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E3 ubiquitin (UB) ligases E4B and carboxyl terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP) use a common U-box motif to transfer UB from E1 and E2 enzymes to their substrate proteins and regulate diverse cellular processes. To profile their ubiquitination targets in the cell, we used phage display to engineer E2-E4B and E2-CHIP pairs that were free of cross-reactivity with the native UB transfer cascades. We then used the engineered E2-E3 pairs to construct "orthogonal UB transfer (OUT)" cascades so that a mutant UB (xUB) could be exclusively used by the engineered E4B or CHIP to label their substrate proteins. Purification of xUB-conjugated proteins followed by proteomics analysis enabled the identification of hundreds of potential substrates of E4B and CHIP in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. Kinase MAPK3 (mitogen-activated protein kinase 3), methyltransferase PRMT1 (protein arginine -methyltransferase 1), and phosphatase PPP3CA (protein phosphatase 3 catalytic subunit alpha) were identified as the shared substrates of the two E3s. Phosphatase PGAM5 (phosphoglycerate mutase 5) and deubiquitinase OTUB1 (ovarian tumor domain containing ubiquitin aldehyde binding protein 1) were confirmed as E4B substrates, and β-catenin and CDK4 (cyclin-dependent kinase 4) were confirmed as CHIP substrates. On the basis of the CHIP-CDK4 circuit identified by OUT, we revealed that CHIP signals CDK4 degradation in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress.
Oxyntic atrophy in the stomach leads to chief cell transdifferentiation into spasmolytic polypeptide expressing metaplasia (SPEM). Investigations of preneoplastic metaplasias in the stomach are limited by the sole reliance on in vivo mouse models, owing to the lack of in vitro models for distinct normal mucosal lineages and metaplasias. Utilizing the Immortomouse, in vitro cell models of chief cells and SPEM were developed to study the characteristics of normal chief cells and metaplasia. Chief cells and SPEM cells isolated from Immortomice were cultured and characterized at both the permissive (33°C) and the nonpermissive temperature (39°C). Clones were selected on the basis of their transcriptional expression of specific stomach lineage markers (named ImChief and ImSPEM) and protein expression and growth were analyzed. The transcriptional expression profiles of ImChief and ImSPEM cells were compared further by using gene microarrays. ImChief cells transcriptionally express most chief cell markers and contain pepsinogen C and RAB3D-immunostaining vesicles. ImSPEM cells express the SPEM markers TFF2 and HE4 and constitutively secrete HE4. Whereas ImChief cells cease proliferation at the nonpermissive temperature, ImSPEM cells continue to proliferate at 39°C. Gene expression profiling of ImChief and ImSPEM revealed myelin and lymphocyte protein 2 (MAL2) as a novel marker of SPEM lineages. Our results indicate that the expression and proliferation profiles of the novel ImChief and ImSPEM cell lines resemble in vivo chief and SPEM cell lineages. These cell culture lines provide the first in vitro systems for studying the molecular mechanisms of the metaplastic transition in the stomach.
Telomerase is a multi-subunit enzyme that reverse transcribes telomere repeats onto the ends of linear eukaryotic chromosomes and is therefore critical for genome stability. S. cerevisiae telomerase activity is cell-cycle regulated; telomeres are not elongated during G1 phase. Previous work has shown that Est1 protein levels are low during G1 phase, preventing telomerase complex assembly. However, the pathway targeting Est1p for degradation remained uncharacterized. Here, we show that Est1p stability through the cell cycle mirrors that of Clb2p, a known target of the Anaphase Promoting Complex (APC). Indeed, Est1p is stabilized by mutations in both essential and non-essential components of the APC. Mutations of putative Destruction boxes (D-boxes), regions shown to be important for recognition of known APC substrates, stabilize Est1p, suggesting that Est1p is likely to be targeted for degradation directly by the APC. However, we do not detect degradation or ubiquitination of recombinant Est1p by the APC in vitro, suggesting either that the recombinant protein lacks necessary post-translational modification and/or conformation, or that the APC affects Est1p degradation by an indirect mechanism. Together, these studies shed light on the regulation of yeast telomerase assembly and demonstrate a new connection between telomere maintenance and cell cycle regulation pathways.
