]-related protein 1), an efferocytosis receptor with antiatherosclerotic properties. We further show that epsin and LRP-1 interact via epsin's ubiquitin-interacting motif domain. ox-LDL (oxidized LDL) treatment increased LRP-1 ubiquitination, subsequent binding to epsin, and its internalization from the cell surface, suggesting that epsins promote the ubiquitin-dependent internalization and downregulation of LRP-1. Crossing ApoE/LysM-DKO mice onto an LRP-1 heterozygous background restored, in part, atherosclerosis, suggesting that epsin-mediated LRP-1 downregulation in macrophages plays a pivotal role in propelling atherogenesis.
CONCLUSIONS - Myeloid epsins promote atherogenesis by facilitating proinflammatory macrophage recruitment and inhibiting efferocytosis in part by downregulating LRP-1, implicating that targeting epsins in macrophages may serve as a novel therapeutic strategy to treat atherosclerosis.
Protein ubiquitination is a dynamic and reversible process of adding single ubiquitin molecules or various ubiquitin chains to target proteins. Here, using multidimensional omic data of 9,125 tumor samples across 33 cancer types from The Cancer Genome Atlas, we perform comprehensive molecular characterization of 929 ubiquitin-related genes and 95 deubiquitinase genes. Among them, we systematically identify top somatic driver candidates, including mutated FBXW7 with cancer-type-specific patterns and amplified MDM2 showing a mutually exclusive pattern with BRAF mutations. Ubiquitin pathway genes tend to be upregulated in cancer mediated by diverse mechanisms. By integrating pan-cancer multiomic data, we identify a group of tumor samples that exhibit worse prognosis. These samples are consistently associated with the upregulation of cell-cycle and DNA repair pathways, characterized by mutated TP53, MYC/TERT amplification, and APC/PTEN deletion. Our analysis highlights the importance of the ubiquitin pathway in cancer development and lays a foundation for developing relevant therapeutic strategies.
Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
E3 ubiquitin (UB) ligases E4B and carboxyl terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP) use a common U-box motif to transfer UB from E1 and E2 enzymes to their substrate proteins and regulate diverse cellular processes. To profile their ubiquitination targets in the cell, we used phage display to engineer E2-E4B and E2-CHIP pairs that were free of cross-reactivity with the native UB transfer cascades. We then used the engineered E2-E3 pairs to construct "orthogonal UB transfer (OUT)" cascades so that a mutant UB (xUB) could be exclusively used by the engineered E4B or CHIP to label their substrate proteins. Purification of xUB-conjugated proteins followed by proteomics analysis enabled the identification of hundreds of potential substrates of E4B and CHIP in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. Kinase MAPK3 (mitogen-activated protein kinase 3), methyltransferase PRMT1 (protein arginine -methyltransferase 1), and phosphatase PPP3CA (protein phosphatase 3 catalytic subunit alpha) were identified as the shared substrates of the two E3s. Phosphatase PGAM5 (phosphoglycerate mutase 5) and deubiquitinase OTUB1 (ovarian tumor domain containing ubiquitin aldehyde binding protein 1) were confirmed as E4B substrates, and β-catenin and CDK4 (cyclin-dependent kinase 4) were confirmed as CHIP substrates. On the basis of the CHIP-CDK4 circuit identified by OUT, we revealed that CHIP signals CDK4 degradation in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress.
Although critical in phagocytosis in innate immunity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) collaterally inflict damage to host phagocytes because they indiscriminate targets. Since Nrf2 increases the expression of anti-oxidant enzymes that nullifies ROS, ROS activating Nrf2 is a critical negative regulatory step for countering the deleterious effects of ROS. Here, we postulate whether, along with ROS activating Nrf2, NADPH oxidase components also participate in direct activation of Nrf2, contributing to protection from ROS. Our results show that the p47 of the NADPH oxidase, but not p65 or p40, physically binds to Nrf2, activating the Nrf2 function. p47 binding to Nrf2/Keap1 complex suppresses the ubiquitination of Nrf2, while p47 becomes ubiquitinated by Keap1. p47 increases the nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and the expression of Nrf2-dependent genes, whereas genetic ablation of p47 decreases the expression of those genes. In a lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung inflammation mouse model, selective expression of p47 in mouse lungs induces the expression of Nrf2-dependent genes and is sufficient to suppress neutrophilic lung inflammation. Therefore, our findings suggest that p47 is a novel regulator of Nrf2 function.
Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
EZH2 is crucial for the progression of prostate cancer (PCa) and castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) through upregulation and activation of progenitor genes, as well as androgen receptor (AR)-target genes. However, the mechanisms by which EZH2 is regulated in PCa and CRPC remain elusive. Here we report that EZH2 is post-transcriptionally regulated by SKP2 in vitro in cultured cells and in vivo in mouse models. We observed aberrant upregulation of Skp2, Ezh2 and histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) in both Pten null mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and Pten null mouse prostate tissues. Loss of Skp2 resulted in a striking decrease of Ezh2 levels in Pten/Trp53 double-null MEFs and in prostate tumors of Pten/Trp53 double-null mutant mice. SKP2 knockdown decreased EZH2 levels in human PCa cells through upregulation of TRAF6-mediated and lysine(K) 63-linked ubiquitination of EZH2 for degradation. Ectopic expression of TRAF6 promoted the K63-linked ubiquitination of EZH2 to decrease EZH2 and H3K27me3 levels in PCa cells. In contrast, TRAF6 knockdown resulted in a reduced EZH2 ubiquitination with an increase of EZH2 and H3K27me3 levels in PCa cells. Furthermore, the catalytically dead mutant TRAF6 C70A abolished the TRAF6-mediated polyubiquitination of recombinant human EZH2 in vitro. Most importantly, a concurrent elevation of Skp2 and Ezh2 was found in CRPC tumors of Pten/Trp53 mutant mice, and expression levels of SKP2 and EZH2 were positively correlated in human PCa specimens. Taken together, our findings revealed a novel mechanism on EZH2 ubiquitination and an important signaling network of SKP2-TRAF6-EZH2/H3K27me3, and targeting SKP2-EZH2 pathway may be a promising therapeutic strategy for CRPC treatment.
