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Cytokines present during low-grade inflammation contribute to β-cell dysfunction and diabetes. Cytokine signaling disrupts β-cell glucose-stimulated Ca influx (GSCI) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca ([Ca]) handling, leading to diminished glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). However, cytokine-mediated changes in ion channel activity that alter β-cell Ca handling remain unknown. Here we investigated the role of K currents in cytokine-mediated β-cell dysfunction. K currents, which control the termination of intracellular Ca ([Ca]) oscillations, were reduced following cytokine exposure. As a consequence, [Ca] and electrical oscillations were accelerated. Cytokine exposure also increased basal islet [Ca] and decreased GSCI. The effect of cytokines on TALK-1 K currents were also examined as TALK-1 mediates K by facilitating [Ca] release. Cytokine exposure decreased KCNK16 transcript abundance and associated TALK-1 protein expression, increasing [Ca] storage while maintaining 2 phase GSCI and GSIS. This adaptive Ca response was absent in TALK-1 KO islets, which exhibited decreased 2 phase GSCI and diminished GSIS. These findings suggest that K and TALK-1 currents play important roles in altered β-cell Ca handling and electrical activity during low-grade inflammation. These results also reveal that a cytokine-mediated reduction in TALK-1 serves an acute protective role in β-cells by facilitating increased Ca content to maintain GSIS.
Vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) is an important inflammatory biomarker correlating with retinal disease progression. Thus, detection of VCAM-1 mRNA expression levels at an early disease stage could be an important predictive biomarker to assess the risk of disease progression and monitoring treatment response. We have developed VCAM-1 targeted antisense hairpin DNA-functionalized gold nanoparticles (AS-VCAM-1 hAuNP) for the real time detection of VCAM-1 mRNA expression levels in retinal endothelial cells. The AS-VCAM-1 hAuNP fluorescence enhancement clearly visualized the TNF-α induced cellular VCAM-1 mRNA levels with high signal to noise ratios compared to normal serum treated cells. The scrambled hAuNP probes were minimally detectable under same image acquisition conditions. Intracellular hAuNPs were detected using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of the intact cells. In addition, the AS-VCAM-1 hAuNP probes exhibited no acute toxicity to the retinal microvascular endothelial cells as measured by live-dead assay.
Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
RATIONALE - Improving the prospective identification of patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis at low risk for organ dysfunction and death is a major clinical challenge.
OBJECTIVES - To develop and validate a multibiomarker-based prediction model for 28-day mortality in critically ill patients with SIRS and sepsis.
METHODS - A derivation cohort (n = 888) and internal test cohort (n = 278) were taken from a prospective study of critically ill intensive care unit (ICU) patients meeting two of four SIRS criteria at an academic medical center for whom plasma was obtained within 24 hours. The validation cohort (n = 759) was taken from a prospective cohort enrolled at another academic medical center ICU for whom plasma was obtained within 48 hours. We measured concentrations of angiopoietin-1, angiopoietin-2, IL-6, IL-8, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-1, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and soluble Fas.
MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS - We identified a two-biomarker model in the derivation cohort that predicted mortality (area under the receiver operator characteristic curve [AUC], 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.74-0.83). It performed well in the internal test cohort (AUC, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.65-0.85) and the external validation cohort (AUC, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.72-0.83). We determined a model score threshold demonstrating high negative predictive value (0.95) for death. In addition to a low risk of death, patients below this threshold had shorter ICU length of stay, lower incidence of acute kidney injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and need for vasopressors.
CONCLUSIONS - We have developed a simple, robust biomarker-based model that identifies patients with SIRS/sepsis at low risk for death and organ dysfunction.
We reported previously that mouse embryonic stem cells do not have a functional IFN-based antiviral mechanism. The current study extends our investigation to the inflammatory response in mouse embryonic stem cells and mouse embryonic stem cell-differentiated cells. We demonstrate that LPS, TNF-α, and viral infection, all of which induce robust inflammatory responses in naturally differentiated cells, failed to activate NF-κB, the key transcription factor that mediates inflammatory responses, and were unable to induce the expression of inflammatory genes in mouse embryonic stem cells. Similar results were obtained in human embryonic stem cells. In addition to the inactive state of NF-κB, the deficiency in the inflammatory response in mouse embryonic stem cells is also attributed to the lack of functional receptors for LPS and TNF-α. In vitro differentiation can trigger the development of the inflammatory response mechanism, as indicated by the transition of NF-κB from its inactive to active state. However, a limited response to TNF-α and viral infection, but not to LPS, was observed in mouse embryonic stem cell-differentiated fibroblasts. We conclude that the inflammatory response mechanism is not active in mouse embryonic stem cells, and in vitro differentiation promotes only partial development of this mechanism. Together with our previous studies, the findings described in this article demonstrate that embryonic stem cells are fundamentally different from differentiated somatic cells in their innate immunity, which may have important implications in developmental biology, immunology, and embryonic stem cell-based regenerative medicine.
Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of elevating epoxygenated fatty acids on retinal vascular inflammation. To stimulate inflammation we utilized TNFα, a potent pro-inflammatory mediator that is elevated in the serum and vitreous of diabetic patients. In TNFα-stimulated primary human retinal microvascular endothelial cells, total levels of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), but not epoxydocosapentaenoic acids (EDPs), were significantly decreased. Exogenous addition of 11,12-EET or 19,20-EDP when combined with 12-(3-adamantane-1-yl-ureido)-dodecanoic acid (AUDA), an inhibitor of epoxide hydrolysis, inhibited VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression and protein levels; conversely the diol product of 19,20-EDP hydrolysis, 19,20-DHDP, induced VCAM1 and ICAM1 expression. 11,12-EET and 19,20-EDP also inhibited leukocyte adherence to human retinal microvascular endothelial cell monolayers and leukostasis in an acute mouse model of retinal inflammation. Our results indicate that this inhibition may be mediated through an indirect effect on NFκB activation. This is the first study demonstrating a direct comparison of EET and EDP on vascular inflammatory endpoints, and we have confirmed a comparable efficacy from each isomer, suggesting a similar mechanism of action. Taken together, these data establish that epoxygenated fatty acid elevation will inhibit early pathology related to TNFα-induced inflammation in retinal vascular diseases.
BACKGROUND - Understanding blood-brain barrier responses to inflammatory stimulation (such as lipopolysaccharide mimicking a systemic infection or a cytokine cocktail that could be the result of local or systemic inflammation) is essential to understanding the effect of inflammatory stimulation on the brain. It is through the filter of the blood-brain barrier that the brain responds to outside influences, and the blood-brain barrier is a critical point of failure in neuroinflammation. It is important to note that this interaction is not a static response, but one that evolves over time. While current models have provided invaluable information regarding the interaction between cytokine stimulation, the blood-brain barrier, and the brain, these approaches-whether in vivo or in vitro-have often been only snapshots of this complex web of interactions.
METHODS - We utilize new advances in microfluidics, organs-on-chips, and metabolomics to examine the complex relationship of inflammation and its effects on blood-brain barrier function ex vivo and the metabolic consequences of these responses and repair mechanisms. In this study, we pair a novel dual-chamber, organ-on-chip microfluidic device, the NeuroVascular Unit, with small-volume cytokine detection and mass spectrometry analysis to investigate how the blood-brain barrier responds to two different but overlapping drivers of neuroinflammation, lipopolysaccharide and a cytokine cocktail of IL-1β, TNF-α, and MCP1,2.
RESULTS - In this study, we show that (1) during initial exposure to lipopolysaccharide, the blood-brain barrier is compromised as expected, with increased diffusion and reduced presence of tight junctions, but that over time, the barrier is capable of at least partial recovery; (2) a cytokine cocktail also contributes to a loss of barrier function; (3) from this time-dependent cytokine activation, metabolic signature profiles can be obtained for both the brain and vascular sides of the blood-brain barrier model; and (4) collectively, we can use metabolite analysis to identify critical pathways in inflammatory response.
CONCLUSIONS - Taken together, these findings present new data that allow us to study the initial effects of inflammatory stimulation on blood-brain barrier disruption, cytokine activation, and metabolic pathway changes that drive the response and recovery of the barrier during continued inflammatory exposure.
Leucine Rich Repeat Containing 8A (LRRC8A) is a required component of volume-regulated anion channels (VRACs). In vascular smooth muscle cells, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) activates VRAC via type 1 TNFα receptors (TNFR1), and this requires superoxide (O) production by NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1). VRAC inhibitors suppress the inflammatory response to TNFα by an unknown mechanism. We hypothesized that LRRC8A directly supports Nox1 activity, providing a link between VRAC current and inflammatory signaling. VRAC inhibition by 4-(2-butyl-6,7-dichlor-2-cyclopentylindan-1-on-5-yl) oxobutyric acid (DCPIB) impaired NF-κB activation by TNFα. LRRC8A siRNA reduced the magnitude of VRAC and inhibited TNFα-induced NF-κB activation, iNOS and VCAM expression, and proliferation of VSMCs. Signaling steps disrupted by both siLRRC8A and DCPIB included; extracellular O production by Nox1, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation and endocytosis of TNFR1. Extracellular superoxide dismutase, but not catalase, selectively inhibited TNFR1 endocytosis and JNK phosphorylation. Thus, O is the critical extracellular oxidant for TNFR signal transduction. Reducing JNK expression (siJNK) increased extracellular O suggesting that JNK provides important negative feedback regulation to Nox1 at the plasma membrane. LRRC8A co-localized by immunostaining, and co-immunoprecipitated with, both Nox1 and its p22phox subunit. LRRC8A is a component of the Nox1 signaling complex. It is required for extracellular O production, which is in turn essential for TNFR1 endocytosis. These data are the first to provide a molecular mechanism for the potent anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory effects of VRAC inhibition.
Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The mechanism by which macrophages and other immune cells accumulate in adipose tissue (AT) has been an area of intense investigation over the past decade. Several different chemokines and their cognate receptors have been studied for their role as chemoattractants in promoting recruitment of immune cells to AT However, it is also possible that chemoattractants known to promote clearance of immune cells from tissues to regional lymph nodes might be a critical component to overall AT immune homeostasis. In this study, we evaluated whether CCR7 influences AT macrophage (ATM) or T-cell (ATT) accumulation. CCR7 and littermate wild-type (WT) mice were placed on low-fat diet (LFD) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 16 weeks. CCR7 deficiency did not impact HFD-induced weight gain, hepatic steatosis, or glucose intolerance. Although lean CCR7 mice had an increased proportion of alternatively activated ATMs, there were no differences in ATM accumulation or polarization between HFD-fed CCR7 mice and their WT counterparts. However, CCR7 deficiency did lead to the preferential accumulation of CD8 ATT cells, which was further exacerbated by HFD feeding. Finally, expression of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines, such as Tnf, Il6, Il1β, Ccl2, and Ccl3, was equally elevated in AT by HFD feeding in CCR7 and WT mice, while Ifng and Il18 were elevated by HFD feeding in CCR7 but not in WT mice. Together, these data suggest that CCR7 plays a role in CD8ATT cell egress, but does not influence ATM accumulation or the metabolic impact of diet-induced obesity.
© 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.
OBJECTIVE - is a frequently amplified and overexpressed gene that promotes several oncogenic functions in gastric cancer. Herein, we investigated the relationship between infection, proinflammatory NF-κB activation and regulation of DARPP-32.
DESIGN - The study used and experiments. Luciferase reporter, quantitative real-time PCR, immunoblot, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), cell viability, infection, tissue microarrays and immunohistochemical assays were used.
RESULTS - Our results indicated that infection increased the DARPP-32 mRNA and protein levels in gastric cancer cell lines and gastric mucosa of mice. infection increased the activity of NF-κB reporter and p-NF-κB (S536) protein level and . To investigate the transcriptional regulation of DARPP-32, we cloned a 3019 bp of the promoter into the luciferase reporter (pGL3-Luc). Both infection and tumour necrosis factor-α treatment induced DARPP-32 reporter activity (p<0.01). Using deletion constructs of promoter and ChIP assay, we demonstrated that the sequence -996 to -1008 bp containing putative NF-κB-binding sites is the most active region. The induction of DARPP-32 expression by infection counteracted -induced cell death through activation of serine/threonine-specific protein kinase (AKT), as determined by ATP-Glo and clonogenic survival assays. Immunohistochemistry analysis demonstrated a significant positive correlation between NF-κB and DARPP-32 expression levels in gastric cancer tissues (r=0.43, p<0.01).
CONCLUSIONS - Given the high frequency of DARPP-32 overexpression and its prosurvival oncogenic functions, the induction of DARPP-32 expression following infection and activation of NF-κB provides a link between infection, inflammation and gastric tumourigenesis.
Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
We performed a Phenome-Wide Association Study (PheWAS) to identify interrelationships between the immune system genetic architecture and a wide array of phenotypes from two de-identified electronic health record (EHR) biorepositories. We selected variants within genes encoding critical factors in the immune system and variants with known associations with autoimmunity. To define case/control status for EHR diagnoses, we used International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) diagnosis codes from 3,024 Geisinger Clinic MyCode® subjects (470 diagnoses) and 2,899 Vanderbilt University Medical Center BioVU biorepository subjects (380 diagnoses). A pooled-analysis was also carried out for the replicating results of the two data sets. We identified new associations with potential biological relevance including SNPs in tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and ankyrin-related genes associated with acute and chronic sinusitis and acute respiratory tract infection. The two most significant associations identified were for the C6orf10 SNP rs6910071 and "rheumatoid arthritis" (ICD-9 code category 714) (pMETAL = 2.58 x 10-9) and the ATN1 SNP rs2239167 and "diabetes mellitus, type 2" (ICD-9 code category 250) (pMETAL = 6.39 x 10-9). This study highlights the utility of using PheWAS in conjunction with EHRs to discover new genotypic-phenotypic associations for immune-system related genetic loci.