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Bacterial CagA protein compromises tumor suppressor mechanisms in gastric epithelial cells.
Palrasu M, Zaika E, El-Rifai W, Garcia-Buitrago M, Piazuelo MB, Wilson KT, Peek RM, Zaika AI
(2020) J Clin Invest 130: 2422-2434
MeSH Terms: Antigens, Bacterial, Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins, Bacterial Proteins, Epithelial Cells, Gastric Mucosa, HCT116 Cells, Helicobacter pylori, Humans, Neoplasm Proteins, Proteolysis, Stomach Neoplasms, Ubiquitination, X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein
Show Abstract · Added April 7, 2020
Approximately half of the world's population is infected with the stomach pathogen Helicobacter pylori. Infection with H. pylori is the main risk factor for distal gastric cancer. Bacterial virulence factors, such as the oncoprotein CagA, augment cancer risk. Yet despite high infection rates, only a fraction of H. pylori-infected individuals develop gastric cancer. This raises the question of defining the specific host and bacterial factors responsible for gastric tumorigenesis. To investigate the tumorigenic determinants, we analyzed gastric tissues from human subjects and animals infected with H. pylori bacteria harboring different CagA status. For laboratory studies, well-defined H. pylori strain B128 and its cancerogenic derivative strain 7.13, as well as various bacterial isogenic mutants were employed. We found that H. pylori compromises key tumor suppressor mechanisms: the host stress and apoptotic responses. Our studies showed that CagA induces phosphorylation of XIAP E3 ubiquitin ligase, which enhances ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of the host proapoptotic factor Siva1. This process is mediated by the PI3K/Akt pathway. Inhibition of Siva1 by H. pylori increases survival of human cells with damaged DNA. It occurs in a strain-specific manner and is associated with the ability to induce gastric tumor.
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13 MeSH Terms
Association of neuronal repair biomarkers with delirium among survivors of critical illness.
Hayhurst CJ, Patel MB, McNeil JB, Girard TD, Brummel NE, Thompson JL, Chandrasekhar R, Ware LB, Pandharipande PP, Ely EW, Hughes CG
(2020) J Crit Care 56: 94-99
MeSH Terms: Aged, Biomarkers, Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor, Critical Illness, Delirium, Female, Humans, Inflammation, Male, Middle Aged, Multivariate Analysis, Patient Discharge, Prevalence, Prospective Studies, Respiratory Insufficiency, Shock, Survivors, Treatment Outcome, Ubiquitin Thiolesterase
Show Abstract · Added January 27, 2020
PURPOSE - Delirium is prevalent but with unclear pathogenesis. Neuronal injury repair pathways may be protective. We hypothesized that higher concentrations of neuronal repair biomarkers would be associated with decreased delirium in critically ill patients.
MATERIALS AND METHODS - We performed a nested study of hospital survivors within a prospective cohort that enrolled patients within 72 h of respiratory failure or shock. We measured plasma concentrations of ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal-esterase-L1 (UCHL1) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) from blood collected at enrollment. Delirium was assessed twice daily using the CAM-ICU. Multivariable regression was used to examine the associations between biomarkers and delirium prevalence/duration, adjusting for covariates and interactions with age and IL-6 plasma concentration.
RESULTS - We included 427 patients with a median age of 59 years (IQR 48-69) and APACHE II score of 25 (IQR 19-30). Higher plasma concentration of UCHL1 on admission was independently associated with lower prevalence of delirium (p = .04) but not associated with duration of delirium (p = .06). BDNF plasma concentration was not associated with prevalence (p = .26) or duration of delirium (p = .36).
CONCLUSIONS - During critical illness, higher UCHL1 plasma concentration is associated with lower prevalence of delirium; BDNF plasma concentration is not associated with delirium. Clinical trial number: NCT00392795; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00392795.
Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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19 MeSH Terms
Control of antiviral innate immune response by protein geranylgeranylation.
