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Highly selective, positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of the M subtype of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor have emerged as an exciting new approach to potentially improve cognitive function in patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. Discovery programs have produced a structurally diverse range of M receptor PAMs with distinct pharmacological properties, including different extents of agonist activity and differences in signal bias. This includes biased M receptor PAMs that can potentiate coupling of the receptor to activation of phospholipase C (PLC) but not phospholipase D (PLD). However, little is known about the role of PLD in M receptor signaling in native systems, and it is not clear whether biased M PAMs display differences in modulating M-mediated responses in native tissue. Using PLD inhibitors and PLD knockout mice, we showed that PLD was necessary for the induction of M-dependent long-term depression (LTD) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Furthermore, biased M PAMs that did not couple to PLD not only failed to potentiate orthosteric agonist-induced LTD but also blocked M-dependent LTD in the PFC. In contrast, biased and nonbiased M PAMs acted similarly in potentiating M-dependent electrophysiological responses that were PLD independent. These findings demonstrate that PLD plays a critical role in the ability of M PAMs to modulate certain central nervous system (CNS) functions and that biased M PAMs function differently in brain regions implicated in cognition.
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Thrombin and fibrillar collagen are potent activators of platelets at sites of vascular injury. Both agonists cause platelet shape change, granule secretion, and aggregation to form the primary hemostatic plug. Human platelets express two thrombin receptors, protease-activated receptors 1 and 4 (PAR1 and PAR4) and two collagen receptors, the alpha(2)beta(1) integrin (alpha(2)beta(1)) and the glycoprotein VI (GPVI)/FcRgamma chain complex. Although these receptors and their signaling mechanisms have been intensely studied, it is not known whether and how these receptors cooperate in the hemostatic function of platelets. This study examined cooperation between the thrombin and collagen receptors in platelet adhesion by utilizing a collagen-related peptide (alpha2-CRP) containing the alpha(2)beta(1)-specific binding motif, GFOGER, in conjunction with PAR-activating peptides. We demonstrate that platelet adhesion to alpha2-CRP is substantially enhanced by suboptimal PAR activation (agonist concentrations that do not stimulate platelet aggregation) using the PAR4 agonist peptide and thrombin. The enhanced adhesion induced by suboptimal PAR4 activation was alpha(2)beta(1)-dependent and GPVI/FcRgamma-independent as revealed in experiments with alpha(2)beta(1)- or FcRgamma-deficient mouse platelets. We further show that suboptimal activation of other platelet G(q)-linked G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) produces enhanced platelet adhesion to alpha2-CRP. The enhanced alpha(2)beta(1)-mediated platelet adhesion is controlled by phospholipase C (PLC), but is not dependent on granule secretion, activation of alpha(IIb)beta(3) integrin, or on phosphoinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) activity. In conclusion, we demonstrate a platelet priming mechanism initiated by suboptimal activation of PAR4 or other platelet G(q)-linked GPCRs through a PLC-dependent signaling cascade that promotes enhanced alpha(2)beta(1) binding to collagens containing GFOGER sites.
Endocannabinoids, including anandamide (arachidonoyl ethanolamide) have been implicated in the regulation of a growing number of physiological and pathological processes. Anandamide can be generated from its membrane phospholipid precursor N-arachidonoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (NAPE) through hydrolysis by a phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD). Recent evidence indicates, however, the existence of two additional, parallel pathways. One involves the sequential deacylation of NAPE by alpha,beta-hydrolase 4 (Abhd4) and the subsequent cleavage of glycerophosphate to yield anandamide, and the other one proceeds through phospholipase C-mediated hydrolysis of NAPE to yield phosphoanandamide, which is then dephosphorylated by phosphatases, including the tyrosine phosphatase PTPN22 and the inositol 5' phosphatase SHIP1. Conversion of synthetic NAPE to AEA by brain homogenates from wild-type and NAPE-PLD(-/-) mice can proceed through both the PLC/phosphatase and Abdh4 pathways, with the former being dominant at shorter (<10 min) and the latter at longer (60 min) incubations. In macrophages, the endotoxin-induced synthesis of anandamide proceeds uniquely through the phospholipase C/phosphatase pathway.