The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) influences gene transcription in multiple ways. One way in which the UPS affects transcription centers on transcriptional activators, the function of which can be stimulated by components of the UPS that also trigger their destruction. Activation of transcription by the yeast activator Gcn4, for example, is attenuated by mutations in the ubiquitin ligase that mediates Gcn4 ubiquitylation or by inhibition of the proteasome, leading to the idea that ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis of Gcn4 is required for its activity. Here we probe the steps in Gcn4 activity that are perturbed by disruption of the UPS. We show that the ubiquitylation machinery and the proteasome control different steps in Gcn4 function and that proteasome activity is required for the ability of Gcn4 to bind to its target genes in the context of chromatin. Curiously, the effect of proteasome inhibition on Gcn4 activity is suppressed by mutations in the ubiquitin-selective chaperone Cdc48, revealing that proteolysis per se is not required for Gcn4 activity. Our data highlight the role of Cdc48 in controlling promoter occupancy by Gcn4 and support a model in which ubiquitylation of activators-not their destruction-is important for function.
© 2016 Howard and Tansey. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).
After significant injury, the liver must maintain homeostasis during the regenerative process. We hypothesized the existence of mechanisms to limit hepatocyte proliferation after injury to maintain metabolic and synthetic function. A screen for candidates revealed suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 (SOCS2), an inhibitor of growth hormone (GH) signaling, was strongly induced after partial hepatectomy. Using genetic deletion and administration of various factors we investigated the role of SOCS2 during liver regeneration. SOCS2 preserves liver function by restraining the first round of hepatocyte proliferation after partial hepatectomy by preventing increases in growth hormone receptor (GHR) via ubiquitination, suppressing GH pathway activity. At later times, SOCS2 enhances hepatocyte proliferation by modulating a decrease in serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) that allows GH release from the pituitary. SOCS2, therefore, plays a dual role in modulating the rate of hepatocyte proliferation. In particular, this is the first demonstration of an endogenous mechanism to limit hepatocyte proliferation after injury.
© 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
The E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP is involved in protein triage, serving as a co-chaperone for refolding as well as catalyzing ubiquitination of substrates. CHIP functions with both the stress induced Hsp70 and constitutive Hsc70 chaperones, and also plays a role in maintaining their balance in the cell. When the chaperones carry no client proteins, CHIP catalyzes their polyubiquitination and subsequent proteasomal degradation. Although Hsp70 and Hsc70 are highly homologous in sequence and similar in structure, CHIP mediated ubiquitination promotes degradation of Hsp70 with a higher efficiency than for Hsc70. Here we report a detailed and systematic investigation to characterize if there are significant differences in the CHIP in vitro ubiquitination of human Hsp70 and Hsc70. Proteomic analysis by mass spectrometry revealed that only 12 of 39 detectable lysine residues were ubiquitinated by UbcH5a in Hsp70 and only 16 of 45 in Hsc70. The only conserved lysine identified as ubiquitinated in one but not the other heat shock protein was K159 in Hsc70. Ubiquitination assays with K-R ubiquitin mutants showed that multiple Ub chain types are formed and that the distribution is different for Hsp70 versus Hsc70. CHIP ubiquitination with the E2 enzyme Ube2W is predominantly directed to the N-terminal amine of the substrate; however, some internal lysine modifications were also detected. Together, our results provide a detailed view of the differences in CHIP ubiquitination of these two very similar proteins, and show a clear example where substantial differences in ubiquitination can be generated by a single E3 ligase in response to not only different E2 enzymes but subtle differences in the substrate.
The collecting system of the kidney develops from the ureteric bud (UB), which undergoes branching morphogenesis, a process regulated by multiple factors, including integrin-extracellular matrix interactions. The laminin (LM)-binding integrin α3β1 is crucial for this developmental program; however, the LM types and LM/integrin α3β1-dependent signaling pathways are poorly defined. We show that α3 chain-containing LMs promote normal UB branching morphogenesis and that LM-332 is a better substrate than LM-511 for stimulating integrin α3β1-dependent collecting duct cell functions. We demonstrate that integrin α3β1-mediated cell adhesion to LM-332 modulates Akt activation in the developing collecting system and that Akt activation is PI3K independent but requires decreased PTEN activity and K63-linked polyubiquitination. We identified the ubiquitin-modifying enzyme TRAF6 as an interactor with the integrin β1 subunit and regulator of integrin α3β1-dependent Akt activation. Finally, we established that the developmental defects of TRAF6- and integrin α3-null mouse kidneys are similar. Thus K63-linked polyubiquitination plays a previously unrecognized role in integrin α3β1-dependent cell signaling required for UB development and may represent a novel mechanism whereby integrins regulate signaling pathways.
© 2015 Yazlovitskaya et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).