Yang S, Harding AT, Sweeney C, Miao D, Swan G, Zhou C, Jiang Z, Fitzgerald KA, Hammer G, Bergo MO, Kroh HK, Lacy DB, Sun C, Glogauer M, Que LG, Heaton NS, Wang D
(2019) Sci Adv 5: eaav7999
MeSH Terms: Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing, Alkyl and Aryl Transferases, Animals, Endoplasmic Reticulum, Female, Humans, Immunity, Innate, Macrophages, Alveolar, Male, Mice, Knockout, Neuropeptides, Orthomyxoviridae Infections, Protein Prenylation, Receptor-Interacting Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases, Tripartite Motif Proteins, Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases, rac GTP-Binding Proteins, rac1 GTP-Binding Protein
Show Abstract · Added March 24, 2020
The mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) orchestrates host antiviral innate immune response to RNA virus infection. However, how MAVS signaling is controlled to eradicate virus while preventing self-destructive inflammation remains obscure. Here, we show that protein geranylgeranylation, a posttranslational lipid modification of proteins, limits MAVS-mediated immune signaling by targeting Rho family small guanosine triphosphatase Rac1 into the mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes (MAMs) at the mitochondria-ER junction. Protein geranylgeranylation and subsequent palmitoylation promote Rac1 translocation into MAMs upon viral infection. MAM-localized Rac1 limits MAVS' interaction with E3 ligase Trim31 and hence inhibits MAVS ubiquitination, aggregation, and activation. Rac1 also facilitates the recruitment of caspase-8 and cFLIP to the MAVS signalosome and the subsequent cleavage of Ripk1 that terminates MAVS signaling. Consistently, mice with myeloid deficiency of protein geranylgeranylation showed improved survival upon influenza A virus infection. Our work revealed a critical role of protein geranylgeranylation in regulating antiviral innate immune response.
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18 MeSH Terms
Spatiotemporal regulation of the Dma1-mediated mitotic checkpoint coordinates mitosis with cytokinesis.
Cullati SN, Gould KL
(2019) Curr Genet 65: 663-668
MeSH Terms: Cell Cycle Checkpoints, Cell Cycle Proteins, Cytokinesis, Mitosis, Phosphorylation, Schizosaccharomyces, Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins, Spatio-Temporal Analysis, Ubiquitination
Show Abstract · Added April 10, 2019
During cell division, the timing of mitosis and cytokinesis must be ordered to ensure that each daughter cell receives a complete, undamaged copy of the genome. In fission yeast, the septation initiation network (SIN) is responsible for this coordination, and a mitotic checkpoint dependent on the E3 ubiquitin ligase Dma1 and the protein kinase CK1 controls SIN signaling to delay cytokinesis when there are errors in mitosis. The participation of kinases and ubiquitin ligases in cell cycle checkpoints that maintain genome integrity is conserved from yeast to human, making fission yeast an excellent model system in which to study checkpoint mechanisms. In this review, we highlight recent advances and remaining questions related to checkpoint regulation, which requires the synchronized modulation of protein ubiquitination, phosphorylation, and subcellular localization.
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Myeloid-Specific Deletion of Epsins 1 and 2 Reduces Atherosclerosis by Preventing LRP-1 Downregulation.
Brophy ML, Dong Y, Tao H, Yancey PG, Song K, Zhang K, Wen A, Wu H, Lee Y, Malovichko MV, Sithu SD, Wong S, Yu L, Kocher O, Bischoff J, Srivastava S, Linton MF, Ley K, Chen H
(2019) Circ Res 124: e6-e19
MeSH Terms: Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport, Animals, Apolipoproteins E, Atherosclerosis, Cells, Cultured, Down-Regulation, Gene Deletion, HEK293 Cells, Humans, Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein-1, Macrophages, Mice, Myeloid Cells, RAW 264.7 Cells, Receptors, LDL, Tumor Suppressor Proteins, Ubiquitination
Show Abstract · Added April 10, 2019
RATIONALE - Atherosclerosis is, in part, caused by immune and inflammatory cell infiltration into the vascular wall, leading to enhanced inflammation and lipid accumulation in the aortic endothelium. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying this disease is critical for the development of new therapies. Our recent studies demonstrate that epsins, a family of ubiquitin-binding endocytic adaptors, are critical regulators of atherogenicity. Given the fundamental contribution lesion macrophages make to fuel atherosclerosis, whether and how myeloid-specific epsins promote atherogenesis is an open and significant question.