Studies of detergent-resistant membrane (DRM) rafts in mature erythrocytes have facilitated identification of proteins that regulate formation of endovacuolar structures such as the parasitophorous vacuolar membrane (PVM) induced by the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. However, analyses of raft lipids have remained elusive because detergents interfere with lipid detection. Here, we use primaquine to perturb the erythrocyte membrane and induce detergent-free buoyant vesicles, which are enriched in cholesterol and major raft proteins flotillin and stomatin and contain low levels of cytoskeleton, all characteristics of raft microdomains. Lipid mass spectrometry revealed that phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol are depleted in endovesicles while phosphoinositides are highly enriched, suggesting raft-based endovesiculation can be achieved by simple (non-receptor-mediated) mechanical perturbation of the erythrocyte plasma membrane and results in sorting of inner leaflet phospholipids. Live-cell imaging of lipid-specific protein probes showed that phosphatidylinositol (4,5) bisphosphate (PIP(2)) is highly concentrated in primaquine-induced vesicles, confirming that it is an erythrocyte raft lipid. However, the malarial PVM lacks PIP(2), although another raft lipid, phosphatidylserine, is readily detected. Thus, different remodeling/sorting of cytoplasmic raft phospholipids may occur in distinct endovacuoles. Importantly, erythrocyte raft lipids recruited to the invasion junction by mechanical stimulation may be remodeled by the malaria parasite to establish blood-stage infection.
The acute physiologic release of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) from the endothelium is critical for vascular homeostasis. This process is prostacyclin- and nitric oxide (NO)-independent in humans. It has been suggested that calcium signaling and endothelial-derived hyperpolarizing factors (EDHF) may play a role in t-PA release. G-protein-coupled receptor-dependent calcium signaling is typically Galphaq-dependent. EDHFs have been functionally defined and in various tissues are believed to be various regioisomers of the epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). We tested the hypothesis in vitro that thrombin-stimulated t-PA release from human microvascular endothelial cells (HMECs) is both Galphaq- and EDHF-dependent. Conditioned media was harvested following thrombin stimulation, and t-PA antigen was measured by ELISA. Thrombin-induced t-PA release was limited by a membrane-permeable Galphaq inhibitory peptide, the PLC-beta antagonist U73122, and the IP3 receptor antagonist 2-aminoethoxyphenylborane, while the Galphaq agonist Pasteurella toxin modestly induced t-PA release. The cytochrome P450 (CYP450) inhibitor, miconazole, and the arachidonic acid epoxygenase inhibitor MS-PPOH inhibited thrombin-stimulated t-PA release, while 5,6-EET-methyl ester stimulated t-PA release. The 5,6- and 14,15-EET antagonist, 14,15-epoxyeicosa-5(Z)-enoic acid, inhibited t-PA release at the 100 microM concentration. However, thrombin-stimulated t-PA release was unaffected by the prostacyclin and NO inhibitors ASA and L-NAME, as well as the potassium channel inhibitors TEA, apamin and charybdotoxin. These studies suggest that thrombin-stimulated t-PA release is Galphaq-, PLC-beta-, IP3-, and 5,6-EET-dependent while being prostacyclin-, NO- and K+ channel-independent in HMECs.
Ischemia-reperfusion injury remains a major clinical problem in liver transplantation. One contributing factor is mitochondrial calcium (mCa(2+)) overload, which triggers apoptosis; calcium also regulates mitochondrial respiration and adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) production. Recently, we reported the presence of purinergic P2Y(1)- and P2Y(2)-like receptor proteins in mitochondrial membranes. Herein, we present an evaluation of the functional characteristics of these receptors. In experiments with isolated mitochondria, specific P2Y(1) and P2Y(2) receptors ligands: 2-methylthio-adenosine 5'-diphosphate (2meSADP) and uridine 5'-triphosphate (UTP), respectively, were used, and mitochondrial calcium uptake was measured. 2meSADP and UTP had a maximum effect at concentrations in the range of the known P2Y(1) and P2Y(2) receptors. The P2Y inhibitor phosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonate (PPADS) blocked the effects of both ligands. The phospholipase C (PLC) antagonist U73122 inhibited the effect of both ligands while its inactive analog U73343 had no effect. These data strongly support the hypothesis that mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake is regulated in part by adenine nucleotides via a P2Y-like receptor mechanism that involves mitochondrial PLC activation.
BACKGROUND - Graft failure due to cold ischemia (CI) injury remains a significant problem during liver transplantation. During CI, the consumption of ATP and the increase in cellular Ca concentration may result in mitochondrial Ca (mCa) overload through the mCa uniporter, which can ultimately lead to apoptosis and graft nonfunction. We recently identified phospholipase C-dl (PLC-dl) as a novel regulator of mCa uptake in the liver, and now extend those studies to examine the role of mitochondrial PLC in liver CI injury.
METHODS - Rat livers were perfused with University of Wisconsin (UW) solution. Half was homogenized immediately; the other half was cold-stored for 24 hr in UW. Mitochondria were extracted by differential centrifugation and incubated in buffer containing ATP and 0.1 or 0.2 microM Ca. The selective PLC inhibitor, U-73122, was added to determine the effects of PLC inhibition on mCa uptake following CI. Western blots and densitometry quantified mitochondrial PLC expression. Mito Tracker Red fluorescence microscopy was used to verify mitochondrial transmembrane potential.