The ubiquitin-proteasome protein degradation system is involved in many essential cellular processes including cell cycle regulation, cell differentiation, and the unfolded protein response. The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), an evolutionarily conserved E3 ubiquitin ligase, was discovered 15 years ago because of its pivotal role in cyclin degradation and mitotic progression. Since then, we have learned that the APC/C is a very large, complex E3 ligase composed of 13 subunits, yielding a molecular machine of approximately 1 MDa. The intricate regulation of the APC/C is mediated by the Cdc20 family of activators, pseudosubstrate inhibitors, protein kinases and phosphatases and the spindle assembly checkpoint. The large size, complexity, and dynamic nature of the APC/C represent significant obstacles toward high-resolution structural techniques; however, over the last decade, there have been a number of lower resolution APC/C structures determined using single particle electron microscopy. These structures, when combined with data generated from numerous genetic and biochemical studies, have begun to shed light on how APC/C activity is regulated. Here, we discuss the most recent developments in the APC/C field concerning structure, substrate recognition, and catalysis.
The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a conserved multisubunit E3 ubiquitin (Ub) ligase required to signal the degradation of key cell-cycle regulators. Using single particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), we have determined a three-dimensional (3D) structure of the core APC/C from Schizosaccharomyces pombe bound to the APC/C activator Slp1/Cdc20. At the 27 A resolution of our density map, the APC/C is a triangular-shaped structure, approximately 19x17x15 nm in size, with a deep internal cavity and a prominent horn-like protrusion emanating from a lip of the cavity. Using antibody labeling and mutant analysis, we have localized 12 of 13 core APC/C components, as well as the position of the activator Slp1, enabling us to propose a structural model of APC/C organization. Comparison of the APC/C with another multiprotein E3 ligase, the SCF complex, uncovers remarkable structural similarities.
The Saccharomyces cerevisiae basic leucine zipper transcription factor Hac1p is synthesized in response to the accumulation of unfolded polypeptides in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and it is responsible for up-regulation of approximately 5% of all yeast genes, including ER-resident chaperones and protein-folding catalysts. Hac1p is one of the most short-lived yeast proteins, having a half-life of approximately 1.5 min. Here, we have shown that Hac1p harbors a functional PEST degron and that degradation of Hac1p by the proteasome involves the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Ubc3/Cdc34p and the SCF(Cdc4) E3 complex. Consistent with the known nuclear localization of Cdc4p, rapid degradation of Hac1p requires the presence of a functional nuclear localization sequence, which we demonstrated to involve basic residues in the sequence (29)RKRAKTK(35). Two-hybrid analysis demonstrated that the PEST-dependent interaction of Hac1p with Cdc4p requires Ser146 and Ser149. Turnover of Hac1p may be dependent on transcription because it is inhibited in cell mutants lacking Srb10 kinase, a component of the SRB/mediator module of the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme. Stabilization of Hac1p by point mutation or deletion, or as the consequence of defects in components of the degradation pathway, results in increased unfolded protein response element-dependent transcription and improved cell viability under ER stress conditions.
The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a conserved multisubunit ubiquitin ligase required for the degradation of key cell cycle regulators. The APC/C becomes active at the metaphase/anaphase transition and remains active during G(1) phase. One mechanism linked to activation of the APC/C is phosphorylation. Although many sites of mitotic phosphorylation have been identified in core components of the APC/C, the consequence of any individual phosphorylation event has not been elucidated in vivo. In this study, we show that Hcn1 is an essential core component of the fission yeast APC/C and is critical for maintaining complex integrity. Moreover, Hcn1 is a phosphoprotein in vivo. Phosphorylation of Hcn1 occurs at a single Cdk1 site in vitro and in vivo. Mutation of this site to alanine, but not aspartic acid, compromises APC/C function and leads to a specific defect in the completion of cell division.