OBJECTIVE - We will determine the role of myeloid-specific epsins in regulating lesion macrophage function during atherosclerosis.
METHODS AND RESULTS - We engineered myeloid cell-specific epsins double knockout mice (LysM-DKO) on an ApoE background. On Western diet, these mice exhibited marked decrease in atherosclerotic lesion formation, diminished immune and inflammatory cell content in aortas, and reduced necrotic core content but increased smooth muscle cell content in aortic root sections. Epsins deficiency hindered foam cell formation and suppressed proinflammatory macrophage phenotype but increased efferocytosis and anti-inflammatory macrophage phenotype in primary macrophages. Mechanistically, we show that epsin loss specifically increased total and surface levels of LRP-1 (LDLR [low-density lipoprotein receptor]-related protein 1), an efferocytosis receptor with antiatherosclerotic properties. We further show that epsin and LRP-1 interact via epsin's ubiquitin-interacting motif domain. ox-LDL (oxidized LDL) treatment increased LRP-1 ubiquitination, subsequent binding to epsin, and its internalization from the cell surface, suggesting that epsins promote the ubiquitin-dependent internalization and downregulation of LRP-1. Crossing ApoE/LysM-DKO mice onto an LRP-1 heterozygous background restored, in part, atherosclerosis, suggesting that epsin-mediated LRP-1 downregulation in macrophages plays a pivotal role in propelling atherogenesis.
CONCLUSIONS - Myeloid epsins promote atherogenesis by facilitating proinflammatory macrophage recruitment and inhibiting efferocytosis in part by downregulating LRP-1, implicating that targeting epsins in macrophages may serve as a novel therapeutic strategy to treat atherosclerosis.
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17 MeSH Terms
Disrupted structure and aberrant function of CHIP mediates the loss of motor and cognitive function in preclinical models of SCAR16.
Shi CH, Rubel C, Soss SE, Sanchez-Hodge R, Zhang S, Madrigal SC, Ravi S, McDonough H, Page RC, Chazin WJ, Patterson C, Mao CY, Willis MS, Luo HY, Li YS, Stevens DA, Tang MB, Du P, Wang YH, Hu ZW, Xu YM, Schisler JC
(2018) PLoS Genet 14: e1007664
MeSH Terms: Animals, Behavior, Animal, CRISPR-Cas Systems, Cognition, Disease Models, Animal, Female, Humans, Male, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Models, Molecular, Motor Activity, Mutagenesis, Site-Directed, Phenotype, Point Mutation, Protein Domains, Protein Multimerization, Rats, Rats, Sprague-Dawley, Spinocerebellar Ataxias, Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases
Show Abstract · Added March 26, 2019
CHIP (carboxyl terminus of heat shock 70-interacting protein) has long been recognized as an active member of the cellular protein quality control system given the ability of CHIP to function as both a co-chaperone and ubiquitin ligase. We discovered a genetic disease, now known as spinocerebellar autosomal recessive 16 (SCAR16), resulting from a coding mutation that caused a loss of CHIP ubiquitin ligase function. The initial mutation describing SCAR16 was a missense mutation in the ubiquitin ligase domain of CHIP (p.T246M). Using multiple biophysical and cellular approaches, we demonstrated that T246M mutation results in structural disorganization and misfolding of the CHIP U-box domain, promoting oligomerization, and increased proteasome-dependent turnover. CHIP-T246M has no ligase activity, but maintains interactions with chaperones and chaperone-related functions. To establish preclinical models of SCAR16, we engineered T246M at the endogenous locus in both mice and rats. Animals homozygous for T246M had both cognitive and motor cerebellar dysfunction distinct from those observed in the CHIP null animal model, as well as deficits in learning and memory, reflective of the cognitive deficits reported in SCAR16 patients. We conclude that the T246M mutation is not equivalent to the total loss of CHIP, supporting the concept that disease-causing CHIP mutations have different biophysical and functional repercussions on CHIP function that may directly correlate to the spectrum of clinical phenotypes observed in SCAR16 patients. Our findings both further expand our basic understanding of CHIP biology and provide meaningful mechanistic insight underlying the molecular drivers of SCAR16 disease pathology, which may be used to inform the development of novel therapeutics for this devastating disease.