RESULTS - Twenty-four hour CI caused a significant increase in mCa uptake (P<0.001), and increasing extramitochondrial Ca potentiated this effect. The PLC inhibitor, U-73122, decreased mCa uptake in nonischemic mitochondria (P<0.001), and had a greater effect on CI mitochondria (P<0.001). Mitochondrial PLC-dl expression increased 175+/-75% following CI (P<0.05).
CONCLUSIONS - These data demonstrate that PLC-dl is essential for mCa uptake following CI, and that the PLC pathway may be sensitized by CI. The CI-induced increase in mitochondrial PLC-delta1 expression represents a novel mechanism whereby mCa uptake can increase independently of cytosolic conditions.
Receptor for Activated C Kinase 1 (RACK1), a novel G betagamma-interacting protein, selectively inhibits the activation of a subclass of G betagamma effectors such as phospholipase C beta2 (PLCbeta2) and adenylyl cyclase II by direct binding to G betagamma (Chen, S., Dell, E. J., Lin, F., Sai, J., and Hamm, H. E. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279, 17861-17868). Here we have mapped the RACK1 binding sites on G betagamma. We found that RACK1 interacts with several different G betagamma isoforms, including G beta1gamma1, Gbeta1gamma2, and Gbeta5gamma2, with similar affinities, suggesting that the conserved residues between G beta1 and G beta5 may be involved in their binding to RACK1. We have confirmed this hypothesis and shown that several synthetic peptides corresponding to the conserved residues can inhibit the RACK1/G betagamma interaction as monitored by fluorescence spectroscopy. Interestingly, these peptides are located at one side of G beta1 and have little overlap with the G alpha subunit binding interface. Additional experiments indicate that the G betagamma contact residues for RACK1, in particular the positively charged amino acids within residues 44-54 of G beta1, are also involved in the interaction with PLCbeta2 and play a critical role in G betagamma-mediated PLCbeta2 activation. These data thus demonstrate that RACK1 can regulate the activity of a G betagamma effector by competing for its binding to the signal transfer region of G betagamma.
OBJECTIVE - We have previously demonstrated that endothelial xanthine oxidase (XO) levels are dependent on the NADPH oxidase. We postulated that H2O2 may modulate the irreversible conversion of xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) to XO and sought to examine mechanisms involved.
METHODS AND RESULTS - H2O2 (100 micromol/L) decreased bovine aortic endothelial cell (BAEC) XDH protein expression, and metabolic labeling studies indicated that H2O2 stimulated conversion of XDH to XO. The decline in XDH was mimicked by the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generating compounds SIN-1 and Menadione, as well as by stimulating BAECs with angiotensin II (200 nmol/L). BAPTA-AM prevented the decline in XDH by H2O2, indicating that it was calcium-dependent. In keeping with calcium acting downstream of H2O2, the calcium ionophore A23187 (1 micromol/L) caused XDH-to-XO conversion, and this was not prevented by the antioxidants. In addition, XDH-to-XO conversion was blocked by 2-APB and NO donors and induced by thapsigargin and M-3M3FBS, implicating phospholipase C and endoplasmic reticulum calcium stores in this process.
CONCLUSIONS - Endothelial XO and XDH expression are strongly dependent on H2O2 and calcium. Stimulation of XDH conversion to XO may represent a feed-forward mechanism whereby H2O2 can stimulate further production of ROS.
Although integrin engagement initiates signaling events such as focal-adhesion kinase (FAK) and Src kinase activation, the role of phosphoinositide turnover in cell adhesion is less clear. To assess PLC-gamma1 function in this process, Plcg1(-/-) fibroblasts (Null) were compared with the same fibroblasts in which PLC-gamma1 was re-expressed (Null+). Following plating on fibronectin, Null cells displayed a significantly impaired rate of adhesion compared with Null+ cells. This defect was detected at low concentrations of fibronectin; at high fibronectin concentrations, the Null and Null+ cells displayed equivalent adhesion characteristics. The differences were not due to PLC-gamma1-dependent changes in integrin subunit expression, nor was integrin receptor clustering impaired with the absence of PLC-gamma1. Experiments with site-specific antibodies and PLC-gamma1 mutants showed that fibronectin selectively increased phosphorylation of Tyr783 and that mutagenesis of this residue, but not Tyr771 or Tyr1253, abrogated fibronectin-dependent adhesion. The SH2 domains of PLC-gamma1 were also required for maximal adhesion on fibronectin. Adhesion to fibronectin induced PLC-gamma1 tyrosine phosphorylation that was inhibited by a Src-kinase inhibitor, but not an epidermal-growth-factor-receptor kinase inhibitor. Moreover, in cells null for Src family members, but not in cells null for FAK family members, integrin-dependent PLC-gamma1 tyrosine phosphorylation was greatly reduced. Finally, the data demonstrated that PLC-gamma1 co-immunoprecipitated with Src following fibronectin-induced integrin activation, and this association did not depend on FAK expression.