PURPOSE - To investigate how hydrostatic pressure influences regulation of interleukin (IL)-6 by retinal glia and whether this regulation is associated with the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway (UPP) and activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor (NF)kappaB.
METHODS - Astrocytes and microglia isolated from rat retina were maintained in vitro, and the IL-6 concentration in the media at ambient and elevated pressure were compared, with and without the proteasome inhibitor MG132 (10 microM). Immunocytochemistry was used to correlate translocation of NFkappaB with pressure.
RESULTS - Exposure to elevated pressure for 24 hours maximally altered the concentration of media IL-6 of glia cultures, where IL-6 concentrations decreased in astrocyte cultures and increased in microglia cultures. These pressure-induced changes in IL-6 were largely insensitive to MG132 in astrocytes, but were largely MG132-sensitive in microglia. Like IL-6 regulation, pressure-induced activation of NFkappaB also differed between the two glial cell types, where nuclear localization of NFkappaB was transient in astrocytes, but sustained in microglia. Elevated pressure also increased MG132-sensitive expression of IL-6 mRNA by microglia.
CONCLUSIONS - Though pressure-induced regulation of IL-6 by astrocytes is preceded by NFkappaB translocation, it is not altered by MG132 and therefore is not likely to be regulated by NFkappaB or the UPP. In contrast, pressure-induced regulation of IL-6 protein and mRNA by microglia is preceded by NFkappaB translocation and is sensitive to MG132. Together with precedence in the literature, these data suggest that pressure-induced activation of the UPP leads to transcription of IL-6 driven by NFkappaB.
Ku70 plays an important role in DNA damage repair and prevention of cell death. Previously, we reported that apoptosis caused a decrease in cellular Ku70 levels. In this study, we analyzed the mechanism of how Ku70 levels decrease during drug-induced apoptosis. In HeLa cells, staurosporin (STS) caused a decrease in Ku70 levels without significantly affecting Ku70 mRNA levels. We found that Ku70 protein was highly ubiquitinated in various cell types, such as HeLa, HEK293T, Dami (a megakaryocytic cell line), endothelial, and rat kidney cells. An increase in ubiquitinated Ku70 protein was observed in apoptotic cells, and proteasome inhibitors attenuated the decrease in Ku70 levels in apoptotic cells. These results suggest that the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway plays a role in decreasing Ku70 levels in apoptotic cells. Ku70 forms a heterodimer with Ku80, which is required for the DNA repair activity of Ku proteins. We also found that Ku80 levels decreased in apoptotic cells and that Ku80 is a target of ubiquitin. Ubiquitinated Ku70 was not found in the Ku70-Ku80 heterodimer, suggesting that modification by ubiquitin inhibits Ku heterodimer formation. We propose that the ubiquitin-dependent modification of Ku70 plays an important role in the control of cellular levels of Ku70.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe Dim1p is required for maintaining the steady-state level of the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C) component Lid1p and thus for maintaining the steady-state level and activity of the APC/C. To gain further insight into Dim1p function, we have investigated the mechanism whereby Dim1p influences Lid1p levels. We show that S. pombe cells lacking Dim1p or Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells lacking its ortholog, Dib1p, are defective in generalized pre-mRNA splicing in vivo, a result consistent with the identification of Dim1p as a component of the purified yeast U4/U6.U5 tri-snRNP complex. Moreover, we find that Dim1p is part of a complex with the splicing factor Prp1p. However, although Dim1p is required for efficient splicing of lid1(+) pre-mRNA, circumventing the necessity for this particular function of Dim1p is insufficient for restoring normal Lid1p levels. Finally, we provide evidence that Dim1p also participates in the nuclear export of lid1(+) mRNA and that it is likely the combined loss of both of these two Dim1p functions which compromises Lid1p levels in the absence of proper Dim1p function. These data indicate that a mechanism acting at the level of mRNA impacts the functioning of the APC/C, a critical complex in controlling mitotic progression.