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Helicobacter pylori pathogen regulates p14ARF tumor suppressor and autophagy in gastric epithelial cells.
Horvat A, Noto JM, Ramatchandirin B, Zaika E, Palrasu M, Wei J, Schneider BG, El-Rifai W, Peek RM, Zaika AI
(2018) Oncogene 37: 5054-5065
MeSH Terms: Antigens, Bacterial, Autophagy, Bacterial Proteins, Cell Line, Tumor, Down-Regulation, Epithelial Cells, Gastric Mucosa, HCT116 Cells, Helicobacter Infections, Helicobacter pylori, Humans, Signal Transduction, Stomach, Stomach Neoplasms, Tumor Suppressor Protein p14ARF, Tumor Suppressor Protein p53, Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases, Up-Regulation, Virulence Factors
Show Abstract · Added September 25, 2018
Infection with Helicobacter pylori is one of the strongest risk factors for development of gastric cancer. Although these bacteria infect approximately half of the world's population, only a small fraction of infected individuals develops gastric malignancies. Interactions between host and bacterial virulence factors are complex and interrelated, making it difficult to elucidate specific processes associated with H. pylori-induced tumorigenesis. In this study, we found that H. pylori inhibits p14ARF tumor suppressor by inducing its degradation. This effect was found to be strain-specific. Downregulation of p14ARF induced by H. pylori leads to inhibition of autophagy in a p53-independent manner in infected cells. We identified TRIP12 protein as E3 ubiquitin ligase that is upregulated by H. pylori, inducing ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of p14ARF protein. Using isogenic H. pylori mutants, we found that induction of TRIP12 is mediated by bacterial virulence factor CagA. Increased expression of TRIP12 protein was found in infected gastric epithelial cells in vitro and human gastric mucosa of H. pylori-infected individuals. In conclusion, our data demonstrate a new mechanism of ARF inhibition that may affect host-bacteria interactions and facilitate tumorigenic transformation in the stomach.
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19 MeSH Terms
The Cancer Genome Atlas Comprehensive Molecular Characterization of Renal Cell Carcinoma.
Ricketts CJ, De Cubas AA, Fan H, Smith CC, Lang M, Reznik E, Bowlby R, Gibb EA, Akbani R, Beroukhim R, Bottaro DP, Choueiri TK, Gibbs RA, Godwin AK, Haake S, Hakimi AA, Henske EP, Hsieh JJ, Ho TH, Kanchi RS, Krishnan B, Kwiatkowski DJ, Lui W, Merino MJ, Mills GB, Myers J, Nickerson ML, Reuter VE, Schmidt LS, Shelley CS, Shen H, Shuch B, Signoretti S, Srinivasan R, Tamboli P, Thomas G, Vincent BG, Vocke CD, Wheeler DA, Yang L, Kim WY, Robertson AG, Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network, Spellman PT, Rathmell WK, Linehan WM
(2018) Cell Rep 23: 313-326.e5
MeSH Terms: Biomarkers, Tumor, Carcinoma, Renal Cell, Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16, DNA-Binding Proteins, Genome, Human, Humans, Kidney Neoplasms, Metabolic Networks and Pathways, Nuclear Proteins, PTEN Phosphohydrolase, Phenotype, Survival Analysis, Transcription Factors, Tumor Suppressor Proteins, Ubiquitin Thiolesterase
Show Abstract · Added October 30, 2019
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is not a single disease, but several histologically defined cancers with different genetic drivers, clinical courses, and therapeutic responses. The current study evaluated 843 RCC from the three major histologic subtypes, including 488 clear cell RCC, 274 papillary RCC, and 81 chromophobe RCC. Comprehensive genomic and phenotypic analysis of the RCC subtypes reveals distinctive features of each subtype that provide the foundation for the development of subtype-specific therapeutic and management strategies for patients affected with these cancers. Somatic alteration of BAP1, PBRM1, and PTEN and altered metabolic pathways correlated with subtype-specific decreased survival, while CDKN2A alteration, increased DNA hypermethylation, and increases in the immune-related Th2 gene expression signature correlated with decreased survival within all major histologic subtypes. CIMP-RCC demonstrated an increased immune signature, and a uniform and distinct metabolic expression pattern identified a subset of metabolically divergent (MD) ChRCC that associated with extremely poor survival.
Published by Elsevier Inc.
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15 MeSH Terms
Integrated Genomic Analysis of the Ubiquitin Pathway across Cancer Types.
Ge Z, Leighton JS, Wang Y, Peng X, Chen Z, Chen H, Sun Y, Yao F, Li J, Zhang H, Liu J, Shriver CD, Hu H, Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network, Piwnica-Worms H, Ma L, Liang H
(2018) Cell Rep 23: 213-226.e3
MeSH Terms: Cell Line, Tumor, Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic, Genome, Human, Genomics, Humans, Metabolic Networks and Pathways, Neoplasms, Oncogene Proteins, Ubiquitination
Show Abstract · Added October 30, 2019
Protein ubiquitination is a dynamic and reversible process of adding single ubiquitin molecules or various ubiquitin chains to target proteins. Here, using multidimensional omic data of 9,125 tumor samples across 33 cancer types from The Cancer Genome Atlas, we perform comprehensive molecular characterization of 929 ubiquitin-related genes and 95 deubiquitinase genes. Among them, we systematically identify top somatic driver candidates, including mutated FBXW7 with cancer-type-specific patterns and amplified MDM2 showing a mutually exclusive pattern with BRAF mutations. Ubiquitin pathway genes tend to be upregulated in cancer mediated by diverse mechanisms. By integrating pan-cancer multiomic data, we identify a group of tumor samples that exhibit worse prognosis. These samples are consistently associated with the upregulation of cell-cycle and DNA repair pathways, characterized by mutated TP53, MYC/TERT amplification, and APC/PTEN deletion. Our analysis highlights the importance of the ubiquitin pathway in cancer development and lays a foundation for developing relevant therapeutic strategies.
Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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Enhanced Ion Transmission Efficiency up to m/ z 24 000 for MALDI Protein Imaging Mass Spectrometry.
Prentice BM, Ryan DJ, Van de Plas R, Caprioli RM, Spraggins JM
(2018) Anal Chem 90: 5090-5099
MeSH Terms: Animals, Apoproteins, Brain, Ions, Kidney, Molecular Weight, Myoglobin, Proteins, Rats, Signal-To-Noise Ratio, Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization, Ubiquitin
Show Abstract · Added March 22, 2018
The molecular identification of species of interest is an important part of an imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) experiment. The high resolution accurate mass capabilities of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) have recently been shown to facilitate the identification of proteins in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) IMS. However, these experiments are typically limited to proteins giving rise to ions of relatively low m/ z due to difficulties transmitting and measuring large molecular weight ions of low charge states. Herein we have modified the source gas manifold of a commercial MALDI FT-ICR MS to regulate the gas flow and pressure to maximize the transmission of large m/ z protein ions through the ion funnel region of the instrument. By minimizing the contribution of off-axis gas disruption to ion focusing and maximizing the effective potential wall confining the ions through pressure optimization, the signal-to-noise ratios (S/N) of most protein species were improved by roughly 1 order of magnitude compared to normal source conditions. These modifications enabled the detection of protein standards up to m/ z 24 000 and the detection of proteins from tissue up to m/ z 22 000 with good S/N, roughly doubling the mass range for which high quality protein ion images from rat brain and kidney tissue could be produced. Due to the long time-domain transients (>4 s) required to isotopically resolve high m/ z proteins, we have used these data as part of an FT-ICR IMS-microscopy data-driven image fusion workflow to produce estimated protein images with both high mass and high spatial resolutions.
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12 MeSH Terms